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THE  GENERAL 


BIOGRAPHICAL  DICTIONARY. 


A  NEW  EDITION. 


VOL.  XXIV. 

41 


I 

I 

J 


Printed  by  Niciiots,  Son,  and  Bintlly, 
Ued  Lion  Passage,  Fleet  Street,  London. 


i 


THE   GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL  DICTIONARY : 

CONTAINING 

AN  HISTORICAL  AND  CRITICAL  ACCOUNT 

OW  THB 

LIVES    AND   WRITINGS 

OF  THB 

MOST   EMINENT    PERSONS 

IN    EVERY   NATION; 

PARTICULARLY  THE  BRITISH  AND  IRISHt 

FROM  THE  EARLIEST  ACCOUNTS  TO  THE  PRESENT  TIME. 


A  NEW  EDITION,. 

-  / 

REVISED  AND   ENLARGED   BY 

ALEXANDER  CHALMERS,  F.  S.  A. 


VOL.  XXIV. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED  FOR  J.  NICHOLS  AND  SON ;  F.  C.  AND  J.  lUVINOTON ;  T.  PAYNE  | 
OTRIDGB  AND  SON  ;  O.  AND  W.  KICOL  ;  G.  WILKIB  }  J.  WALKBR  ;  R.  LEA  ; 
W.  LOWNDBS  ;  WHITE,  COCHRANE,  AND  CO.  ;  T.  EGBRTON ;  LACKINGTON, 
ALLEN,  AND  CO. ;  J,  CARPENTER;  LONGMAN,  HUR8T,  REES,  ORME,  AND 
BROWN;  CADELL  AND  DAVIBS ;  CLAW;  i.  BOOKER  ;  J.  CUTHELL  ;  CLARKB 
AND  SONS;  J.  AND  A.  ARCH;  J.HARRIS;  BLACK,  PARRY,  AND  CO.;  J.  BOOTH; 
J.  MAWMAN  ;  GALE,  CURTIS,  AND  FENNER ;  R.  H.  EVANS  {  J.  HATCHARD  ; 
J.  MURRAY;  BALDWIN,  CRADOCK,.  AND  JOY;  B.  BENTLEY  ;  J.  FAULDBR  ; 
OOLBANDCO.;  W.  OINOBR  $  J.  DBIOHTON  AMD  SON,  CAMBRIDGE;  CON8TABLS 
AND  CO.  EDINBURGH  s  AND  WILSON  AND  SON^  YORK. 

1815. 


A  NJ2W  AND    GBNBRAI- 


BIOORAPHICAL  DICTIONABV. 


PaAS-  See  PASI5E, 
.  PAAW  (Pjstpr),  or  in  Latin  Pavius,  a  physician  an4 
anatomist,  born  at  Amsterdi^in  in  1564,  was  ^ducate4  iti 
medical  studies  at  Leyden^  whence  be  prqceeaed  to  Pari^' 
for  farther  improvement.  He  afterwards  spent  some  tini^ 
in  Denmark,  apd  at  Rostock,  where, be  receiv^ed  the  degr^ 
of  doctor  in  1587,  and  at  Padua.  Q^his  return, to  Leydein 
Ike  was  appoint^J  professor  of  medi.qniB  in  l'5S9j  in  which 
oflSce  be  acquired  the  approbation^alid' esteem  both  6f  th^ 
public 'and  bis  colleagues,  and  dieft' Universally  regretted, 
in  August  1617,  at  the  ^ge  of  fifty-foun.  .Anatomy  flin4 
botany  were  the  departments  which  he  most  ardently  cul- 
tivated ;  and  he  was  the  founder  of  the  botanic  garden  of 
Leyden.  His  works  are,  1.  **  Tractatus  4e  Exercitii^,  Lac- 
ticiniis,  et  Bellafiis."'  Rost.  2.  '^  Notae  ia  Q^Ienum,  de 
pibis  boni  et  noall  succi,'*  ibid.  These  two  pieces  appear 
to  have  been  his  inaugural  exercises.  3.  **  Hortus  publi- 
cu8  AcadeiitisB  Lugduho-Batavse,  ejus  Icbnographi^,  de- 
scriptio,  usus,  &c/'  Lugd.  Bat.  1601.  4.  "  Primitias  Ana* 
tomicae  de  hurpani  corporis  Ossibus,*'  ibid*  1615.  5.  ^'  Sue- 
benturiatus  Anatomicus,  continens  Commentdria  in  Hip- 
pocratem  de  Capitis  Vulneribus.  Additas  sun^t  Anuotatio- 
pes  in  aliquot  Capita  Librioctavi  C.  Celsi,"  ibid.  1616.  6, 
^'  Notsp  et  Commentarii  in  Epitomen  Anatpmicum  Andreq^ 
Vesalii,  ibid.  1616^  To  these  we  may  add  spipq  work^ 
which  appeared  after  his  death.  7.  **  De  Valvule  Intestini 
Epistplae  dusB.^'  Oppenheim,  1619,  together  with  the  firsf 
century  of  the  Epistles  of  Fabricius  Hildanus.  8.  "  D« 
l^este  Tractatus,  cum  Henrici  Florentii  additamentis.''  Lug. 
Bat.  1636.  9.  <<  Anatomical  Observationes  selectiores." 
Vol.  XXIV.  B 


a  P  A  A  w. 

Hafiiise,  1657,  in^rted  In  the  third  and  fourth  centiirte^ 
of  the  anatomical  and  medical  hrstories  of  T.Barthoiiiif.  He 
also  left  in  MS.  a  ^^  Methodus  Anatomica,"  which  was  in 
the  library  of  M.  de  Vick  of  Amsterdam  J  - 

PACATUS  (Latinos  Drepanius),   a  poet  and  orator, 
was  born  in  the  fourth  century,  at  Drepanum  in  Aquitania, 
but)  according  to  others,  at  Bourdeaux ;  or,  according  t0, 
Sidpnius,'  at  AgeUk     He  disQOvered  a  remarkable  taste  for 
poetry,  from  his  youth;  and  Ausoniu^  informs  us,  ivrote. 
love  Terses.    Ausonius  adds,  that  he  was  equal  to  Catuliusj 
>aiid  surpassed  all  the  Latin  poets,  except  Virgil.    Ausoniut 
probably  thought  all  this ;  for  he  certainly  had  a  very  high, 
opinion  of  |)im,  dedicated  some  of  his  own  works  to  him,: 
and  paid  the  greatest  deference  to  his  judgment,    Paoattuir 
was  sent  to  Rome  in  the  year  S88,  to  congratulate  Thepdo^ 
sius  the  Great  on  his  victory  oyer  the  tyrant  Maximus ;  and, 
on  this  occasion  he  delivered  it  panegyric  on  the  emperor 
in  the'  senate  house,  for  which  he  was  rewarded,  in  tb^ 
year390,  with  theproconsulship  of  a  province  in  Africa,  ahd>: 
in  the  year  393,  with  the  office  of  superintendant  of  th^:; 
imperial  domain.     We  have  no  farther  particulars  of  his 
life.     None  of  his  pioems  are  extant,  and  the  only  proof  o£ 
his  talents  to  which  we  can  appeal  is  his  panegyric  on; 
Theodosius,  the  second  part  of  which  is  the  most  interest^^ 
ing,  and  gives  some  curious  historical  facts.     In  style  and: 
manner  he  is  thought  to  resemble  Seneca  or  Pliny  rather; 
thain  Cicero.      The  best  edition  is  that  by  ArntzeoiuSy:. 
Arost.  1753,  4to.*  i     ^ 

PACE  (Richard),  a  learned  Englishman,  was  born  about 
14S2,  at  or  near  Winchester^  as  is  generally  supposed,  and 
was  educated  at  the  charge  of  Thomas  Langton,  bishop 
of  that  diocese,  who  employed  him,  while  a  youth,  as  his 
amanuensis.*  The  bishop,  pleased  with  his  proficiency,, 
and  particularly  delighted  with  his  early  turn  for  music, 
which  he  thought  an  earnest  of  greater  attainments,  hew 
stowed  a,  pension  on  him  sufficietit  to  defray  the  expences^ 
of  his  education  at  Padua,  at  that  time  one  of  the  mpst 
flourishing  universities  in  Europe.  Accordingly  he  studied 
there  for  some  time,  and  uiet  with  Cuthbert  T<)nstaU^ 
afterwards  bishop  of  Durham,  and  William  Latimer,  whoni 
he  called  his  preceptors.     On. his  return,  he  studied  for 

f^         '  .  ■  , 

.1  Floy  Diet.  Hist  de  Medicine. 

*^^  %\o%.  Upir.  et  Moreri  in  art.  Drepanius.— Ftbric.  Bibl.  Lat. 


PACE!  i 

9m^  title  at  QVieen's-cOlI^ge^^  Oxford/ of  wbtch  His  pitraif 
Lalrgt€y6  had  be^n  proVo'st ;  and  was'  soon  after  'taken  into 
tbe  service  of  Dr.  Christbpber  Batobridge,  who  aucceedi^d : 
Langton  in'  the  oiBce  of  prbvost,  and  became  afterwards 
a  4;ard{i»'alV-^  He  attended  him  to  Rome,  about  the  begin«^ 
nitig'Of  the  sixteenth  century,  and  continued  ther^e  until  tb€^ 
dardi^al^s  death  in  1514.  He  appears/ before  thi^,  to  bav& 
entered  into  h6lyk!>rders,  for  in  the  beginning  of  tbiryear/ 
atfd' while  abroad,  ^he  waamade  prebendary  of  Bugtborp,^ 
in4be  6hur6h  of  York,  in  the  room  of  \V<ylsey,'  afterwards 
the  celebrated  cardinal ;  and  In  May  df  the  same  year,  wUs^ 
pri^motedto  the  an^hdf^cdnry  pf  Dorset,-  on  the  resigna-' 
tiM^df  his  friend  Langton,  •  at  which  time,  flil-  Willis  sup- 
p&^eky  he  reaigil(9d*<h6  prebenld  of  Bugthorp. '  '  /  • 

Ohliis  returii  to  England,  h'e  was  sent  for  to  court,  pro- 
bably in  consequence  of  the  chai^acter  given  of  him  by  hi$^ 
deceased  patron,  cardinal  Biimbridge ;  and  became  such  a 
favourite  with  Henry  V 111.  thatlie  appointed  bim,  as'some 
say,  secretary  of  state,  which  Mr.  Lodge  doubts ;  but  it 
seems  certain,  thi^t  be  either  held  ihat)  or  the  office  of  pri- 
vate sedretary,  or  sotne  corifidcTnfctiil  ^tuation,  under  Henry, 
wiio  elnployed  him  in  afikir^-of  high  political  importance.' 
In  1515,'  he'  wa^  sent*  to  tbfe  cdtirt  of  Vienna,  where  the' 
object  of  bis  embassy  wislsto  erigagethe  emperor  Maximi- 
lian to  dispossess  the'  BVencb  king  Francis  I.^of  th^  duchy 
oi( Milan,  bis  royal  master  being  alarmed  at  the  progress 
o#  the  French  arms  in  Italy.  Pace  succeeded  in  his  nego- 
ciation,  so  far  as  to  persuade  the  emperor  to  undertake* 
tbh  -expeditieTi ;  ^'and  he  also*  engaged  aome  of  ^ the  Swiss* 
cantons- to 'fifrni^h  him  with  troops;  but  the  scheme  was 
ultimately  so  unsuebessfiiHbat-Maximiliaty  was  obliged  ta 
make  peace  with  France.  Pafce,  however,  profited  so  tnucb 
by  his  acquaintance  with  this^mperor,  as  ta  acquire  a  very^ 
useful  knowledge  of  his' chard^cter ;  and  when-  he  after-* 
w«tfd»tiffemd  to  resign- his  crown  itt  fiiVour^  Henry  VIII. 
li9'W»^  enabled 'to  give  bis  sovereign  the  best  advice^  and 
to  a^ure  htm,  that  Maximilian  had  no  6ther  design,' by  tbis' 
apparently  liberal  offer,  than  to  obtain  another  subsidy, 
and- that,  111  bther  respects,  very  little  credit  was  due  to  faiil^ 
word.  In  this  opiifion  cardinal  WoUey^  at  bome^  seems  to' 
have  concurred.    ' 

In  1319,  Maximiliati  died,  and  the  kings  of  France  andv 
Spain  immediately  declared  themsetves  candidates  for  tba: 
^oiperial  throne.    Henry,  encouraged  by  the  pope,  was 

B  2 


f 

Qrdff^  tQ  s^itund  ibe  diel  of  tb«  einpur^t  fotiM  Uif  #pi^ 
eipp»  0f  tb#  el.eeton^  and  endrnfouf  M>  f^ffli  Ik  |vds*r 
IDI9IU  of  |b^  liMihpod  9f  Iw  sqcx^W^  Pwe»  h»p^ff» 
AQQii  di^QovQTQd  ibiit  bif  rqy»(  «pa^«Mr  bnd  sisrted  loo  kn^ 
«ii4  ib9&  evf  n  ibD  ^to&ioni  of  Ment9»  Cologp^  wd  Tri?9% 
wba  i»ei:e  dWpMftd  In  foiH^ar  bi?  prftenfioiMf  pW«d^» 
^jf(^  a,  »bevi  9f  nrgH^li  ibAt  ihfryt  w#rr  pre^engigfd  Tbt 
^ciiw  fell  on  Cii«rl<i9  V*  In  l^l#9  Pm»  w«f  innin 
(qt^d  ireft9Q/cHr  of  Liebfield,  wbkb  b«  le^tgo^  ia  I.JSS» 
^p  Wwg^  9mAi^  d^fi  of  Cijfter.  Initi^t  ^ wcQMd«d 
Gakt  M  iwn  of  iii«,  P^uF^;,  gnd  ioim  9aqr»  Md  ^lao  tb« 
d(M|^ry  of  Suraiipi,  bul  tbi»  k  noi  auM  clear,  allbongli  ba 
U  called  dean  of  gylUbory  by  H^bcr^  ii>  bit  ^  tife  «od 
ReJf a  Qf  iienty  VUL'^  In  1$9  It  be  w4&  iiiiid«  pr^bf nditfj 
^f  Cfwb^  iui4  lbnihMi»  Julb^  church  of  8«ni«it  wd  wo 
ind  OHsiiim  «f  tom^  Qib^  fibvidi  pr^ftrnMolf  ba  bftid 
iffim  Ui$  IP  i<>»a^  bm  ^jr  nie.  hq  dubkniiiy  f^lai^d  tbfl 
k  is  difficult  ^  g^v«  liiew  In  doff  ordon 

On  the  d«^b  <tf  pope  Lm  Hi,  wbM  eaidmiJ  WoliK^y^a 
4«bilioii  idm^d  «4  IM  ptpal  Afope»  bm  iwi  P^^^o  le  IKqm 
%»  pffwuHn  bit  if|l«r9st }  bill  btAnrt  U«riinriv»l  thera^  AdaM» 
^bop  of  T«rti99$»  l«id  boM  abosm :  md  on  bit  deiiib,  ia 
i&aSf  Pa<9e  wiM  i^gwi  emploj^  to  negoliaia  for  Woltej* 
bia  nitb  no  l^cttef  tnc^w^  Clem^P^  VIL  baing  alecti^d. 
iSt  obminod*  iB^vnmsr^  irofQ  ifae  pope»  in  enkutgwie^i  of 
Wobfi)!*a  powfuri  M  l»K»¥r»  vbicb  ibe  bitftor  w^^  at  ibit  tiioc 
ifsmto/w  t0  obiaipf  Paw  vra«  noon  aftisrwilrda  «»it  on  an 
•fDb«?9y  lo  Vaiuce^  where  be  einrried  wiib  him  ibe  le«niad 
t»fm%  M  bi»  H)cretiry«  WimkI  deolaret,  tbM  on  tUU  ec*< 
cdsion  <^  it  it  bard  to  aay  wb/etb^r  be  ptocured  more  «oiq-« 
•endalipe  er  adtoifaliofi  anoeg  ibe  V^netMUit ;  both  for 
ibft  dmejyty  el  bis  wit^ead  etpecially  for  bk  tiogeier 
proiepuiess  m  tbe  lullafi  toog u?;  wbarein  be  ncemed  p^V 
d^ieg  inCeripr,  neilber  te  P.  Vauoes  bore  ia  CegU»d».  ^ 
iiof^  ie^et«y  foff  »ha  li^lian  .toagu^,  qor  Jfeet  Iq.  »t^ 
iitb^r^  yfbifih  ivere  tibe  beat,  for  that  toogee  ifi jiIl  Voel<^*V 
,  li  was  ai^  tjiis  uiee»  bewefor,  th^t  PacefeUi^iidor  cairdi^ 
ea]  WokeyVdifiiiieasuce.^  tb^  ^^m^ts  o|  vhi^b  are  iNi^d!t» 
Jiava  bee n, v^yy.9firipiis.  TbecardiDal  i^ tboiigbt  ^  ^bii^ 
been  enrageU  against  bimy  fii&t,  because  b4  bAds^ewnii 
ifMeliMsa  u>  aaiwtCbftrlesdul^e ;of.B<>urbon  mont^j 
Inrwhoai  ibe  ieatdiaid  Jml  dq.  great  a6F0^ion ;  aod^  a^r 
jiei)d)y«  b(;c»iiiio  ba  Jto4  a^  forwsiirde^  tbe  (wdiiiarik^^Ufy* 


»  Ad  &  » 

<^f  9btfeibtAg  t1i6  pftpul  chftir  withsb  oiwh  «Mit  at  Woisej 

ii^p&tt^'A.    SiAvh  are  tfae  re^s^nt  ft«iigne'd  by  somt  faisi- 

vpHatiiEi  t&t  Walsey'b  dispieasuri^i  who  is  said  tb  have  ori- 

tiefed  fBa^di^  Id  ^ueh  a  manner^  that  for  nearly  thie  ipace 

t>f  tm  y^iirS,  Pace  recidit^d  no  iiistrtctitms  firotn  his  ooMrt 

3^  toliift  pt^e^ddiitp  at  Veilicl^  V  hi*  allowance  for  »fi^ac^ 

w^al^p  withdrawn,  and  no  answer  returned  to  his  len«fl^ 

^li  orf^  C)^  whteir  the  YeAetian  bMbaSisadtir  resitfiner 

iil  tdn3on  lfek<sd  W4ist>]r  wlMither  he  tM  any  vom'mandb 

for  th<6  English  atfnWsssatiiSf  at  Vetaice^  hit  answered  FMcem 

t^t4pit  Segtm:  aifd  tiiu  siiigular  ti!Wtitieiit,  we  are  t^ld^ 

^1^  affi^ted  Pae(6  that  h(s  became  titsaiiA    As  soofi  as  tlie 

:'lci»g:!#as1fefQVm^  of  this^  Paee  was  iard^red  iioiue ;  am^ 

J^ri)^;eafeftiUy  atl%hd<$d  by  pbysitians  at  «lid  l^ing*^  tnsi^ 

jdiaftdj,  wtf^  V^teired  in  a  shori  time  to  his  sensi^   aa^ 

Hitiused  himself  by  ^tiadying  the  Hebrew  iaii||i;uat^,  witK 

fhe  aisiistanW  dff  ftobe^t  Wak^lieldi    1st  t^  iif^er^^  ^ 

Wilb  iwtrdddeisd  fo  the  kittg  sft  Ricli^ttinid,  wbt>  isapressdl 

Inech  s^t^foejtio^  iX  Ms  t^ov^ry;  sti^  aditiil«eid  bim  to  i 

JM^i^ir^  audli^ni^e^  id  ^k;ll'h<e  tdmtMl«frat^d  «fainfft  tlie<ca;r«' 

^^iiaty  bfddty  16  hVsL ;  Bat  Uii  c^rdinfal  ^»^s  too  |iow«rM 

'alli^is  |i^t,  iiid  wh^  urgied  1>y  tbe  kii^  «<»  sinssiri&r  ^ 

ii!hi^(^:  against  hbfi^  b^  iuniitibii^d  Faee  befons  trio^  «ift4 

i^^in  judgtn^^  with  the  dttke  of  Nol^Mt  atid^ethers^  wh^ 

JbJbhdetrmed  Pa^b,  and  s^nt  Mm  ti^  tbet^ci^^  Lofidofi^; 

#h^t^  H^  VIM  43onfi06d  fOfT  twb  yearsi  tilt  disisliffr^^  it 

l^a^W>y \h^  king>^^^  #a^e»  th*s  ^gtaded^  «iit 

1!d|fe^lf  m  %x[|y^  tftbd  ^hd>  jNeirrgiied  ki^  deaivri^ii  ^  ^ 
i^#^E^<^cif^^W  fitti^^dTdl^  Ms  ^ai:hi  ani,  miHa^ 
b  Ste^fiely  fbr  %# healthy  dii^d there,  ifll m,  WheU  liidit 

ijtiite  fifty  yefefft  of  agfef  ., 

lii^He  4s  M  et%ant  ahd  jQsft  «lmiiB^(«f  i^llith  by  ExsflttHitfi 

fiMtt^  >tt^  ]h^  recartt  iV6iri  1f(S<^dev  ^ayhfa>e  t^ettiaiMy  %^ 
i«r  T^itiii^  Moi^  Md  Si^        itkt^  tatter  aid^{)<ea 

Pfibe  ft>r  hk  candour  and  Sweetness  of  temper;  ail4'#iiS'tie» 
teo^ilfflktdd  ktbfti  rtMmttbdS,t6s(t'he  ^enld  Vi^^A/rg^vii 
^r&aif '^at'^aMi^  ihe^  ^c^  Styles  hitn  «miy^^Ae»^ 
ltt^teib»Mi^  I  abd  Wr&letiffdfe  lenders  t^  \^  «h«in  m 
Ihy^obfe  ^  liis  lehTMd  iti«s!nN»^  iilid  t<^  ^^ 

wmkkm^  d)ai<ai!ter  dfit  rtgkc  wt)ii^tby  iMn,%i^d^»%^4ftM 

ave  in  council  faithful  adyice :  learned  he  was  also,  savk 
^iati^^qiury,j^^^d  enddwi^d  «dt^  inany  extiStent  parti 
and  ^hk  ot  nature ;  oocirfeou^  fJieois^iiiy:  ft^H  d^^^  iti^ 


t 


4  t  ACE' 

music  (  higbly  in  th^  khig^s  favour,  and  well. beard  in  mai« 
4er4  ^f  iveight.'*  There  it  extant  a  remarkable^  letter  of 
his  to  the  king>  written  in  .1527,  in  which,  he  very  honestly 
'gives  his'  opinion  concerning  the  divorce ;  and  Fiddes  oh* 
.B0tredj  that  he  always  used  a  faithful  liberty  to  the  car<^ 
4tinal,  which  brought  him  at  last  to  confittemeut  and  di%^ 
iractidn. 

He  wrote,  1=.  *^  De  fructu  qui  ex  doctrina  percipitur 
liber/*  Basil,  1517,  dedicated  to  Dr.  Colet.  This  was 
written  by  our  author  at  Constance,  while  be  was  ambas* 
^ador  in  Helvetia ;  but,  inveighing  muqh  against  drunken* 
uess  as  a  great  obstacle  to  the  attaining  of  knowledge^  the 
people  there  supposing  him  to  reflect  »upon  them,  wrote ;a 
4»b&fp  dnswer  to  it^  and  even  Erdsmus  calls  it:  an  indiscreet 
performance ;  in  which  Pace  had,  between  je&t  and  e^rnej^t^ 
Irepresenied  him  as  a  beggar^  and  a  beggar  hated  by  the 
•elergy.  He  bids  sir  Thomas  More  exhort  Pace,  since  be 
had  so  little  judgment^  rather  to  Gon6ne  himself  to  ,the 
jtranslatton  of  Greek  writers^  than  tp  ventiire  u|x»n:  works 
i>f  his  own,  and  to  publish  such  m^n.  and -coiKeaifMibJie 
stuff.  (Erasm.  epist.  275,  and  Ep^  287).  .2*;  '  -  Oratio  nor 
perrime  composita  de  fc^dere  percusso  inter  Henricuni  ^nr 
gU«e  regemf  et  Francorum  reg,  Christianiss.  in  aede  PauU 
.Load;  babita,*'  1518.  3.  ^' Epistolse  ad  Erasmuro;'*  &c 
*1520^  These  Epistles  ais  part  of  the,  ^^  Epistol®  altqqot 
6raditorumvirorum«-V  4.  vExeqnplum  literarum^adr^g^ 
:Hen.  YllL  an.  1526,**  inserted  in  a  piece  entitted,  "Syd^ 
tagmade  Hebrsorum  codicum  interpretatioiie,*'  by  Robert 
Wakefield.  « Pace  also  wrote  a  book  against  the  unlawfulr 
ness.of  the  king's. marriage  with  Katharine,  in  1527,  apd 
made  several  translations :  among  others,  one  from  English 
into  Latin,  ^^  Bishop  Fisher's  Sermon,''  preached  at  Lon- 
4on  on  the  day  upon  which  the  writings  of  M.J^uther  were 
publicly  burnt,  Camb.  1521,  and  a  translation,  from, Grefk 
into  Latin  of  Plutarch's  piece,,  '^  De  commodo  ex  inimi^s 
capiendo.''  *•  .  •    c  ^ 

r  PACtiECO  (Francis),  a  Spanish  artist,,  supposed  to 
have  been  born  in  1571,  at  Seville,  is  said  by.lMir.Fusell, 
to  owe  his>  reputation  more  to  theory,,  writing,  and  t^ 
celebrity  of  bis  scholars  Cano  and  Velazquez,  tb^  to  t^e 
superiority  of  his,  works.     He  was  a. pupil  of  Lui«  Fern^nr 

}  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  I.— Dodd'u  Ch.  Hist.— Lodge's  Illuitriitions,  vol.  I.--Fid<}6S 
kod  OroveVXivet  pt  Cardinal  WoUey. — Knight  and  Jortio'tf  LiFesof  Eraunus.' 


.    FA  CH:EC  O.  9 

idleis,-bot,  ^bough  partial  to  the  great  style,  doea  not  ap«> 
pear  tp  have  atudied  it  in  Italy.  With  sufficient  correct* 
Aess  of  oQtlip^f  judgment  in  composition^  dignity  of  cba** 
nuMrs,  propriety  of  costume,  observance  of  chiaroscuro 

^^ud  perspective,  Paoheco  displeases  by  want  of  colour^ 
timidity  of  exeoution,  and  dryness  of  style.  Seville  pos- 
sesses the  best  of  his  historic  performances;  of  his  numer^ 
ous  portraits,  those  of  his  wife  and  Miguel  de  Cervantes 

\were  the  most  praised.  He  possesses  considerable  erudi- 
tion, and  there  is  much  wit  and  humour  in. bis  epigrams. 
He  died  io  1654.  Of .  bis  works  we  know  only  one,  en- 
titled ^' Arte  de .  la  Piutura,  su  antiguedad  y  graodezas,** 
Seville,  1649,  4to.'  - 

c  PACHOMIUS  (StO,  a  celebrated  abbot  of  Tabenna  in 
£gypt,  was  .born  about  the  year  292,  of  heathen  parents. 
He  bore  arms  at  the  age  of  twenty,  and  was  «o  touched 
with  the  charitable  works  of  some  Christians,  that  he  re- 
turned to  Thebais  when  the  war  ended,  and  embraced 

: Christianity.     He  afterwards  placed  himself  under  the  di- 

^^rection  of  a  solitary  named  Palemon,  and  made  so  astonish- 
ing a  progress  an  religion  with  this  exicellent  master,  that 

-be  became  founder  of  the  monastery  of  Tabenna,  on  tl)e 
banks  of  the  Nile,  peopled  Thebais  with  holy  solit^-ie^, 
-and  had  above  5000  monks  under  his  care.     His  aister 

"founded  a  consent  of  nuns  on  the  other  side  of  the  Nile^ 
'  ivho  lived  in  a  community,  and  practised  great  austerities^ 
St;;Pacbomius  died  May  3,  348.  We  have  some  of  bia 
'^  Epistles^*  remaining,  a '^  Kule,'V  and  some  other  pieces 
in  the  library  of  the  fathers.  M.  Arnauld  D' Andilly  has 
translated  a  life  of  him  in^o  French,  which  may  be  fpiind 
ampng  those  of  the  fathers  of  the  desert  * 

PACHYMERA  (George),  an  eminent  Greek,  flourished 
about-  1280,  under  the  reign  of  Michael  Paleologus^  and 
Andrqnicus  bis  successor.     He  was  a  person  of  high  birt^b,, 

^^and  bad  acquired  no  less  knowledge  in  cburch*af&irs  in  the 
great.posts  he  had  among  the  clergy  of  Constantinople, 

'  tbaa  of  state-matters  in  the  high  employ mei^its  he  held  in 
the  court  of  the  emperor ;.  so  that  his  ^  Hisytory  of  Michael 

'  Paleologps  and  Andron^^us^'  is  the  more  esteemed,  as  bo 

^was  not' only  an  eye-witness  of  the.afiairs  of  which  be^ 
writes,  but  bad  also  a  great  share  in  them.  This  histc^'y 
wa9  published  by  Poussines,  a  Jesuit,  Gr.  et  Lat.  ^'ex  in<^ 

t  puioiigtoDj  by  Faseli  ^  QafC)  toI  I«— Jtf oreri»  ia  PacoBi«% 


*  TJlC  tl  V  M  E  R'A. 

mrpri  ^i  *ttrt  not  F;  Pos^lni,"  Bdnfic,  !156#^6^,  ^  f^Ui 
Pkcliy'tiplera  ootupoied  also  sdtne  Greek  ^^fses;  but  tk^ 
v^6  lktl6  ^stliemed,  md  tli^V^r  )3ftiilted.  Bhltik^t  men^ 
tton^  a  e^mp^niliuiii  of  Hie  A^ist^eltM  ))hUosopb]r  pobi 
Ksfaed  'from  iii^  maniist^Hpts ;  alid  Tilknan  pabthitiiM  bii 
paraphrase  on  4be  eptsrli^  6f  Didhy&m  ^Mi  Attsdpagice*^ 
^  Gticrgii  Patbymeri^  fyarapfarasis  iti  detefid  epteli^l&»  beili 
IModysii  AreopagitdBi"  Paris^  1 538.  * 

•FACIAUM  (Paul  MAftU)^  antiqaiiry  arid  Itbt^riatii  t6 
tbe  tlyke  of  Paroria,  and  bistoriogtapbef  Of  tb^  O^def*  oF 
Mirita;  ifra^  borh  at  Turing  NoV.  IS,  llriO.  Afrei- &tiidyin|r 
m  tfee  univertity  of  Turing  he  look  ibe  r^giotrs  habit  iA 
the  order  of  the  Tbeatins^  at  Venice,  aiid  tbelY  wetit  tb 
BolOgha  to  stody  tnatbetfaaties  and  natural  philosophy  under 
%b&  eetebf-nted  Beccari.  -  It  appears  that  he  begttiv  hk  sub«- 
^e^iiebt'  litetttry  oia^eer  triih  the  lUst-ibentiotied  pnf6iiit; 
aiid  that  as  soOti  as  be  had  kttdined  the  bigheir  Orders^  be 
1fa!l  ilppcddted  -ptbfessoi^  6f  philoiopby  in  the  eeliejf^e  of 
GeiMMt ;  and  ivas  One  of  tbo^e  vrbo  -first  dai*ed  to  es^plode^ 
fvom  tb0^  scbook  of  Italy^  the  did  ixxM-ed  prejudices  Of  f^n^ 
lastic^ystetfis'i  afad  to  sitbatitiite  for  theirt  the  etetfiill  tl^ulbl 
discovered  by  Newton.  H«  did  hot^  bbttever^  Ibhg  re« 
maift  in  tbe  professorship  Of- phiioibpby,  at  bevfo^^  bbt 
Quitted  philoiophy  for  divitiity^  atid  delated  ten  yetvi  t& 
l^rbacbitig  md  the  cottipositioii  of  'sertnbbi»^  by  heithettX 
yifhksh  he  ftcquiired  much  reputation;  bett^tbiil  thid  period 
be  publisbed  ^k^tine  orations,  bis  ^'  Tireati^b  ob^  the  Atitiqtii^ 
tied  et  Ripa  TransOne^''  the  afreienl  Cdpf^  i  lind  three  Jteiifi 
ifter,  bis  ^*  Expi^&tion  of  ati  ancient  engfaVed  ^fte.'' 

The  pret!is»e  date  o#  Flsfeibei'  P^ci^Udi^^  diroet  IxieHtotidtt^ 
labours  may  be  pYdperiy  fixed  at  ITi'T,  the  thlrty-isl:ttb  of 
^is  life ;  Undi  frOiti  that  time  to  1?6&^  be  w^  «eeO  al^st 
kt  a  state  of  continta^tl  preregirihatidn  at^Na|»Ie&,  At  Flor^e^ 
at  ¥eni<:ei  itod  at  fionfte;  In  ttife  #r»t  of  ibe^  eitiesv 
Amittg  the  years  1747,  49,  ftnd  4$^  he  puMi^faed  it  lOflrbed 
^^ssertatfen  On^A  Stetbe  Of  Mercbi-y,'^  ih  4«o;  «  Ob^Oir^ 
fictions  oil  sMie  foreign  a^  odd  Odios/''  fifkeWifs^k  4t<>; 
And,  <<  A  fieries  ol  Medals  ^eprdsi^htin^  tbe  teO^t  fetitaVki 
ible  Events  of  the  Gorei'nlhent  of  Malta,^'  in  fblio.  At 
Florence  >ppesri*ed  jhi  175^)  in  4tO,  bis  <'  Treittb^e  oft  the 
ancient  Grosses  ttlld  Hbly  Monunsetlts  tirbich  itr6  fovtld  «Kt 
Kivenna^^V  ik  Venice,  ui  the  sflme  yeftr/Ml  titkitliited 


*.f* 


tif&m  itSl  (6  175k,  ha  teM  than  aghi  ToliltbeB  in  4t^»  c^oni^ 
IttiHiKg  «9  itiiiay  difl^rettt  iH>rftB,  isftued  ftooi  bi§  pen ;  tli6 
hesn  df  viFhi(*h  wfts  lU^boimted  tb6  titeatise.  *<  De  Aditeuttittk 
Cabheefti.''  Hid  {temtkihj  iti  thn  disquiMilon,  mta,  that 
the  Gi^eks^  though  thi^y  plfteed  danciilg^  ifi  the  same  tknk 
tetbe  inilft^.iti«rcb>  eon^ideti^  it  as  «n  art  tending  t6 
li^aiate^  adjust,  and  beautify  the  monpeinents  of  the  body^ 
Md  divide  it  into  fbiii*  geoei-a  according  to  its  various  ap«* 
plication  to  religious  ceremobies,  warlike  exercises,  theiM- 
tribal  p^rfoiraiancetiy  and  ddtnesfic  enjoytneAts;  yet  the 
enbistic  tut,  whose  object  is  to  ti^acK  joinpihg  atid  ukteothi- 
ibon  corporeal  exertions^  although  ^erfebtly  known,  W«b 
net^  held  in  great  estimation  iti  ancient  Greee^. 

I'he  yeiir  1757  is  perhaps  th6  mbftt  refneirkable  iii  Pa^ 
6hindi'8  literary  life;  that  being  the  perickl  in  Which  hh 
entered  ihto  a  corresfiondfehce  with  ct^iint  dayto!^,  lind 
tiegan  to  inpplj  him  with  mlrtiberless  heads  of  valuable  i^ 
formation  for  his  <<  Reoueil  d'Atitiqiiit^s/'  Paciaudi  inay, 
ill  fact^  be  considered  if  not  one  of  the  Authors,  at  teast  ak 
k  contributor  to  that  work.  And  his  letters,  which  werb 
^nblisbed  in  1S02  at  PliHs,  are  a  proof  of  the  ample  share 
6f  fame  tb  which  he  is  entitled  in  this  respect.  This  cor^ 
tespondence  wa4  carried  on  ^t  eight  years,  firom  1757 16 
1765.  But  neither  were  Paciaudi*^  powers  confined  tb  it 
alone,  tilor  Wsks  he  without  further  eto^foyments  dutitig  that 
j^eriod.  jtwastbetl  (iti  1761)  that  fare  published  his  capi* 
t^^ot)c  •♦Mondmenta  Peloponnesia,"  ih  2  vols.*4to,  con- 
tainidg  a  complete  illustration  df  those  ^dlebrated  statues', 
busts,  bas-V^eliefs,  ahd  isepulchral  stOnes,  -  whidhj  from  tbi^ 
Continent  arid  the  islands  bf  Peioponhebus,  had  b^^n  re^ 
moired  to  y«Hiee,  ^d  which  fcnrfaned  a  part  of  {he  numeVouft 
eoll^ctiaii  of  antiquities  pos^si^^  by  ibb  illustrtpiek^  family 
k  Nai)f^  10  that  meti'opolis.  Thbh  to6  it  ¥rtts  that  he  re^ 
c^ved  from  the  celebrated  PkHi^esan  minister  Tlllot,  the 
iiMtatiOn  to  go  to  Pamia  to  !tupeHnteiid[  the  erection  of  th^ 
hbt^y  whidi  had  bi^fen  projetfed  by  his  hJystl  teghhess  the 
»ilafat  Dbn  t>hHip. 

^  From  id  donfideritifel  de<^U*tifion  to  cdtiAt  Caylus,  it  tp^ 
pears,  that  Mi^.  P^cmudi  was  highly  sMislieci  with  hi^  em^ 
^ymfettt.  H^  cotisid^ed  it  ''in  M  dp[l6rtohity  of  render- 
^  tii^ftil  Ms  Jifxt^nsivi  Erudition,  Withi^t  thoW  tncoow 
ttnkanAei  which  littend  the  necessary  intercontte  with  th^ 
world.     He  therefore  engaged  in  the  business  with  a  seal 


10  >  A  q  I  A  u  D  t 

jbos^daring  ofV;efitbiism8m. .  QesMes  the  acquisirion^  which 
li^jpajd€^.of  tbe  excellent  library  p£  count  Per^usatiat  Rome^ 
4fi;17625  be  went  to  Paris  in  search  of  other  books ;  and 
^cb  was  his  exei;tion9  that,  inf  less  than  six  years,  he  col- 
lected jnor^i;  than  sixty  thousand  volumes  of  the  best  worki 
of  eivery  kind,  and  thus  erected  one  of  the  most  copious 
libraries  in  I|aly.  He  also  compiled  such  an  excelljent 
y  Catalogue  raisonn^e*'  of  its  articles  as  deserves  to  be 
jadopt^d  as. a  mpdel  by  alljsbiO  are  at  the  head  of  large 
biblipgraphi^^LesiabHsbments. 

.  W^bilst  be  was  thus,  active  in  the  organization  of ..  the 
Jibrary,  he  received  additional  honours  and  cooimisftions 
.from  the  royal  court  of  Parma.  In  1763  he  was  appointed 
antiquary  to  bis  royal  highness,  and  director  of  the  exca*- 
.vations  which,  under  the  authority,  of  government,  bad 
.been  undertaken  in  the  aucieiit  toirnof  Velleja,  situated 
in  the  Parmesan  dominions;  and  in  17^7,  on  the  expul- 
jBion.  of  the  Jesuits,  be  was  declared  ^'  presid^itof  stiidies,^^ 
with  the  power  'of  new  modelling  as  he  thought  profi^r, 
the  whole  system  of  public  instruction  throughout  the  state. 
In  this  new  organization  of  studies  be  displayed  tbe  saoipe 
.spirit  of  order  by  which  he  had  been  already  distinguished 
in  the  formation  of  the  library.  He  endeavoured  to  arrange 
,tbe  different  subjects  in  the  minds  of  his  pupils  as  hebad 
formerly  classified  the  books  upon  the  different  shrives*  -^ 

Notwithstanding  so  many  signal  services  to  the  court  of 
Parma,  Paciaudi  fell  a  victim  to  mean  intrigues,  and  lost 
the  favour 'Of  ;his  sovereign.  ,  He  bad  been  intimately  con- 
nected with  the  i;ninister  who  then  happened  to  be  dis- 
graqed,  and  was  ia  some  measure  involved  in  the  same 
misfprtu|ie«  "tie  forfeited  bis  places.  But,  conscious  of 
hi9  own  integrity,  .be  did  not  choose  to  leave  Parma,  and 
patiently  waited  for  thetransitvof  the  storm;  .  His  inno- 
cence beiDg..80on  ascertained,  he  was  restored  to  his  several 
/unctions,  and  to  rtbe  good  opinion  of  the  prince.  .  He 
l&ade, , however^  of  this  fovourable  event,  the  best  use  that 
a  prudent  man  could  do;  he  endeavoured  to  secure  him-v 
self  against  a  similar  misfortune  in  future,  by  soliciting 
permission  to  retire  to  his  native  country;  and  this  >' vo- 
luntary exile,*'  says  M.  Dacier,.in'tbe  eulogy  of  Paciaudi, 
^' banished  .the  last  remains  of  suspicion  against  hioi. 
Nothing  was  now  remembered  but  bis  merit  and  bis  zeal  \ 
bis  loss  was  severely  felt;  and  the  most  engaging  solicita^ 


I^ACIAUDL  11 

^Ds  were  made  to  bim  to  resame  bis  fonctioDs.  In  vain 
did  he  plead  in -excuse  bis  advanced  age,  and  the  necessity 
of  repose;  bis  excuses  were  not  admitted,  and  be  was 
finally  obliged  to  return  to  Farms.** 

.  Tbe  literary  establishments  which  had  been  formed  by 
him  in  that  place,  did  not  then  require  so  much  of  his  at- 
tention  and  care,  as  to  prevent  him  from  indulging  himself 
in  other  pursuits. .  He  therefore  conceived  the  plan  of  a 
general  biography  of  the  grand  masters  of  the  order  of 
Malta.  In  1749,  wbeo  be  published,  at  Naples,  the  series 
of  medals  cunc^roiiig  the  government  of  Malta,  he  bad 
received  from  the  grand  master,  Pinto,  the  place  of  bisto*- 
riograpber  of  tbe  order;  but  his  uninterrupted  labours  in 
<»tber  pursuits  had  prevented  him,  for  nearly  thirty  years, 
from  direi^iiig  bis  atiention  to  that  great  object,  the  most 
inieiesttng,  pefhaps,  in  the  religious  and  military  history 
of  the  oMddle  mgen.  At  last  he  devoted  to  it  some  of  bis 
latler  years,  oind,  in  1780,  published  from  the  unrivalled 
fvess  of  Bodoni,  of  Parma,  his  *'  Memorie  de  Gran  Mae- 
at9,**  &c.  or  ^  Memoirs. of  the  Grand  Masters  of  the  Holy 
Military  Order  of  Jerusalem,**:  in  3  vols.  4to.  Tliis  pub- 
licatipn.  contains  only  tbe  history  of  the  first  century  of  the 
order,  and  consequently,  not  more  than  the  lives  of  its 
founder  and  of  th<e  first  ten. grand  masters.  It  would  have 
been  continued,  if  tbe  author  had  not,  soon  after  its  ap- 
pearance, fallen  into  that  languor,  which  generally  attends 
long  labours  andold  age,  and  which  accompanied  him  till 
his  death,  which  took  place. on  the  3d *of -February  1785, 
in  the  75th  year  of  his  age. 

Mr.  Paciaudi  was  an •  .excellent  man:  religious,  disin- 
.terested,'  and  cordial  ;^aQd*  although  not  without  personal 
vanity,  and  often  cbarge^ible  wi(h  severity  of  criticism  oh 
-bis  antagonists,  w^s  always  kind  and  polite,  beloved  by  the 
great,  consulted  by  the  learned,  and  esteemed  by  people 
'i/it  every  description.  He  was  intimately  connected  with 
the '  greatest  literary  ^en  of  his  age,  among  whom,  be- 
sides'Gay  lus,  it  is '  sufficient  to  mention  the  illustrious 
*Winkehnann,  and  tbe  aujtbor  of  tbe  Travels  of  Anacbarsis, 
to  whom  he  stood  indebted  for  the  academical  honoun 
.  iWbiobf  hre  received  at  Paris«^ 

1  Ess^y  on  hh  Life  prefixed  to  bit -Letters,  pobliabed  at  Paris  in  1802.<^Bal<l* 
win*!' Literary  Jouraalj  vol.  IF.— Fabroni  Vitie  Italoruinj  toI.  XIV. 


It  ■  p  kc  iv  $,  1 

I     I*  ' 

/   PA€IU6  (JciiidsH  an  ettiinent  lawyet  ahd  pbitosophiB)*^ 

tilted  PACitIs  D£  Bcfi(GA)  frdm  ihe  iiam«  of  acbiiiotry  se4t 

beiodging  to  hi»  father's  femiJy,  near  Vicemsa,  was  bomitt 

the  latter  city  in  1550.  '   His  [xLridnts  bestowed  $vtfy  paiai 

vri  Ilk  Bdut^tbnj  and  he  is  said  to  have  made  such  pro* 

g^es^  (li  hib  first  studies  as  to  hate  composed  ^  tjr0atii[e  qii 

arithttii^tid  at  the  age  6f  tbineen.    Fi^r  farther  profj^^ie^y 

he  wais  sent  t<^  Padua^  with  his  ford ther  Fabius^  vfhov^ii* 

tmrds  tecattkie  a  phyMCsian  of  emiii^tx^e,  and  is  ifiiebtioViejl 

with  gn^at/hbnour  by  tbe  medical  foibgraphers*     Jultdi^ 

4ft^r  tsUng  his  degree  df  do<:tor  in  ijaw^  returned  to  liii 

own  trduntr^^y  where,  in  the  lioiirsi  of  his  extensile  read'* 

iti^)  be  be^athe  at^quaibteB  #t<:h  the  senri^nts  of  the  ri^V 

fytm^n^'^hA  c^tktieAled  hi&  attachment  tjo  tti^iA  Witb«]^iitUi 

bam^  thlt  lie  Wats  inedatted  by  the  horrors  of  tb^  inquishiok^ 

Arotti  ^bi^  he  ibtaped  to  Getievtt^^ Tbi^  step  bj^mg  at^ 

tend^  with  thie  lOsa  of  hta  properly,  he  gainefl  a  Ht^liboo^ 

Jhr  isome  iimb  ty  te^ehing  ;^t)ut^,  dntiU  £id  ^h'^fAti^he^ 

CMItug  knb«(b/he  was  eribouraged  15'  gt^d  l^ttCites  on  cit^ 

%w^  wbitck  be  did  foif  tefi  y^r^>i^itb  gi'eal^'^iesaandir^^^ 

pirt atidtii    At  Geneva  libo  be  Ih^r^ed  k  lady  Wbi^sd,  fami% 

had  fled  fr^ib  Lucc^^r  the  i^iniist  of  Mligi^o,  ^itd  hijA  i 

fetiiUy  of  ten  tbildreri  by  h(&r.  ] 

^  'Ifi  1^85  h^  acd^pt^d  the  ^(kt  of  ifaif  law  pn}tetB6tMp  ii 

H^ideiber^^  which*  b€r  held  foi-  tefi  yeirs^  itid  th^ri  rei 

ftnio^d  to  Sethiii,  Where  he  taughi  logic  foraomb  d«io ;  4)Ut 

H)b'war  wUcb  took  p1ac«  iAdtk^ed  kib  tbi^tilrfft  again  t4 

^l^hfei"^^  ttnd  thtM^  to  NittneB)  wbfere  h^  Wa^  a)>^ihte4 
principal  of  the  college.  HisHett  cietileii9etitv  Whiob  bi$ 
bi]^d  would  have  %eed  fibal^  wag  nt  Monipellielv  wiiere 
N  wiUf  tnbde  ^egitiir  pro^fetiior  of  kw^  iind  where  hig  teri 
mainly  acqttin^d  A  high  ^e^ttttt^n^  Mil  bmngfat  logeibe!^ 

it^m  «U  jparhi  a  litlttlerOUs  «>bb«MfM  ^  stttdOdii^  itblot^ 
whoitti  w^s  the  telebrbted  P^i)«ks<?^  wh^  iodbe^d  hihi  tn 
ft^turn    to   Ih^  lioMM^il    tatlMlie  rdi^iM«     A^t  mitbui 

change  Of  |ilac«^  bdwev^if^  h^  fitted  at  ken  at  Vatenco  iA 

eaB^fain«,  WbefO  hO^died  iil  16B9^  at  tbte  agOi)f  bigh^ 
five.  Hii  pfititiftA  Wbtkd  #ere,  t .  *^  iibtpVih  Jiirb  tdiyilis,^ 
<jiieirteva,  'Iijpso,  roU  2.  ^^t^bnaliet^i^ell  FMdofuIti^**  !bid. 
1580,  fol.  3.  "  Justiniam  Iitipbr^t^ris  fA«Atttitii^tttti  LUkfH 
ijuatuor^"  &c.  ibid.  fol.  4.  ^<  Ariatotelis  Or^atiuin,  hjoc. 
est  nbri  oQines  licl  l^gicabi  j)eiii^ntea^  Gri  et  tiu.^  M 
giis,  1584,  8vo,  reprinted  in  15dS(,aud;at^Francfort  in  1598, 
which   is  the  best  editioQ  of  what  is  reckoned  »  verjr 


P  A  0  t  tr  ST.  u 

lmi>  et  «flktU  mafQ^  owlewii  UJbellM«f  Gr.  atXM.''  Uei«' 
ddbtif^  l^MBj  8110.  Tbif  vhm  pqblUbed  bjr  Codioufe 
IHiciiM  mIjf  inpplied  the  MS.  ftom  hu  libfftvy.  '  fi.  ^'  Aruk 
toufo  Mlonik  tntoulmtigoU  Ubri  oot#/*  Giv  and  Lfttp 
JMtefor^  ICS69  8vo.  f.  ^^  Arimolelif  de  winm  libri  tres, 
dr.  irt  Lai.'*  ibid.  Ud«,  &▼«.  a. «'  Amiotalb  die  Cceb 
libri  qaatoor,"  ke.  On  et  Lat  ibid.  1601,  Svo.  9.  <<  Doc^ 
|nki«  Perfprntetka  twii  llres/'  Aoreim  A^tobraguiB  (Ge- 
neva) 'I4M>  4IQC  NJMfon  enuvierates  yarimis  oiher  worU 
ilbiob  be  publitfiedy  iene  of  a  lemporary  Vie^  ud  som* 
fiimpiied faff  the  vse  ef  atudepts ;  but  ibe  above  appear  te 
h»fe  oentriStoted  aaoafc  tft  the  reputatioa  he  enjeyeo.* 

PACK  (&iC]ui98i)kN),  an  English  poetical,  and  mieceU 
h^tom  vriier»  ibf  ion  of  JabQ  Paek»  of  Sutolfs^Aah,  in 
SuBoikf  eibp,  in  1^91  waa  high  sheriff  of  that  daunt;^  vaa 
bern  about  t€80*  |ie  waa  edocaled  at  Merchant  Taylem^ 
icbool,  wfience,  at  the  age  of  stxte^  he  removed  to  St. 
iobn's  eplli^;e»  Qx&rd>  and  remained  there.  Iwo  yoar%  «l 
ibe  eiid  of  wbieb  bia  father  entered  htm  of  fcbe  Middle 
Tefupley  iniendingbioD  for  the  professbn  of  the  kiar.  Hie 
ti>rp6ciency»  at  a  bier  atadent,  vaust  have  appeared  in  a  verjp 
{jivourabie  light  to  the  beoohers  ef  ibis  ^nourable  aoeiety^ 
I9  be  wei  at  eigbt  Urmi  atandin|;  admtttpd  barrister^  Wfaea 
be  fvaa  not  nuidb  above  twenty  years  pf  age.  But  habile  of 
Ittt^^  ancjl  appiicatioH  to  businesa  not  agreeing  either  with 
Mn  health  lor  inclinatioii,  be  went  into  thearmyt  and  his 
irst  eoomiand,  wbidb  h»  obtained  in-  Match  1705,  iwaa 
that  oi  ia  company  of  foot  He  served  afterirards  abroad 
under  general  S^anhopoi  end  the  duke  of  Argyle,  who  fiM 
his  distingMisHed  bravery  proipofted  him  to  the  rank  taS 
fO^f  and;  ever  after  bbnomred  him  with  ^is  patronap^e 
^d  frkindtbip.  Some  of  the  best  of  aiigor  Piusk^s  mii 
^11119  were  in  celebra^n  of  )»s  grace's  charaeter,  at  a  time 
f%en  iibere  was ,:a  jealousy  between  him  and  the  duke  of 

'jtbe.inajpc  died  aft  Aberdeen  io  Sept/17^ 
his,  iegfinatH  hiq^^^  to  bi^  quartered.  'He 

[isbed  Mr$t  a  «4ia!p^buijr  of  pOMas  in  1?  iS,  dedicate  to 
^olflpdi;  ^tAohope,  .  whidli  sold  ^apidll*^  abd  when  it  4;ane 
^j^  la 

1^^9.1^  j^^  t^f^jOff  pQ^ponius  Atticus/'  witft 


H  P  A  C  K.  i 

r^tni^rks  stddresied  to  the  diike  of  Aygyfe ;  in  1720,  **^ttri 
ligion  atid  Philosophy^  a  Tale ;"  and  inl725,"  a  *^*  Neit 
Collection"  of  poetical  miscellanies,  to  which  be  jWefixed 
the  "  Lives  of  Mi^tiades  and  Cymon,"  fr6m  Coi'nejius  Ne* 
pos.  His  "  ^yhole  Works"  were  afterwards  coHec ted  an 4 
published  jn  onevol.  8iro,  1729.  In. all  be  discotefs  eonsi^ 
derable  taste,  vivacity,  and  teaming.  ■  His  connection^'  afe' 
Well  as  his  principles,  appear  to  have  been  of  the  superior 
cast*-''  ■    .  .''■■•:■,  f  ■ 

PACUVIUS  (Marcus),  a  Latin  trs^icpoet^  wasa^nsitivife 
of  BoTidisi,  the  ancient  Brundusium,  and  nephew  to  En-^ 
nius.  He  flourished  at  Romc^  about  1543.  C.  Ac^cojrd- 
ing  to  bis  last  biographer,  he  was  held  in  'high  esteem'  by 
C,  Lelius,-and  particularly  by  Citero,  who  affirmed  hihi 
t6  be  superior  to  Sophocles  in  "'his  tragedy  of  ^ViiNiptra,^*- 
and  classed  hini  in  the  first  rank  of'  tragic  poets.  They 
are  said  likewise  to  have  looked  u^6n  every  one  as  an 
enemy  td  Roman  literature  who  had 'tenierity  enough' to 
despise  his  tragedies,  particularly  his  "  Antiope.'?  We 
have  nothing,  however,  of^fais  works  left,  except  isome* 
fragments  in  Maittaife's  *^Corpus  PotBtarum,''  ^Pacuvins 
was  apainter  alsp)  as  well  asa  poet;  and  Pliny  speaks  of  one 
of  his  pictures  which  was  placed  in  the  temple  of  Hercule's,' 
and  was  admired  by  the  connoisseurs  of  those  times.  'He 
<tied  at  Tarentum,  when  .bey^ynd'  bis*  ninetieth  year. '  He 
vrrote  his  own  epitaph^  which  is  preserved  in  Auids  Gelltus. 
Annibale^di.  Leo,  twbo  was  also  born  at  Brhtdisi,'  publisheiih 
in  1764  a  dissertation  on  bis  life  and  writing^  in  order  to 
do  honour  to  bis  native  place,  which  certainly  would  not 
have  been.  less  honoured  if  he. had  omitted  to  tell  us  that 
among  the  eminent  men  of  Brindisi,  was  M.'  Lenius  Strabo,' 
the  first  inventor  of  bird-cages.  ^ 

PAGAN  (Blaise*  Fjrancis  Coimr  pe)>  an  leminient 
Ffench  mathemiatician,  .was  born. at  'Avignon,  in  Provfencei^ 
March  3,  ,1^04,  and  entered  the  army  at  fourteen;  ^fiw 
which  he  h^d  been  educated  with  extraordinary  care;  rln- 
1620  he  was  engaged  at  the  siege  of  Caen,,  in  the  battle  6f 
the  bridge  of  Ce,  and  ntber  exploits,  in  which  he  signialized' 
himself,  and  ^cjqulred  a  reputation  above  vbis  years. '  He 
was  present,  in  1624,  at  the  siegeof  St.  Jbbn  d'Angeli,  as' 
also  at  that  of  Clerac  and  Montauban,' where  he  lost  ;his( 


vf 


>  Life  prefixed  to  bis  works.— Gibber's  LiTes.— Jacobus  Lives.    '  , 

*  Vossius  de  Poet,  ttt.— Saxii  Qaoma8t.«-Leo*t  Disseftation  Ib  Month;  lUf. 


PAGAN.  U 

left  eye  by  a  musket-shot.  At  this  siege  he  had  another 
loss,  which  he  felt  with  no  less  sensibility,  viz^  that  of  the 
constable  of  Luynes,  who  died  there  of  a  scarlet  fever. 
The  constable  was  a  near. relation  to  him,  and. had  been 
his  patron  at  court.  He  did  not,  however,  sink  under  his 
misfortune,  but  on  the  contrary  seemed  to  acquire  fresh 
energy  from  the  reflection  that  he  must  now  trust  solely 
to  himself.  Accordingly,  there  was  after  this  time,  no 
siege,  battle,  or  any  other  occasion,  in  which  be  did  not 
ftignalize  himself  by  some  effort  of  courage  and  conduct. 
At  the  passage  of  the  Alps,  and  the  barricade  of  Suza,  he 
put  himself  at  the  head,  of  the  forlorn  hope,  *  consisting'  of 
the  bravest  youths  among  the  guards;. and  undelrto6k  to 
ailrive  the  first  at  the  attack  by  a  private  way  which  wa& 
extremely  dangerous ;  but,  having  gained  the  top  of  a  very 
steep  mountain,  he  cried  out  to  his  followers,  ".See  the 
way  to  glory  I"  and  sliding  down  the  mountain,  his  com- 
panions followed  him,  and  coming  first  to  the -attacki  as 
they  wished  to  do,  immediately  began  a  furious  assault  f 
and  when  the  army  came  up  to  their  support,  forced  the 
barrigades.  He  had  afterwards  the  pleasure  of  standing- 
OB  the  left  hand  of  the  king  when  hia  majesty  related  this 
heroic  action  to  the  duke  of  Savoy,  with .  extraordinary 
commendations,  in  the  presence  of  a  very  full  court.  -  Whea 
the  king  laid  siege  to  Nancy  in  1633, ; our.  hero  bad  the 
honour  to  attend  his  sovereign  in  drawing  the  lines  aii4 
forts  of  eircumvallation.  In  1642  his  majeaty  sent  him  Uy 
the  aervice  in  Portugal,  in  the  post  of  field-marshal ;  but , 
that  year  be  had  the  misfortune  to  Jose  bis  eye-sight. ; 

Disabled  now  from  public  service,  he  re-assumed,  with 
greater'^igour  than  ever,  the  study  of  the  mathematics 
and  fortification;  and,   in- 1645,  gave  to  the  public  hisv 
'^  Treatise  of  Fortific^ion.''     It  was  allowed  by  all  who 
underatood  the  science,  that  nothing .  superior  had^thear 
appieafed  on  that  subject;  and,  whatever,  improvements 
have  been  made  since,  they  have  been.dedivedin  a  manner 
fi;pm, 'thia  treatise,  as  conclusions  from  their  principles.* 
la! 651  he  published  his  f^  Geometrical  Theorems,",  which 
tkeyf  a  perfect  knowledge  of  all  parts  of  the  mathematics.' 
In  1635  he  printed  a  paraphrase^  in  French,  of  the"  Ac-; 
count,"  in  Spanish,  **  of  the  River  of  the  Amazons,"  by , 
father  de  Rennes,  a  Jesuit ;  and  we  are  aissured,  that  blind; 
as  he  was,  yet  he. drew  the  chart  of  that  river,  and  the 
^tu  adjacent,'  which  }s  seen  in  thi^  work.     Of  tbi^  work 


If  PAGAN. 

•a  Ett^ruh  traosii^kiPi  was  pybli^i^  \>j  W*  Pnn^ilf^ii  i« 

16«1,  8vo. 

.    In  1657  he  pubUAed^'Th^  Tk^^ry  of  the  PUim$^ 

cleared  from  that  jaauUiplkUy  <)f  ^cc^ntvip  ^irf^t^ib  4.nd 
^piQj^oIes,  wbiqh  the  a^t^^ontoneieFs  iiftd  i.Qy^D|e4  \Q  PKpI^in 
Ibeif  flaotioas.'^  This  distiiiguisb^d  hm  amopg  tbq  ^^tf^r 
nomersy  as  much  as  bis  woirk  .on  fprtificatioi)  did  ap^Qrig 
the  engineers;  and  he  printed,  in  l^^9,  bi^  ^'  AstronomiT 
cal  Tables/^  which  are  very  succinct  and  plain.  Bp(,  a« 
few  great  men  are  witboot  their  foible^  that  of  P^gan  W9« 
a  pr/sjudice  iti  favour  of  judicial  astrology  j  apd>  though  b^ 
is  nid'C  reserved  than  most  others,  yet  what  be  wrqt^  ppoH 
that  subject  most  not  be  classed  among  those  prod^ptiQUf 
which  do  honour  to  bis  understanding.  He  was  b^leyed 
and  visited  by  all  persons  illustrious  for  rank,  as  w^U  «» 
science ;  and  his  bouse  was  the  rendezv<ras  of  all  the  poi^ 
lite  and  wprtby  both  in  city  and  ^ourt.  He  died  at  Paris^ 
Nov.  18,  1665,  having  never  been  i^arried.  Tlie  king  or-* 
^ered  bis  first  physician  to  attend  him  in  his  illness,  and 
gavei  severskl  marks  of  the  extraordinary  esteem  which  be 
Sad  for  his  merit. 

His  efaaracter  i^  that  of  an  universal  genius ;  and,  having 
turned .  lumself  entirely  to,  the  art  of  war,  4ind  partioularly 
to  the  branch  bf  fpFti&cation»  be  made  extraordinary  pro-* 
gross  in  it.  He  updisrstood  mathematics,  not  only  bettet 
than  is  usu^  for  a  gentleman  whose  view  is  t^  ri^e  ia  tbe 
aimy,  but  even  to  a  degree  of  perfection  above  that  of  the 
ordin^iry  masters  who  teach  that  sci^nqe.  He  bad  ao  p^r-r 
ttcular  a  geuius  for  this  kind  of  learning, :  that  he  ^^tain^d 
a  mor/s  readily  by  meditation  than  by  readings  and  accord^ 
isigly  spent  less  time  on  mathematical  boobs  than  he  did  tQ 
those  of  history  and  gepgrapby.  Hjt  bad  also  mad^  mon 
irfity  -afid  politics  his  particular  study  ;  so  that  he  .may .be 
and  to  have  drawn  his  own  character  in  bis  <^  Hi)mme  He-* 
le'ique,*'  and  ta  have  been  one  of  the  completest  gentle* 
men  of  his  lime.  Louis  XUI.  was  heard  to  /say  several 
times,  that  the  count  de  Pagan  wsas  one  q(  the  most  worthy, 
most  adtoit,  and  most  valiant  men  in  his  kingdom.  Thai 
branch  of  bi&  family  which  removed  from  Naples  to  Fransit 
in  1552,  beoame  extinct  ip  his  person. ' 

PAGE  (WiLiOAM },  an  English  divine,  was  born  in  .14^90, 
at  Harroar  on  the  Hill,  Middlesex,  and  entered  of  Saliot 
■     :  .       ,        .        •'  '.     ^  •    •  , 


P  A  G  5.  IT 

tolUge^  OicFord,  in  1606.  Here  be  took  bis  AegreH  Itt 
arts,  and  in  1619  was  csbosen  fellow  of  All  Souli.  In  1629| 
hy  tbe  interest  of  Laud,  be  succeeded  Dr.  Denlsoo»  as 
master  of  the  free  scbool  of  Reading.  lit  1 634  be  was  ad*' 
mitted  D.  D.  but  ten  years  aftef  was  deprived  of  bis  school 
by  the  parliamentary  commissioners  for  Berkshire*  He 
held,  however,  the  rectory  of  East  Locking  in  that  county^ 
to  which  he  bad  been  presented  by  his  college,  until  his 
deathy  which  happened  Feb.  14, 1663,  at  the  rectory-bouse* 
He  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  his  own  church.  At  the 
restoration  he  had  obtained  a  writ  of  restitution  to  the 
school^  which  was  publicly  read,  he  being  present,  as  ap« 
pears  by  the  diary  of  the  corporation ;  but,  after  some  de^ 
bate  it  was  carried  that  Mr.  Singleton,  the  then  mftster^ 
should  have  notice  hefore  an  answer  was  resolved,upon ; 
and  it  appears  that  Mr.  Singleton  was  confirmed  in  the 
place,  being  the  sixth  person  who  held  it  after  Page. 

Dr.  Page  was  thought  well  versed  in  the  Greek  fathers^ 
an  able  disputant,  and  a. good  preacher.  He  wrote  *^  A 
Treatise  of  justification  of  Bowing  at  the  name  of  Jesus,  by 
way  of  answer  to  an  appendix  against  it,''  Oxford,  1631^ 
4to ;  and  an  *^  Examination  of  such  considerable  reasons  as> 
are  made  by  Mr.  Prynne  ina  reply  to  Mr.  Widdowes  con« 
cerning  %he  same  argument,"  printed  with  the  former. 
The  fate  of  this  publication  was  somewhat  singular.  The 
point  in  dispute  was  at  this  time  eagerly  contested.  Arch^  , 
bishop  Abbot  did  not  think  it  oT  sufficient  importat^^^  to 
be  allowed  to  disturb  the  peace  of  the  church,  and,  by  bis 
^secretary,  advised  Dr.  Page  to  withdraw  his  work  from  the 
press^  if  already  in  it.  Laud,  on  the  contrary,  who  was  , 
then  bishop  of  London,  ordered  it  to  be  printed,  viewing^ 
the  question  as  a  matter  of,  importance,  it  being  a  defence 
of  a  canon  of  the  church ;  and  it  accordingly  appeared% 
Dr.  Page  wi^  also  the  author  of  ^*  (Certain  animadversions 
upon  some  passages  in  a  Tract  concerning  Schism  and 
Schismatics,*'  by  Mr.  Hales  of  Eton,  Oxon.  1642,  4to; 
^^  The  Peace  Maker,  or  a  brief  motive  to  unity  and  charity 
in  Religion,'V  Loud.  1652,  16mo;  a  single  sermon,  and  a 
translation  of  Thomas  a  Kempis,  1639,  12mo,  With  a  large 
epistle  to  the  reader.  Wood  mentions  '^  Jus  Fratrum,  or 
the  Law  of  Brethren,*'  but  is  doubtful  whether  this  belongs 
to  our  Dr.  Page,  or  to  Dr.  Samuel  Page,  vicar  of  Dept- 
ford,  who  died  in  1630,  and  was  the  author  of  some  pious 
trac,ts.     It  belongs,  however,  ^  to  neither,  but  to  a  John 

Vol.  XXIV.  G 


18  P  A  G  I. 

Page,  probably  a  lawyer,  as' the  subject  is  the  pcwrer  of 
parents  in  .disposing  of  their  estates  to  their  children. ' 

PAGI  (Anthony),  a  famous  Cordelier,  and  one  of  the 
ablest  critics  of  hii  time,  was  bom  at  Rognes,  a  small  town 
in  Provence,  March  31,  1624.  He  took  the  monk^s  habit 
in  the  convent  of  the  Cordeliers  at  Aries,  and  professed 
himself  there  in  1641.  After  he  had  finished  the  usual 
course  of  studies  in  philosophy  and  divinity,  he  preached 
some  time,  and  was  at  length  made  four  times  provincial 
of  his  order.  These  occupations  did  not  hinder  him  from 
applying  to  chronology«and  ecclesiastical  history,  in  which 
he  excelled.  He  printed  in  the  Journal  des  Savans,  Nov* 
11,  1686,  a  learned  <'  Dissertation  upon  the  Consular  Of*- 
fice/'  in  which  he  pretends  to  have  discovered  the  rules, 
according  to  which  the  Roman  emperors  took  the  dignity 
of  consul  at  some  certain  times  more  than  others,  but  in 
this  he  is  not  thought  to  have  been  successful.  His  most 
considerable  work  is  ^*  A  Critique  upon  the  Annals  of  Ba- 
ronius;*'  in  which  he  has  rectified  an  infinite  number  of 
mistakes,  both  in  chronology  and  in  facts.  He  published 
the  first  volume  of  this  work,  containing  the  first  four  cen« 
turies,  at  Paris,  in  1689 ;  with  a  dedication  to  the  clergy 
of  France,  who  allowed  him  a  pension:  The  whole  work 
was  printed  after  his  death,  in  four  volumes,  folio,  at  Ge« 
neva,  in  1705,  by  the  care  of  his  nephew,  fdther  Francis 
Pagi;  of  the  same  order.  It  is^  carried  to  the  year  1198, 
where  Baronius  ends.  Pagi  was  greatly  assisted  in  it  by 
the  di>h6  Longuerue,  who  also  wrote  the  eloge  of  our 
author,  which  is  prefixed  to  the  Geneva  edition.  Another 
edition  was  published  at  Geneva  in  1727,  It  is  a  work  of 
great  utility,  but  the  author's  chronology  of  the  popes  of 
the  first  three  centuries  is  not  approved  by  the  learnedi 
He  has  also  prefixed  a  piece  concerning  a  new  chronolo-^ 
gical  period,  which  he  calls  ^^  Graeco-Romana,"  and  uses 
for  adjusting  all  the  different  epochas,  whiph  is  not  with* 
out  its  inconveniences.  Our  author  wrote  some  other - 
works  of  inferior  note  before  his  death,  at  Aix,  in  Provence, 
J^ne  7,  1699.  His  character  is  that  of  a  very  able  bisto- 
.  rian,  and  a  learned  and  candid  critic.  His  style  has  all  the 
simplicity  and  plainness  which  suits  a  chronological  narra-- 
tion.  He  held  a  correspondence  with  several  learned  men, 
as  Stillingfleet,  Spanheim,  Cuper,  Dodwell,  the  cardinal 
Noris,  &c.  •  ' 

1  Ath.  Ox.-^Coate8'8  Hist,  of  Reading. 
£.  ^  Chaufepie,-^i«eroD,  toU  I. — Moreri.— Dupia. 


P  A  G  t  19 

.  t^AOl  (FltAKcis)^  nephew  of  the  pretledtdgi  was  born 
ftl  Lambeso  in  Pravenice  Sept.  7, 1654.  The  Extraordinary 
inclination  that  appeared  in  his  infancy  for  polite  learning 
induced  bis  parents  to  send  him  tostudy^  among  the  priests 
of  the  oratory,  at  Toulon  ;  where  he  soon  made  so  great  a 
proficiency,  that  his  uncle^  Anthony  Pagi,  sent  for  him  to 
Aix,  where  he  then  resided.  The  conversation  of  his  uncle  ia-> 
spired  him  with  a  desire  of  devoting  himself  to  the  churchy 
and  accordingly  he  enteredanto  the  order  of  the  Cordeliers, 
and  made  bis  profession.  After  having  taught  philosophy 
in  several  convents,  he  desired  to  return  to  his  uncle  at 
Aix;  and,  having  obtained  leave,  remained  studying  under 
bis  directions  for  several  years;  and  assisted  him  in  his 
^*  Critique  upon  Baronius's  Annal»  ;'*  of  which^  as  w^  have 
mehtioned  in' the  preceding  article,  he  became  the  editor. 
Father  Francis  afterwards  Ifiid  the  plan  of  another  work, 
which  he  published  under  the  title  *^  Breviarium  Historico* 
cbronologico-criticum,  illustriora  pontiBcum  Romanorum 
gesta,  conciliorum  genemlium  acta,-  nee  non  complura  turn 
sacrorum  rituum^  turn  antiquae  ecclesis  disciplinse,  capita 
compiectens,''  4  vols.  4to,  1717,  &c.  In  this  be  discovers 
the  most  bigoted  zeal  for  the  Ultramontane  theology,  and 
every  thing  which  exalts  the  authority  of  the  pope.  A  long 
illness,  brought  on  by  a  fall,  prevented  his  finishing  the 
last  volume,  which  was  not  published  Until  1727,  six  years 
after  hia  death,  which  took  placd  Jan.  21,  1721'.  ^ 

•  PAGIT,  or  rather' PAGET  (Eusebius),  a  Puritan  di- 
vine^ was  bom  at  Cranford  in  Northamptonshire,  about 
1542,  and  at  the  age  of  twelve  years  came  to  Oxford, 
where  he  was  first  choirister,  and  afterwards  student  of 
Christ  Church.  He  made,  according  to  Wood,  a  coush 
derable  progress  in  logic  and  philosophy,  but^  although  -a 
noted  sopbister,  left  the  university  without  taking  a  degree. 
As  Wood  passes  immediately  to  his  being  presented  to  the 
rectory  of  St  Anne^s,  Aldersgate-str^etj  that  biographer 
seems  to  have  known  nothing  of  the  intermediate  events* 
On  his  leaving  Oxford,  he  became  vicar  of  Oundle,  and 
rector  of  Langton  in  his  native  county,  where,  in  1573,  he 
was  first  prosecuted  for  nonconformity.  He  was  afterwards 
preferred  to  the  rectory  of  Kilkhampton  in  Cornwall,  and 
althou^  1m  bad  acquainted  both  his?  patron  and  ordinary 
that  there  were  some  things  in  the  book  of  Common  Prayer 

>  Cbanfepie.— -Bibl.  Gemumlqae,  vol,  m.-^Niceron,  toI.  V!. 

C  2 


so  P  A  G  r  T. 

wttb  which  he  could  not  comply,  aod  they  had  proflii^ed, 
that  if  he  would  accept  the  cure,  he  should  not  be  mo* 
tested  on  that  account,  yet  a  prosecution  was  commenced 
against  him,  which  ended  in  his  losing  all  his  prefermrents^ 
and  even  a  school  which  he  attempted  to  establish  for  his 
maintenance.  This  appeared  particularly  hard  in  his  case, 
as,  according  to  every  authority,  he  was  ^*  a  learned,  peace- 
able, and  good  divine,  who  had  formerly  complied  with 
the  customs  and  devotionsT  of  the  church,  and  had  been  in- 
defatigable in  the  ministry.*'  He  appears  to  have  remained 
some  years  under  ecclesiastical  censure ;  but  at  last,  in 
September  1604,  was  promoted  to  the  rectory  of  St^Anne 
and  St.  Agnes,  Aldersgate-street,  which  he  held  till  his 
death  in  May  1617,  in  the  seventy- fifth  year  of  bis  age. 
His  remains  were  interred  in  this  church.  An  account  of 
his  prosecution  may  be  seen  in  the  Harleian  MSS.  813,  fo(* 
14,  b.  and  an  abridgment  of  it  iit  NeaPs  '^  History  of  the 
Puritans."  He  was  the  author  of  a  sermon  **  on  Tithes  ;!V 
another  '^  of  Election  ;^'  a  Latin  ^'  Catechism,"  Lond, 
1591,  8vo ;  a  translation  of  Calvin's  *' Harmony  of  the 
Gospels,"  ibid.  1584,  4to;  and  <' The  History  of  the  Bible, 
briefly  collected,  by  way  of  question  and  answer."  It  does 
not  appear  when  this  first  appeared,  but  it  was  afterwarda 
printed  at  the  end  of  several  of  tbe  old  editions  of  the 
Bible. 

He  had  a  son  Eprraim,  who  was  bom  in  1575,  and 
educated  also  at  Christ  Church,  where  he  became,  so  un- 
common a  proficient  in  languages,  that  at  the  age  of  twen- 
ty-six, he  is  said  to  have  understood  and  written  fifteen  of 
sixteen,  ancient  and  modern.  His  only  preferment  was  to^ 
tbe  church  of  St.  Edmund  the  King,  Lombard-street, 
London,  from  which  he  was  driven  by  tbe  usurping  party, 
for  bis  loyalty.  In  religious  sentiments  he  does  not  appear 
to  have  diflPered  from  his  father;  but  he  adhered  to  the 
king  and  constitution,  which  was  then  an  unpardonable 
crime.  He  retired  to  Deptford  in  Kent,  where  be  died  in 
April  1647,  aged  seventy- twa  In  addition  to  the  other 
causes  of  his  sufferings,  he  wrote  much  against  the  Inde- 
liendents,  baptists,  and  other  sectaries,  as  appears  by  his 
*' Heresiograpby ;"  yet,  in  1645,  two  years  before  his 
death,  he  united  with  his  brethren  in  London,  in  petitioh« 
ing^parliament  for  the  establishment  of  the  Presbytieriaii^ 
discipline,  which,  be  thought  better  than  none.  He  wrote 
some  books  di^t  are  still  valued  as  curiosities,  particularly 


I*  A  G  I  T.  «l 

liig  **  Christianographia,  or  a  description  of  the  inultttudes 
and  sundry  sorts  of  Christians  in  the  world,  not  subject  to 
the  pope,"  &c.  Lond.  1635,  4to,  often  reprinted,  witli 
(in  soaie  of  the  editions)  a  ^^  Treatise  of  the  religion  of 
the  ancient  Christians  in  Britany  ;*^  and  his  '*  Hseresio** 
graphia,  or  a  description  of  the  Heresies  of  later  times,** 
ibid.  1645,  &c.  4to.  Of  this  there  have  been  at  least  four 
editions.^ 

PAGNINUS  (Sanctbs),  an  Italian  of  great  iikill  in 
Oriental  languages  and  biblical  learning,  was  born  at  Lucca 
in  1466,  and  afterwards  became  an  ecclesiastic  of  the  order 
of  St.  Dominic,  and  resided  for  the  greater  part  of  his  life 
ai  Lyons.  He  was  deeply  and  accurately  skilled  in  the 
Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  Chaldee,  and  Ailabic  tongues,  but 
especially  in  the  Hebrew.  In  the  course  of  his  studies  he 
was  led  to  conceive  that  the  Vulgate  translation  of  the 
Scriptures  was  either  not  by  Jerome,  or  greatly  corrupted  ;.' 
and  he  therefore  undertook  to  make  a  new  one,  following 
Jerom  only  where  he  conceived  that  his  version  corre*^ 
sponded  with  the  original.  This  design,  so  very  soon  aftiet 
the  restoration  of  letters,  is  calculated  to  give  us  a  very 
high  opinion  of  Pagninus^s  courage  and  learning,  and  ap» 
pieared  in  so  favourable  a  light  to  pope  Leo  X.  that  be 
promised  to  furnish  him  with  all  necessary  expences  for 
completing  the  work ;  and  he  was  likewise  encouraged  in 
his  labours  by  the  succeeding  popes,  Hadrian  VI.  and 
Clement  VII.  who  licensed  the  printing  of  it.  It  appears, 
by  a  letter  of  Picus  Mirandula  to  Pagninus,  that  he  had 
spent  twenty-pve  years  upon  this  translation.  It  is  the 
first  modern  translation  of  the  Bible  from  the  Hebrew 
tfext;  and  the  Jews  who  read  it  affirmed,  that  it  agreed 
entirely  with  the  Hebrew,  and  was  as  faithful,  and  more 
exact  than  the  ancient  translations.  The  .great  fault  of 
Pagninus  was,  that  he  adhered  too  closely  and  servilely  to 
the  original  text ;  and  this  scrupulous  attachment  made 
his  translation,  says  father  Simon,  ^^  obscure,  barbarous, 
and  full  of  solecisms.  He  imagined,  that,  to  make  a  faith- 
ful translation  of  the  Scriptures,  it  was  necessary  to  follow 
exactly  the  letter,  according  to  the  strictness  of  grammar. 
This,  however,  is  quite  contrary  to  his  pretended  exact- 
ness, because  two  languages  seldom  agree  in  their  waj^s  of 

•  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  and  II.— Brook's  Lives  of  the  Pttritans.<^Faller*8  Wor- 
Uaies.— Lloyd's  Worthies,  foiio,  jp.  5lO..*Strype>i  Life  of  Wtuf gift,  p,  STT. 


* .'.. 


.V  * 


J2«  P  A  G  N  I  N  U  S. 

speaking  ;  and  therefore,  instead  ojF  expressing  the  origi- 
nal in  its  proper  purity,  he  defaces  iindxobs  it  of  its  oraa^ 
ments."  Father  Simon,  nevertheless,  allows  the  great 
abilities  and  learning. of  Pagninus;  and  all  the  later  eoni* 
mentatorsi and  translators  of  the  Scriptures  have  agreed  in 
giving  him  his  just  coamiendation.  Huetius,  though  he 
e^epis  to  think  father  r  Simon's  criticism  of  him  well 
grounded,  yet  makes  no^  scruple  to  propose  his  manner 
ds  a  model  for  all  translators  of  the  sacred  books  :  ^^  Scrip-t 
turpa  interpretandaB  rationibus  utile  nobis  exemplar  propo« 
suit.Sanctus  Pagninus." 

.  Pe  afterwards  translated  the  "  New  Testament"  from 
the  Qreek,  and  dedicated  it  to  pope  Clement  VII.  It  was 
printed  with  the  former  at  Lyon^  in  1528.  He  w^s  also 
the  author  of  an  ^*  Hebrew  Lexicon  and  an  Hebrew  Grapi'* 
inar ; .  which  Buxtorf,.  who  calls  him  ^^  Vir  linguarum  Ori-*- 
eiitalium  peritissimus,"  made  great  use  of  in  compiling 
bis.  He  died  in  1536,  aged  seventy.  Saxius  places  hi$ 
bjirthjn.I47J,  and  his  death  in  1541.  Though  he  appears 
to  have  lived  and  died  a  bigoted  Catholic,  Luther  spoke 
o^  him,  and  his  translations^  in  term3  of  the  highest  ap^r 
pjause.  * 

PAJDN  (Claude),  a  French  Protestant  divine,  was  born 
in  16^,6,  and  studii^d,  with  great,  success  and  approbation, 
at  Saumur;  after  which  he  becaine  minister  of  a  place 
C;alled  .Marcheiloir  in  the  province  of  Dunois.  He  was,an 
able  advocate  against  tb^  popish  party,  as  appears  by  bis 
best. work,  against  father. Nicole,  entitled  "  Examen  du 
Livre  qui  porte  pour  titre,  Prejugez  legitimes  contre  les 
Calvinistes,"  2  vols.  1673,  12mo.  Mosheim  therefore  very 
improperly  places  him  in  the  class  of  those  who  explained 
the. doctrines  of  Christianity  in  such  a  manner  as  to  dimi^ 
nish  the  4ifference  between  the  doctrines  of  the  reformed 
aitd  papal  churches ;  since  this  work  shews  that  few  men 
l^rote  at  that  time  with  more  learnings  zeal,  and  judgment 
against  popery,  Pajon,  however,  created  so;ne  disturbance 
in  the  x:hurch,  and  became  very  unpopular,  by  explaining 
certain,  doctrines,  concerning  the  influence  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  in  the  j^i'niinian  way,  and  had  a  controversy  with 
Jmrieu  on.  this  subject.  The  consequence  was,  that  Pajoo, 
who  had  been  elected  pjrofes^or  of  divinity  at  Saumur> 
found  it  necessary  to  resign  that  oiBce ;  after  which  he 

1  Moreri  in  Sanctes.— Le  Long  Bibl.  Sacra. 


1 


•''■••*  "•  '^.  ■' 

v. 7    ..•■':. 

,     1»  A  J  O  N.  ti 

resided  at  Orleann^^s^pastor,  and  died  there  Sept.  27,  1685, 
in  tbe  sixtieth  jrenr  of  his  age.  He  left  a  great  many  works 
in  manuscript ;  none  of  which  have  been  printed,  owing 
partly  to^his  unp^ularity,  bat,  perhaps,  principally  to  his 
two  sons  becoming  Roman  Catholics.  A  full  aecount  of  his 
opinions  may  be  seen  in  Mosheim,  or  in  the  first  of  ouf 
authorities. ' 

PAJOT  (LEWis-tEO),  Count  d'Ansembray,  a  French 
nobleman,  was  bom  at  Pariit  in  1678.  During  his  education 
he  discovered  an  inclination  for  mathematical  pursuits^ 
and  was  instructed  in  the  philosophy  of  Des  Cartes. 
After  this  he  increased  his  knowledge  by  an  acquaint^ 
ance  with  Hirygens,  Kuysh,  Boerhaave,  and  other  eminent 
men  of  tbe  time.  On  his  return  from  his  travels  he  wa^ 
apfiointed  director»general  of  the  posts  in  France;  but^ 
coming  into  possession  of  a  country-seat  at  Bercy,  by  the 
death  of  his  father,  be  collected  a  museum  there  furnished 
with  philosophical  and  mechanical,  instruments,  and.  ma- 
chines of  every  description,  which  attracted  the  attention 
of  the  learned,  and  was  visited  by  Peter  the  Great,  the 
emperor  of  Germany,  and  other  princes.  In  the  Trans^ 
actions  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  of  which  he  was  a 
member,  ^there  are  several  of  his  papers ;  among  which  is 
a  description  of  an  ^^  Instrument  for  the  Measurement  of 
Liquids  ;"  -^of  "  An  Areometer,  or  Wind  Gage  ;*'  and  of  a 
<f  Machine  for  beating  regular  Time  in  Music/'  He  died 
in  1753,  bequeathing  his  valuable  museum  to  tbe  .aca- 
demy. *  ' 

PAINE  (Thomas),  a  political,  and  infidel  writer  of  great 
notoriety,  was  born  in  1737,  ^t.Thetford,  in  Norfolk. 
His  father  was-  a  staymaker,  a  business  which  he  hinmelf 
carried  on  during  his  early  years  at.  London,  Dover,  and 
Sandwich.  He  afterwards  became  an  exciseman  and  gro*- 
cer,  at  Lewes  in  Sussex ;  and,  upon  the  occasion  of  an 
election  at  Shoreham,  in  17T1,  is  said  to  have  written  an 
election  song.  In  the  following  year  he  wrote  a  pamphlet^, 
recommending  an  application  to  parliament  for  the  in- 
crease qf  the  salaries  of  excisemen;  butj  for  some  misde" 
meanours,  was  himself  dismissed  from  his  office  in  1774, 
In  the  mean  time,  the  ability ;  displayed  in  his  pamphlet 
attracted  the  notice  of  one  of  the  commissioners;  of  excise, 

1  Chanfepie. — Moreri.-^Blpunt's  Censura-.— -Saxii.  OiiQEQask 
*  Dicr.  Hist. 


■y. 


«♦  PAINE. 

who  sent  him  to  America,  with  a  strong  recoannendation 
to  Dr.  Franklfn,  as  a  person  who  could  be  serviceable  at 
tb4t  time  in  America.  What  services  were  expected  from 
faimi  we  know  not,  but  he  arrived  at  a  time  when  the 
Americans  were  prepared  for  the  revolution  which  followed^ 
und  which  he  is  supposed  to  have  promoted,  by  scatterinpr 
among  the  discontented  his  memorable  pamphlet,  entitled 
^*  Common  Sense.'* 

His  first  engagement  in  Philadelphia  was  with  a  book- 
Mler,  who  employed  him  aa  editor  of  the  Philadelphia 
«M&ga!aine,  for.which  he  had  an  annual  salary  of  fifty  pounds 
currency.  When  Dr.  Rush  of  that  city  suggested  to  Paine 
the  propriety  of  preparing  the  Americans  for  a  separation 
from  Great  Britain,  he.  seized  with  avidity  the  idea,  and 
immediately  began  the  above  mentioned  pamphlet,  which^ 
when  finished,  was  shewn  in  manuscript  to  Dr.  Franklin 
and  Mr.  Samuel  Adams,  and  entitled,  after  some  discus- 
sion, ^^  Common  Sense,''  at  the  suggestion  of  Dr.  Rush; 
For  this  he  received  from  the  legislature  of  Pennsylvania, 
the  sum  of  500/.;  and  soon  after  this,  although  devoid  of 
€very.  thing  that  could  be  called  literature,  he  was  honoured 
with  a  degree  of  M.^A.  from  the  university  of.  Pennsylva- 
Dia,  and  was  chosen  a  member  ojf  the  American  Philoso* 
phical  Society. .  In  the  title-page  of  his  l<  Rights  of  Man,*' 
be  styled  himself  .'^  Secretary  for  foreign  aflairs  to  tb^ 
Congress  of  the  United  States,  in  theJate  war.*'  To  this 
title,  however,  he  had  no  pretensions,  and  so  thorough  a 
Republican  ought  at  least  to  have  avoided  assuming  what  he 
condemned  so  vehemently  in  others.  He  was  merely  a 
clerk,  at  a  very  low  salary,  to  a  committee  of  the  congress ; 
and  h>s  business  was  to  copy  papers,  and  number  and  file 
them.  Froni  this  office,  however^  insignificant  as  it  was, 
he  was  dismissed  for  a  scandalous  breach  of  trust,  and  then 
hired  himself  as  a  clerk  to  Mr.  Owen  Biddle  of  PbiladeU 
pbia;  and  early  in  1780,  the  assembly  of  Pennsylvania 
chose  him  as  clerk.  In  1782  he  printed  at  Philadelphia^ 
a. letter  to  the  abb^  Raynal  on  the  affairs  of  North  Ame- 
r  ca,  in  which  he  undertook  to  clear  up  the  mistakes  in 
Baynal's  account  of  the  revolution ;  and  in  the  same  year 
he  ailso  printed  a  letter  to  the  earl  of  Shelburne,  on  his 
^peeph  in  parliament,  July  10,  1782,  in  which  that  noble<«' 
man  bad  piophesied  that,  <<  When  Great  Britain  shall  ac- 
knowledipfK  American  independence,'  the  sun  of  Britain^s 
glory  is  set  for  evc^r."     It  could  not  be  difllcult  to  answer 


PAINE.  25 

•ocfa  a  prediction  a$  this/ which  affords  indeed  a  humilia« 
ting  instance  of  want  of  poKtieal  foresight.  Grfeat  Britaia 
did  acknowledge  American  independence,  and  what  is 
Great  Brimn  now?  Inl7S5y  as  a  compensation  for  his 
revolutionary  writings,  congress  granted  him  three  thou« 
jsand  dollars,  after  having  rejected  with  great  indignation 
a  motion  for  appointing  him  historiographer  to  the  United 
Sutes,  with  a  salary.  Two  only  of  the  states  noticed  by 
gratuities  his  revolutionary  writings.  Pennsylvania  gave 
him,  as  we  have  mentioned,  SOOL  currency;  and  N^ew* 
York  gave  him  an  estate  of  more  than  three  hundred  acres^  I 
in  high  cultivation,  which  was  perhaps  the  more  agreeable 
to  him,  as  it  was  the  conBscated  property  of  a  royalist.  In 
1787  he  came  to  London,  and  before  the  end  of  that  year 
published  a  pamphlet  on  the  recent  transactions  between 
Great  Britain  and  Holland,  entitled  *' Prospects. on  tb^ 
Hubicoti.'*  In  this,  as  may  be  eicpected,  he  censured  the 
measures  of  the  English  administration. 

He  had  long  cherished  in  his  mind  a  most  cordial  hatred 
against  his  native  country,  and  was  now  prepared  in  some 
measure  for  that  systematic  attack  on  her  happiness  which 
he  carried  on,  at  interVaU,  during  the  remainder  of  hit 
life.  Being  released,  iu  November  1789,  from  a  spong- 
ing-house  where  he  was  confined  for  debt,  heheheld  with 
delight  the  proceedings  of  the  French,  and  hastened  to  that 
country,  but  made  no  long  stay  at  this  time;  and  finding, 
on  his  return  to  London  in  1790,  Mr.  Burke^s  celebrated 
work  on  the  French  revolution,  he  produced,  within  a  few 
months,  the  first  part  of  his  ^^  Rights  of  Man,"  and  in  1792, 
the  second  part.  Had  these  been  left  to  the  natural  de- 
mand of  the  public,  it  is  probable  they  might  have  passed 
unnoticed  by  government,  but  the  industry  with  which 
they  were  circulated  by  the  democratic  societies  of  that 
period,  among  the  lower  classes  of  society,  betrayed  inten- 
tions which  it  would  have  been  criminal  to  overlook  ;  and 
prosecutions  were  accordingly  instituted  against  the  author 
and  publishers.  The  author  made  his  escape  to  France, 
and  never  returned  to  this  country  more.  His  inveteracy 
against  her  establishments,  however,  continued  unabated, 
and  perhaps  was  aggravated  by  the  verdict  whicli  expelled 
him-  from  the  only  nation  where  he  wished  to  propagate 
his  disorganizing  doctrines,  and  where  he  had  at  that 
time  many  abettors.  When  the  proceedings  of  the  latr 
ter  had  roused  the  loyal  part  of  the  nation  to  address  the 


26  PAINE, 

Ibrone  in  behalf  of  pur  constitiition,  Paine  published  ^^  A 
Letter  to  the  Addressers/'  the  object  of  wbkh  was  to  pror 
cure  a  natk>Qal  coxivention  in  conteoipt  of  die  parliaments 
This. likewise  was  circulated  by  his  partizans  with  no  small 
industry.  In  the  mean  trnoe,  although  ignorant  of  the 
French  langiiege,  b.e  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  French 
conventipn,  and  in  consistency  with  his  avowed  malignity^ 
gave  his  vote  for  a  declaration  of  war  against  Great  Britain^ 
His  adopted  country,  however,  was  not  very  grateful  for 
his  services,  for  when  Robespierre  gained  the  ascendancy, 
he  sent  Paine,  with  that  mad  enthusiast  Anacharsts  Cloots, 
to  prison  at  the  Luxemburgb,.  and  Paine  narrowly  escaped 
hieing  guillotined,  amidst  the  hundreds  whof'  then  under* 
went  tbf^t  fate,  or  were  murdered  in  other  ways. 

During  his  confinsement,  which  lasted  eleven  months,  he 
certainly  merited  the  praise  .of  his  friends^  for  his  calm 
unconcern,  and  bis  philosophy ;  a^d  they  no  doubt  would 
rejoice  to  hear  that  he  passed  those  hours  of  danger  in 
^'  defying  the  armies  of  the  living  God,''  by  his  blasphe- 
mous composition  called  >^  The  Age  of  Reason,*'  the  first 
part  of  which  was  published  at  London  in  1794,  and  the 
jsecoud  the  year  following. .  If  any  thing  can  exceed  the 
Biischievous  intention  of  this  attack  on  revealed  religion, 
and  which  certainly  produced  very  alarming  effects^  on  the 
minds  of  many  of  the  lower  classes,  among  whom  it  was 
liberally  circulated,  it  was  the  ignorance  of  which  his  an<^ 
swerers  have  convicted  him  in  every  species  of  knowledge 
pecessary  for  .a  discussion  of  the  kind  *. 

His  subsequent  publications  were  ^^The  Decline  and 
Fall  of  the;  English  system  of  Finance;"  a  most  impudent 
letter  to  general  Washington,  whom  he  had  the  ingratitude 
■.,      .  .        .    ■  '•   .  '    .  .■'-.. 

'*  Should  our  language  in  speaking  writer.  His  excess  of  folly  will  be  la- 
6^  Paine's  ignorance  and  arrogance^  mented  by  all  his  friends,  not  estrang- 
appear  too  barsh>  the  reader  who  is  of  ed,  like  himself,  from  shame  and  mo- 
that  opinion,  may  exchange  it  for  what  desty ;  and  his  enemies  will  re^d  bif 
Mr.  GHbert  Wakefield  has  said  of  the  outrageous  Taunts,  united  to  such  an 
tecond  part  of  his  "  Age  of  Reason :"  excess  of  ignorance  and  stupor,  with 
"  Every  man  who  feels  himself  .solicit  that  pleasure,  which  results  from  a  just 
tous  for  the  dignity  of  human  nature,  expression  of  mingled  abhorrence,  de- 
who  glories  in  the  prerogative  of  ra-  rislon,  and  contempt.  For  my  part, 
tiooality,  or  is  charmed  by  tbe  loveli-  his  unprecedented  ii^fatnatioii  almost 
ness  of  virtue,  will  observe,  with  hu-  strikes  me  dumb  with  amazement.  I 
miliating  sympathy,  a  debasement'  of  am  not  acquainted  with  such  a  corn- 
bis  species,  in  the  most  asfonishing,  pound  of  vanity  and  Ignorance  as 
Qjnprincipled,  and  unparalleleii  arro-  Thomas  Paine,  in  the  records  of  lite- 
gance,  to  the  last,  of  such  a  cobtemp-  rary  history.'' 
tuous,    self-opinionated, '  ill-i&fbrmed 


PAINS.  tr 

to  revile  as  an  apostate  and  impostor.  ^^  Ag^rarian  Justfee 
opposed  to  Agrarian  law,  and  to  Agrarian  Monopoly;*' 
^f  Letter  to  Mr.*  Erskine  on  the  prosecution  of  T.  Williamfly 
for  publishing  the  Age*  of  Reason."  He  cimtinued  in 
France  till  1803,  <<  drunk,"  as  his  biographer  informs  us, 
^^evety  day,  imxiiig  with  the  lowest  company,' and  ito 
61tfay  in  his  person,  as  to  he  avoided  by  all  men  of  decency. 
JEiifl  habitoal  drunkenness  seems  to  have  commenced  with 
the  delirium  of  the  French  revolution,  and.  the  practice 
gained  upon-  him  while  in  London."  Tired  at  length  with  . 
£rance,  which  now  had  nothing  of  a  republic  left,  be 
wished  to  return  to  America,  but  knew  not  well  what  to  do 
with  himsel£  He  could  not  return  to  England,  where  he 
had.  been  outlawed,  and  tie  was  aware  that  he  was  odious  in 
the  United  States,  where  Washington  had  justly  considered 
bim  as  an  anarchist  in  government,  and  an  infidel  in  religion. 
fie  had  no  country  in  the  world,  and  it  nay  be  truly  said 
he  had  not  a  friend.  He  was  obliged,  however,  to  return 
to  the  United  States,  where  bis  farm,  no^  greatly  in- 
creased in  value,  would  supply  all  bis  waifts. 

In  Oct.  1802,  accordingly,  be  arrived  at  Baltimore,  under 
the  protectionof  the  president  Jefferson,  but  was  no  longer 
an  object  of  curiosity,  unless  among  the  lower  classes  di 
emigrants  from  England,  Scotland,  or  Ireland.  With  them, 
it  appears,  *^  he  drank  grog  in  the  tap^room,  morning, 
noon,  and  night,  admired  and  praised,  strutting  and  istag- 
gering  about,  showing  himself  to  all,  and  shaking  hands 
with  all;  but  the  leaders  of  the  party  to  which  he  had' at- 
tached himself  paid  him  no  attention.^'  He  had  brought 
ivith  him  to  America  a  woman,  named  madaine  Bonneville, 
whom  he  had  seduced  from  her  husband,  with  her  twb 
sons;  and  whom  he  seems  to  have  treated  with  the  utmost 
meanness  and  tyranny.  By  what  charms  he  had  seduced 
this  lady,  we  are  not  told.  He  was  now  sixty-five  years 
old,  diseased  in  body  from  habitual  drunkenness,  and  gross 
in  manners;  It  would  be  too  disgusting  to  follow  bis  bio- 
grapher in  his  description  of  the  personal  viced  of  this  man. 
It  may  sufice  that  he  appeared  for  many  months  before  his 
death  to  be  sunk  to  the  lowest  state  of  brutality. 

The  closing  scene  of  his  life,  as  related  by  his  medical 
attendant.  Dr.  Manley,  is  too  instructive  and  adinonitory 
to  be  omitted.  *^  During  the  latter  part  of  his  life,"  says 
this  physician,  *'  though  his  conversation  was  equivocal^  his 
conduct  was  singulaTi,    He  would-  not  bie  left  alone  night 


28  .?  A  I  N  E. 

or  day.  He  not  only  required  to  have  som^  penon  with 
hiniy  but  be  must  see  that  be  or  she  was  there,  and  would 
not  allow  .bis  curtain  to  be  closed  at  any  time;  and  if,  i^ 
it  would  sometimes  unavoidably  happen,  he  was  left  alone, 
be  would  scream  and  holla,  until  some  person  came  to  him. 
When  relief  from  pain  would  admit,  he  seemed  thougfatful 
and  contemplative,  his  eyes  being  generally  closed,  anA 
bi$,  hands  folded  upon  his  breast,  although  be  never  slept 
without  the  aa»stance  of  an  anodyne.  There  was  some^ 
thing  remarkable  in  bis  conduct  about  this  period  (which 
coqnprises  about  two  weeks  immediately  preceding  his 
death),  particularly  when  we  reflect,  that  Thomas  Paine  was 
author  of  the  /'  Age  of  Reason.'*  He  would  call  out  durins 
his^  paroxysms  of  distress,  without  intermission,  <  O  Lord 
help  me,  God  help  me,  Jesus  Christ  help  me,  O  Lord  help 
ine/  &c.  repeating  the  same  expression  without  any  the 
least  variation,  in  a  tone  of  voice  that  would  alarm  the 
bouse.  It  was  this  conduct  which  induced. me  to  think 
that  be  had  'abandoned  his  former  opinions ;  and  I  was 
more  inclined  to  that  belief,  when  I  understood  from  his 
nurse  (who  is  a  very  serious,  and,  I  believe,  pious  wo- 
man,) that  be  would  occasionally  inquire,  when  be  saw  her 
engaged  with  a  book,  what  she  was  reading,  and  being 
answered,  and  at  the  same  time  asked  whether  she  should 
read  aloud^  he  assented,  and  would  appear  to  give  parti- 
cular attention.  The  book  she  usually  read  was  *  Hobart's 
Companion  for  the  Altar.^ 

^*  I  took  occasion,  during  the  night  of  the  5th  and  6th 
of  June,  to  test  the  strength  of  his  opinions  respecting  re- 
velation, I.  purposely  made  him  a  very  late  visit;  it  was 
a  time  which  seemed  to  sort  exactly  with  my  errand ;  it 
was  midnight ;  be  was  in  great  distress,  constantly  ex- 
claiming in  the  words  above  mentioned ;  when,  after  a 
considerable  preface,  I  addressed  him  in  the  following 
manner,  the  nurse  being  present : 

**  Mr.  Paine,  your  opinions,  by  a  large  portion  of  ike  com* 
munity,  have  been  treated  with  deference :  you  have  never 
been  in  the  habit  of  mixing  in  your  conversation  words  of 
course :  you  have  never  indulged  in  the  practice  of  pro- 
fane swearing  :  you  must  be  sensible  that  we  are  acquainted 
with  your  religious  opinions  as  they  are  given  to  the  world. 
What  must  we  think  of  your  present  conduct  ?  Why  do 
you  call  upon  Jesus  Christ  to  help  you  ?  Do  you  believe 
that  he  can  help  you  ?    Do  you  believe  in  the  divinity  of 


PAINE.  29 

Jesos  Christ  ?  Come  now,  answer  me  honestly;  I  want 
ao  aoswer  as  from  the  lips  of  a  dying  man,  for  I  verily  be- 
lieve that  you  will  not  live  twenty-four  hours.'  I  waited 
some  time  at  the.  end  of  every  question ;  he  did  not  answe)*, 
but  ceased  to  exclaim  in  the  above  manner.  Again  I  ad- 
dressed him :  ^  Mr.  Paine,  you  have  not  answered  my 
questions ;  will  you  answer  them  ?  Allow  me  to  ask  again, 
do  you  believe?  or  let  roe  qualify  the  question,  do  you 
wish  to  believe  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  son  of  God  ?'  After 
a  pause  of  some  minutes,  he  answered,  *  I  have  no  wish 
to  believe  on  that  subject.'  I  then  left  him,  and  know  not 
wliether  he  afterwards  s|)oke  to  any  person,  on  any  subject, 
though  he  lived,  as  I  before  observed,  till  the  morning  of 
the  8  th. 

^<.  Such  conduct,  under  usual  circumstances,  I  conceive 
absolutely  unaccountable,  though  with  diffidence  I  would 
remark,  not  so  much  -so  in  the  present  instance;  for 
though  the  fir$t  necessary  and  general  result  of  conviction 
be  a  sincere  wish  to  atone  for  evil  committed,  yet  it  may 
be  a  question  worthy  of  (U>le  consideration  whether  exces- 
sive pride  of  opinion,  consummate  vanity,  and  inordinate 
self-love,  might  not  prevent  or  retard  that  otherwise  natu- 
ral consequence  ?" 

On  the  8tb  of  June,  1809,  about  nine  in  the  morning, 
died  this  memorable  man,  aged  seventy-two  years  and  five 
months ;  who  at  the  <  close  of  the  eighteenth  century  had 
wefl  nigh  persuaded  the  common  people  of  England  to 
thinky  that  all  was  wrong  in  that  government  and  that  re- 
ligion which  their  forefathers  had  transmitted  to  them,  and 
und^r  which  they  had  enjoyed  so  many  blessings.  He  had 
the  merit  of  discovering,  that  the  best  way  of  diffusing  dis- 
content and  revolutionary  fanaticism  was  by  a  broad  dis- 
play, in  their  naked  and  barbarous  forms,  of  those  infidel 
and  anarchical  elements,  which  sophistry  had,  till  bis  time, 
refined  above  the  perceptions  of  the  vulgar.  By  stripping 
the  mischief  of  the  dress,  though  still  covering  it  with  the 
name  and  boast  of  philosophy,  he  rendered  it  as  familiar 
to  the  (Capacity  as  it  was  flattering  to  the  passions  of  the 
mob;  and  easy  to  be  understood  in  proportion  to  the 
ascendancy  of  the  baser  qualities  of  the  mind. 

To  this  mmt,  and  in'  a- literary  point  of  view,  it  is  a 
merit,  he  seems  justly  entitled.  He  was  familiar  with  those 
artifiqes. of  writing: which  very  much  promoted  his  objects. 
Things  that  are  great  are  easily  travestied.    It  is  only  to 


30  P  A  1  N  E. 

c^xpress  t)>em  in  a.  vulgar  idioai„  and  mcorporate  them  ^kh 
low  ideas.  This  is  always  very  gratifying  to  the  mean,  th# 
little,  and  the  envious ;  and  perhaps  this  was  one  of  Ym 
ipost  successful  tricks  upon  the  multitude.  He  had,  be- 
sides^ 9  sort  of,  plebeian  simplicity  of  style;  ahnost  border-* 
ing.upon  naivet6,  which  clothed  his  imposture  with  the- 
semblance  4>f 'honesty;  while  the  arrogance  with  which  he 
treated  great  names  was^  with  the  base  and  contumelious^ 
an  argutpent  of  his  conscious  pride  and  independence  of 
thinking. 

.  What  he  calls  <^  the  principles  of  society,^  acting  nplon* 
the  nature  and  conduct  of  man,*'  are  sufficient  of  them* 
selves,  according  to  his  simple  theory,  to  produce  and  per-* 
petuate  all  the  happiness  and  order  of  civilized  life.  Go-^' 
vernment.i^  only  imposition  disguising  oppression,  and 
protecting  wrongful  .accumulation.  The  dignity  of  bumair 
nature,  in  its  lowest  forms,  is  thus-  flattered  by  the  disco- 
i^ery  that  the  beggar  and  the  felon  have  justice  on  their 
i^e  while  the  one  petitions  for,  and  the  other  enforces, 
the  restitution  of  bis  original  rights.  What  hungry  repro- 
bate does  not  relish  the  proposition,  that  it  is  government* 
which  debauches  the  purity  of  our  iporals,  and  brings  in 
passion  over  reason,  by  a  sort  of  usurpation,  to  perplex 
the  siinplioity  of  God's  appointments  ?  Philosophy  must 
not  be  insulted  by  opposing  her  polished  weapons  to  thi» 
beggarly  sophistry.  There  is  one  short  and  simple  aphorism 
of  common  sense  by  which  the  whole  of  his  theory  is 
abundantly  answered;  and  it  is  this,  ^^  Government  is  not 
made  for  men  as  they  ought  to  be,  but  for  men  as  they 
are ;  not  for  their  possible  perfection,  but  for  their  prae-> 
tical  indigence*''  This  answer  is  co«extensive  with  the 
whole  work  of  Mr.  Paine  upon  the  rights  of  man.  It  de- 
i|)olishes  the  whole  fabric  of  his  treacherous  system.  It 
dispels  at  once  the  clumsy  fiction  of  his  barbarous  Utopia. 

In  perusing  a  man^s  writings,  a  picture]  of  the  author 
himself  is  sometimes  insensibly  drawn  in  the  imagination  of 
the  reader.  By  the  perusal  of  the  works  of  Thomas Taiue, 
a  most  disgusting  idea  is  presented  to  our  thoughts  both  of 
the  man  and  his  manners.  This  idea  is  completely  verified 
by  the  account  which  Mr.  Cheetham  has  given  us  of  his> 
person  and  deportment.  The  paintings  of  Zeuxis  attained 
a  sort  of  ideal  perfection  by  combining  the  scattered  ex- 
cellencies of  the  human  countenance:  to  conbeive  the 
countenance,  or  the  mind,  of  Mr.  Thomas  Paine,  now  that 


P  A  I  N  £.  SI 

dealh'bas  withdrawn  the  living  models  we  must  jcondenae 
into  an  imaginary  foeui  all  the  ofFensiveness  and  malignity 
that  are  dispersed  throughout  actual  existence.  Mr* 
Cheetbam  seems  to  have  no  hostility  towards  the  man,  and 
to  be  disposed  to  draw  no  inferences  against  him  but  what 
fEiirly  arise  frcna  the  facts.  We  may  add  too,  that  bis  facts 
appear  to  be  collected  from  very  credible  sources  of  inceU 
tigence;  from  persons  with  whom  Paine  passed  great  part 
of  i|is  existence ;  and  who,  though  not  appearing  to  have 
much  intercourse  together^  agree  in  the  substance  of  their 
communications  on  this  subject.' 

-  PALiEMON  (QuiNTUs  Rhemnius  Fannius)j  a  cele- 
brated grammarian  at  Rome,-  in  the  reign  of  Tiberius,  was 
born  of  a  slave  at  Vicen^a.  It  is  said  he  was  first  brought 
up  in  a  mechanical  business,  but  while  attending  his 
master's  son  to  school,  be  discovered  so  much  taste  for 
learning,  and  made  so  much  progress  in  it,  that  he  was 
thought  worthy  of  his  freedom,  and  became  a  teacher  or 
preceptor  at  Rx>me.  With  his  learning  he  joined  an  ex* 
cellent  memory,  and  a^  ready  elocution  ;  and  made  extem-^ 
pore  verses,  then  a  very  popular  qualiiication.  With  all 
this  merit,  his  manners  were  very  dissolute,  and  he  was  so 
arrogant  as  to  assert,  that  learning  was  born  when  he  was 
born,  and  would  die  when  he  died ;  and  that  Virgil  had 
inserted  bis  name  in  his  '^  Eclogues*'  by  a  certain  prophe- 
*  tic  spirit;  for  that  he,  Pal8emon>  would  infallibly  become 
one  day  sole  judge  and  arbiter  of  all  poetry.  He  was  ex-' 
eessively  prodigal  and  lavish,  and  continually  poor,  not^ 
withstanding  the  great  sums  he  gained  by- teaching,  andi- 
the  profit  he  made,  both  by  cultivating  his  lands,  and  m 
the  way  of  traffic.  There  is  an  "  Ars  Grammatica"  as- 
i^ribed  to  him  in  the  edition  of  the  "  Grammatici  Antiqui,''^ 
and  separately  printed ;  and  a  work  "  De  Ponderibus  et 
Mensuris,"  which  is  more  doubtful.' 
,  PALiEPHATUS  was  a  Greek  philosopher,  of  whom  a 
treatise  in  explication  of  ancient  fables  has  been  several 
tinoies  reprinted  in  Greek  and  Latin ;  the  best  edition  is 
ibat  of  Fischer,  Lips.  1761.  But  little  is  known  of  him, 
and  ^here  are  several  ancient  writers  Oif  this  name ;  one  an 
Athenianf  placed  by  the  poets  before  the  time  of  Homier ; 

^  Cfaeetham'i  Life  of  Paine,  1809,  reviewed  in  the  «  British  Review,"  for 
June  1811,  an  arttete  from  which'  the  best  pairt  of  the  abore  sketch  has  been 
borcawed.  >  Moreri.—Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.^-Sazii  Onomast. 


,  32  TALMPUAtVii. 

one  a  native  of  Parbs,  who  lived  under  Artaxerxeft  Idtfe^ 
mon ;  and  one,  a  grainoiarian  and  philosopher,  bornr  a^ 
Athens  or  in  Egypt^  posterior  to  Aristotle.  Which  of 
these  is  author  of  the  work  already  noticed,  is  not  at  all 
certain.* 

.  PALAFOX  (John  de),  natural  son  of  James  de  Paia-« 
fox,  marquis  de  Hariza,  in  the  kingdom  of  Arragon,  wa» 
bornin  1600.  His  mother^  it  is  said,  atteihpted  to  drowti 
bim  at  ins  birth,  but  one  of  hia  father^s  vassals  drew  him 
out  of  the  water,  and  took  care  of  him  till  the  age  at  which 
he  was  acknowledged  by  hrs  parents.  Philip  IV.  appointed 
Palafox  nlember  of  the  council  of  war;  then  that  of  the 
Indies.  Having  afterwards  chosen  the  ecclesiastical  pro* 
fession,  he  was  made  bishop  of  Los  Angelos,  *^  Angelo^ 
polis,"  in  New  Spain,  in  1639,  with  the  title  of  visitor  of  the 
courts  of  chancery  and  courts  of  audience,  and  judge  of  the 
administratioQ  of. the  three  viceroys  of  the  Indies.  Palafox 
employed  his  authority  in  softening  the  servitude  of  the 
Indians,  checking  robbery  in  the  higher  ranks,  and  vice  in 
the  lower.  He  had  also  great  contentions  with  the  Jesuits 
concerning.,  episcopal  rights.  He  was  made  bishop  of 
Osina  or  Osma,  in  Old  Castille,  in  1653,  which  diocese  be 
governed  with  much  prudence  and  regularity,  and  died, 
in  great  reputation  for  sanctity,  September  30,  1659,  aged 
59.  This  prelate  left  some  religious  books,  of  which  the 
principal  are,  *^  Homilies  on  the  Passion  of  Christ,*'  trans-* 
lated  into  French  by  Amelot  de  la  Houssaye,  16 to ;  seve-^ 
ral  tracts  on  the  ^'  Spiritual  Life,"  translated  by  the  abb6 
le  Roi ;  ^^  The  Shepherd  of  Christmas-night,''  &c«  but  he 
is  best  known  by  his  **  History  of  the  Siege  of  Fontarabia;'* 
and  '<  History  of  the  Conquest  of  China  by  tbei  Tartars,'^' 
8vo.  There  is  a  collection  of  bis  works  printed  at  Madrid 
in  13vols.  fol.  1762,  and  a  life  by  Dinouart  in  Frenob, 
1767,  8vo.»  / 

PALAI^RAT  (John),  seigneur  de  Bigot^  a  French  poet^ 
waa  born  in  May.  1650,  at  Toulouse,  of  a  noble  family^ 
He  was  a  member  of  tbe  academy  of  the  Jeux  Floraux^. 
became  chief  magistrate  of  Toulouse  in  1675,  when  scarcely' 
twenty-five  years  of  age ;  and  was  made  bead  of  tbe  con« 
sistory  1684,  in  which  office  he  acquitted  himself  with  great 
integrity.     He  went  to  Rome  two  years  after,  and-  at 

1  Vottioi  de  Hist,  Grec.— ^Fischer*!  edition,  bat  etpeciaUy  Ims  **Tnlivi$l6am/^ 
1771.  t  Ant<^iiio  Bibl.  Hisp.^Moreri.--Dict.  Hist, 


•  / 


PALAPRAT.  3S 

length  to  Paris,  in  which  city  he  chiefly  resided  from  that 
time,  and  where  M.  de  Vend6me  fixed  him  in  his  service 
in  1691,  as  one  of  his  secretaries.  He  died  October  23, 
1721,  at  Paris,  aged  71,  leaving  some  *^  Comedies,"  and 
a  small  collection  of  miscellaneous  ''  Poem^,*'  most  of 
them  addressed  to  M.  de  Venddme.  M.  Palaprat  wrote  for 
the  stage  with  his  friend  Brueis,  and  their  works  have  been 
collected  in  five  small  volumes  12mb,  of  which  his  is  the' 
least  part  His  style  is  gay  and  lively,  but  he  discovers 
little  genius  or  fancy,  and  he  seems  to  have  been  indebted 
for  his  literary  reputation  to  his  private  character,  which 
was  that  of  a  man  of  great  candour  and  simplicity.  * 

PALEARIUS  (AONlus),  an  excellent  writer  in  the  six- 
teenth century,  was'  born  at  Veroli,  in  the  Campagha  di 
Roma,  and  descended  of  noble  and  ancient  families  by 
both  his  parents/  He  wa^  baptised  by  the  name  of  An- 
thony, which  according  to  the  custom  of  the  times,  he  al- 
tered to  the  classical  form  of  Aonius.  He  applied  himself 
early  to  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages,  in  which  he  made' 
great  progress,  and  then  proceeded  to  philosophy  and  dl-* 
vinity.  The  desire  he  had  of  knowledge,  prompted  him* 
to  travel  through  the  greatest  part  of  Italy ;  and  to  listen 
to  the  instructions  of  the  most  famous  professors  in  every 
place  he  visited.  His  longest  residence  was  at  Roine, 
where  he  continued  for  six  years,  till  that  city  was  taken 
by  Charles  V.  when  the  disorders  committed  by  the  troops 
of  that  prince  leaving  no  hopes  of  enjoying  tranquillity,  he 
resolved  to  depart,  and  retire  to  Tuscany.  He  had  at  this 
time  a  great  inclination  to  travel  into  France,  Germany, 
and  even  as  far  as  Greece ;  but  the  narrowness  of  his  for- 
tune would  not  admit  of  this.  Oh  his  arrival  in  Tuscany, 
he  chose  Sienna  for  his  abode,  to  which  he  was  induced  by 
the  pleasantness  of  the  situation,  and  the  sprightliness  and 
sagacity  of  the  inhabitants :  and  accordingly  he  sold  his 
estate  at>  Veroli,  with  the  determination  never  to  see  a  place 
aoy  morer,  where,  though  he  was  born,  yet  he  was  not  be- 
loved. He  purchased  a  country-house  in  the  neighbour- 
hood o(  Sienna,  called  Ceciniano,  and  pleased  himself 
with  the  fancy  of  its  having  formerly  belonged  to  Cecina, 
one  of  Cicero's  clients.  Here  he  proposed  to' retire  on  his 
leisure*  days,  and  accordingly  embellished  it  as  much  as 
possible*    At  Sienna  he  married  a  young  woman,  of  whom 

«  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

Vol.  XXIV.  D 


34  P  A  L  E  A  R  t  U  S. 

he  w^;  P^sionately  fond,  and  who  brought  him  four  chil* 
dren,  two  boys  and  two  girls.  He  was  also  professor  of 
polite  letters,  and  had  a  great  number  of  pupils. 

But  his  career  was  disturbed  by  a  quarrel  he  had  with 
one  of  his  colleagues,  who  was  enraged  to  see  his  own 
reputation  eclipsed  by  the  superior  lustre  of  Palearius. 
We  are  not  told  the  particular  point  upon  which  the  con- 
test commenced ;  but  it  is  certain  that  otir  professor  was 
defended  by  Peter  Aretin,  who,  perhaps  more  to  revenge 
his  own  ca^use,  or  eratify  a  detracting  humour,  than  from 
any  respecffor  Palearius,  composed,  against  his  envious 
rival,  an  Italian  comedy  or  farce,  which  was  acted  upon 
the  stage  at  Venice;  and  so  poignant  was  the  ridicule, 
that  the  subject  of  it  thought  proper  to  quit  Sienna,  and 
retire  to  Lucca.  Hither  he  was  followed  some  time  after^ 
th6ugh  with  much  reluctance,  by  Palearius,  concerning^ 
lyhich  we  have  the  following  account :  Anthony  Bellantes, 
a  nobleman  of  Sienna,  being  ioipeacbed  of  several  mis- 
demeanors, employed  Palearius  to  plead  his  cause,  who 
ixiade  so  excellent  a  speech  before  the  senate  of  that  city 
in  his  defence,  that  he  was  acquitted  and  dismissed ;  but, 
the  same  nobleman  having  some  time  after  accused  certain 
monks  of  robbing  h^  grandmother,  employed  his  advocate 
again  to  support  the  charge.  The  monks  accused,  making 
qath  of  their  innocence,  were  cleared  by  the  court,  but 
were  incensed  at  the  prosecution,  and  aspersed  Palearius 
both  in  their  sermons,  and  on  all  other  occasions,  as  an 
impious  wretch,  unfit  to  be  harboured  in  a  Christian  coun- 
try<  They  also  declared  him  a  heretic,  because  he  disap* 
proved  several  superstitious  practices;  neither  didi  they 
approve  of  the  book  he  had  written  on  the  **  Death  of 
Christ.'*  Palearius,  however,  defended  himself  with  so 
much  strength  of  reason  and  eloquence,  that  the  accussi- 
tions  were  dropped.  Yet  finding  himself  still  exposed  to 
vexatious  persecutions,  bethought  proper  to  a.ccept  of  an 
invitation  to  teach  polite  literature  at  Lucca. 
.  Although  he  had  here  a  handsome  gratuity,  and  was 
only  to  attend  his  scholars  one  hour  in  the  twenty*four, 
yet  it  was  entirely  owing  to  the  expences  of  his  family  that 
he  engaged  in  this  employment,  which  was  otherwise  irk- 
some to^ini.  He  passed,  however,  some  years  at  Lucca, 
before  he  obtained  the  pffer  of  several  immunities,  and  a 
handsome  stipend  from  the  magistrates  of  Milan,  where  he 
hoped  that  he  was  now-settled  iii  peace  for  life,  but  the  event 


\ 


,    P  A  L  E  A  R  J  U  S-  35 

.{Proved  otherwise.  Paul  V.  who  had  been  a. Dominican 
monk^  coming  to  the  pontificate  in  1566,  determined  to 
show  bis  bigotry  against  every  thing  that  had  the  appear- 
lance  of  heresy,  and  therefore  ordered  the  cause  of  Pa-^. 
learius  to .  be  re-heard.  On  which  Palearius  was  suddenly 
arrested  at  Milan,  and. carried  to  Rome,  where  they  found 
^t  not  difficult' to  convict  him  of  having  said  '^  That  the 
German  doctors  who  followed  Luther  were  to  be  com- 
mended in  respect  to  some  points  ;<  and  that  the  court  of 
the  inquisition  was  erected  for  the  destruction  of  men  of 
learning.'^  He  was  then  condemned  to  be:  burnt,  which 
sentence  was  executed  the  same  year,  1566..  He  was 
greatly  respected  by  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  his  time, 
such  as  Bembus,  Sadoletus,  Sfondratus,  Philonardus,  car-^ 
dinals ;  Benedictus  Lampridius,  Anthony  Flaminius,  and 
Andreas  Alciatus;  besides  others,  whose  names  may  be 
seen  in  the  catalogue  to  the  last  edition  of  his  ^<  Letters,^* 
Contaiuing  the  names  of  his  literary  correspondents.  - 

He  was.  the  author  of  several  works.  In  the  piece  on 
the  immort^Llity  of  the  soul,  1.  *^  De  immortalitate  ahim», 
libri  tres,^'  which: is  reckoned  his  mkster-piece,  he  esta- 
blishes the  doctrine  of  the  souPs  immortahty,  against  Lu- 
cretius ;  for.  which  reiison  Daniel  Parens  annexed  it  to  his 
edition  of  that  poet  at  Frahcfort,  16S1,  ^o.  Sadolet  be- 
stows high  encomiums  upon  this  poem,  in  a  letter  to  Pa- 
lesprius.  It  was  printed  by  Gryphius  in  F5S6,  in  1.6mo; 
and  is  inserted  in  our  author's  works.  2.  '^  Epistol^rum, 
Uliri  4,!'  "  Orationum,  lib.  3,*?  1552.  3.  "  Actio  in  pon- 
tifices  Romanos  et  eorum  asseclas,  ad  imperatorem  Rom. 
reges  et  pcincipes  Christians^  reipublicee  summos  Oecu- 
ipenici  concilii  prsesides  conscripta  cum  de  consilio  Tri- 
dentino  habeodo  deliberaretur."  He  drew  up  this  piece 
with  a  design  to  get  it  presented  by  the  emperor's  agibas- 
sadors  Xo  the  council  of  Trent.  .  It  is  a  regular  plan  in  de- 
fence of  the.  protestants,  and  was  published  at  Leipsic  in 
1606.  4. .^^  Poemata;"  these  are  some  poems  printed  at 
Paris  in  1576.  His  works  came  out  under  this  title,  ^' Aonii 
Palearii  opera,"  Amst.  1696,  8vo.  In  the  preface  is  given 
s^  pircjum$tantial.  account  of.  the  author's  life.  They  were 
reprjiitcsd^  Jens,  1728,  8vo..  There  is  also  a  piece  extant, 
with  the  following  title :  /^Dialogo  intitulato  il  grammatico 
oy^Q  delle  false  Esercitationi,  delle  scuele  (da  Aonio  Pa«* 
leario),"  Perugia,  1717.  He  also  wrote  a  ^*  Discourse  upon 
the  Passion  of  'Christ,"  in  Italian,  which  is  lost ;  but  the 

D  2 


86  PALEARIUS. 

plan  of  it  is  in  his  ^^  Orations,^*  p.  90,  91.  In  Schelhorn's 
^^:  Amcsnitates/'  Leipstc,  1737,  is  ^^  Aonii  Palearii  ad  Lut- 
therum,  Calvinum,  altosque  de  concilio  Tridentino  epis- 
toU ;''  a  letter,  in  which  he  adrises  the  .  Lutherans  and 
Calvinists  to  unite,  as  the  best  means  of  resisting  the  at* 
tack  made  by  the  council  of  Trent  on  both.'   ^ 

PALEOTTI  (Gabriel),  a  learned  Itoltan  ^cardinal^ 
descended  from  an  illustrioos  family,  was  born  at  Bologna, 
Oct  4,  1524.  He  was  intended  for  the  profession  of  the 
civil  and  canoii  law,  in  which  some  of  his  family  had  ac- 
quired fame,  and  he  made  great  progress  in  that  and  other 
studies.  His  talents  very  early  procured  him  a  canonry  of 
Bologna ;  after  which  he  was  appointed  professor  of  civil 
law,  and  obtained  the  title  of  the  new  Alciatus  from  his 
emulating  the  judgment  and  taste  of  that  learned  writer. 
Some  business  requiring  bis  presence  at  Rome,  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  cardinal  Alexander  Farnese,  who  had  been  his 
fellow-student  at  Bologna,  and  who  was  then  perpetual 
legate  of  Avignon,  governor  of  Vaisson,  in  the  county  of 
yenaissin,  but  hearing  of  the  death  of  his  mother,  he  made 
that  a  pretence  for  declining  the  office,  and  therefore  re- 
turned to  his  professorship  at  Bologna.  The  Farnese  family 
were,  however,  determined  to  serve  him  in  spite  of  his 
modesty,  and  in  1557  obtained  for  him  the  post  of  auditor 
of  the  rota.  When  Pope  Pius  IV.  opened  the  council  of 
Trent,  Paleotti  was  made  proctor  and  counsellor  to  his  le-^ 
gates,  who,  in  truth,  did  nothing  of  importance  without 
his  advice.  Of  this  council  Paleotti  wrote  a  history,  which 
atill  remains  in  MS.  and  of  which  Pallavicini  is  said  to  have 
availed  himself  in  his  history.  After  this  council  broke  up 
be  resumed  his  functions  at  Rome,  where  in  1565  he  was; 
liaised  to  the  dignity  of  the  purple  by  Pius  IV.  and  by 
Pius  V.  he  was  created  bishop  of  Bologna,  but  the  see 
upon  this  occasion  was  erected  into  an  arcfafadshopric  to  do 
honour  both  to  Paleotti  and  his  native  country.  Being  a 
conscientious  man,  he  was  always  so  assiduous  in  the  duttetf 
of  his  diocese,  that  it  was  with  the  greatest  reluctance 
the  popes  summoned  him  to  atteiftd  the  consistories  and 
other  business  at  Rome.  He  died  at  Rome,  July  23,  1597^ 
a,ged  seventy- three.  He  was  author  of  several  vwtkn  of 
Qonsiderable  merit,  on  subjects  in  antiquities,  jurispru-^ 
dence,  and  morals.  Of  these  the  most  conidderable  are 
» .  ■    ■ 

*  NiceroD,  toI.  XVI.— G<n.  Diet— Moreri» 


PALE  O  T  T  I.  »7 

the  following:  ^^Ai^cbiepiscopale  Bonnoniense  ;^'  ^^Deima'* 
ginibus  SacriSi  et  Profanis/'  1582,  4to,  io  Italian;  and  in 
Latin,  1594;  *^  De  Sacri  Ccmsistorii  Consulutionibus  ;^! 
^'DeNotbis,  Spuriisque  Filiis,"  FraDcfort,1573,  8vo;  ^<D« 
Bono  Senectutis ;"  Pastoral  Letters,  8lc^ 

PALESTRINA  (John  Peter  Loui^,  called  by  Dr. 
Barney  tbe  Homer  of  the  most  ancient  music  that  has  been 
preserved,  was,  as  bis  name  imports,  a  native  of  tbe  ancient 
Prseneste,  now  corruptly  called  Palestrina,  and  is  supposed 
to  have  been  born  some  time  in  1529.  All  tbe  Italian 
writers  who  have  mentioned  him,  say  he  was  tbe  scholar  of 
Graodio  MelK  Flamingo,  by  which  name  they  have  been 
generally  understood  to  mean  Claude  Goudimel,  of  whom 
ve  have  given  some  account  in  vol.  XVI. ;  but  this  seems 
doubtful,  nor  is  there  any  account  of  his  life  on  which 
reliance  can  be  placed.  AH  that  we  know  with  certainty 
is,  that  about  1555,  when  he  had  distinguished  himself  as 
a  composer,  he  was  admitted  into  the  Pope^s  chapel,  at 
Rome;  in  1562^  at  the  age  of  thirty-three,  he  was  elected 
maestro  di  capella  of  Santa  Maria  Maggiore,  in  tbe  same 
^ity;  in  1571  was  honoured  with  a  similar  appointment 
at  St.  Peter's ;  and  lastly,  having  brought  choral  harmony 
to  a  degree  of  perfection  that  has  never  since  been  ex« 
ceeded,  he  died  in  1594,  at  the  age  of  sixty-five.  Upon 
his  coffin  was-  this  inscription,  ^^  Johannes  Petrus  Aloysius 
Pr^nestinus  Musics  Princeps.'' 

By  the  assistance  of  signor  Santarelli,  Dr.  Burney  pro* 
cured  at  Rome  a  complete  catalogue  of  all  the  genuine 
productions  of  Palestrina,  which  may  be  classed  in  the 
following  manner:  masses  in  four,  five,  and  six  parts, 
twelve  books ;  of  which  lib.  i.  appeared  at  Rome  in  folio, 
1554,  when  the  author  was  in  the  twenty-6fth  year  of  his 
age;  and  in  that  city  only  went  through  tbree  several 
editions  during  his  life.  -  Lib.  ii.  of  his  masses,  which  in<« 
dudes  the  celebrated  composition  entitled  ^'  Missa  Papas 
Marcelli,''  was  published  likewise  at  Rome,  in  1567.  Of 
this  production  it  has  been  related  by  Antimo  Liberati, 
and  after  him  by  Adami;  Berardi,  and  other  musical  wri- 
ters, that  the  pope  and  conclave  having  been  offended  and 
scandalized  at  the  light  and  injudicious  manner  in  which 
the  mass  had  been  long  set  and  performed,  determined  to 
banish  music  in  parts  entirely  from  the  church ;  but  that 

1  Moreri.— Undi  HisU  de  la  liUeratare  D'ltalie,  toI.  IV.— Diet.  Hi«t. 


S8  PALESTRINA. 

Palestrina,  at  the  age  of  twenty-sixy  during  the  short  pon^^ 
tificate  of  Marcellus  CerviouSy'  intreated  bis  holiness  to 
suspend  the  execution  of  his  design  till 'he  had  iheard  a 
mass  comgpsed  in  what,  according  to  his  id^as,  waathe 
true  ecclesiastical  style.  Hi's  request  being  granted,  the 
dooipiDsitioh,'  in  six  parts,  was  performed  at  Easter  155 5, 
before  the  pope  and  college  of  cardinals,  who  found  it  b6 
grave,  noble,  elegant,  learned,  and  pleasing,  that  music 
was  restored  to  favour,  and  again  established  in  the'  cele- 
bration of  sacred  rites.  This  mass  was  afterwards  printed, 
and  dedicated  to  the  successor  of  Marcellus,  pope  Paul  IV. 
by  whom  Palestrina  was  appointed  chapel-master. 

The  rest  of  his  massies  appeared  in  the  following  order : 
Lib.  iii.  Romas  per  Valerium  Doricum,  1570,  in  folio,  Ven* 
1599  ;  Lib.  iv.  Venet.  p|er  Ang.  Gardanum,  1582,  quarto ; 
Lib.  V.  Romie,  1590;  Lib.  vi.  Ven.  1596;  Lib.  vii.  1594; 
Lib.  viii.  atfd  ix.  Ven.  1599  ;  Lib.  x.  and  xi.  Ven.  16O0t; 
and  lib.  xii.  without  date,  or  name  of  the  printer.  Besides 
this  regular  *  order  of  publication,  these  masses  were  re- 
printed in  different  fprms  and  collections,  during  the  six« 
teenth  and  seventeenth  centuries,  in  most  of  tb6  principal 
cities  of  Italy.  The  next  division  of  Palestrina^s  works, 
consists  of  Motets  for  five,  six,  seven,  and  eight  voices,^ 
five  books,  at  Rome  and  Venice,  1569,  1588,  15&9,'1596„ 
and  1601.  Motets  for  four  voices,  lib.  i.  Romae,  1590; 
Lw,  ii.  Venet.  1604- ;  Two  books  of  OfFertorij,  a  5  and  a  6 
voc.  Romse,  1593 ;  Lamentationi,  a  4  yoc.  Roms,  1588; 
Hymns  for  five  voices,  Ven.  1598  ;  Litanie,  a  4,  Ven.  1600; 
Magniiicat,  8  tomum.  Romsei,  1591;  Madrigali  Spirituali^ 
t^wo  books,  Rome' and  Venice,  1594. 

To  the  above  ample  list  of  the  works  of  this  great  and 
fertile  composer,  are  to  be  added  ^'  La  Cantica  di  Salo^ 
ibone,''  a  5 ;  two  other  books  of  "  Magnificats,*'  a  4,  5, 
and  6  voc.  One  of  '^  Lamentationi,"  a  5  ;  sind  another  jof 
secular  Madrigals.  These  have  been  printed  in  miscel- 
laneous publications  after  the  author^s  death;  and  there 
still  remain  in  the  papal  chapel,  inedited,  another  mass, 
with  his  ^'  Missa  Defunc^^orum,^^  and  upwards  of.  twenty 
motets,  chiefly  for  eight  voices,  a  due  cori.  Nothing  more 
interesting  remains  to  be  related  of  Palestrina,:  than  that 
most  of  his  adtnirable  productions  still  subsist.  .  Few  of  his 
admirers  are  indeed  possessed  of  the  first  editions,  or  of 
all  his  works  complete,  in  printer  manuscript ;  yet  curious 
ajad  diligent  collectors  in  Italy  can  still,  with  little  difficulty]^ 


P  A  L  E  S  T  R  I  N  A.  ?§ 

fomish- themselves  with  a  considerable  number  of.  these 
models  of  counterpoint  and  ecclesiastical  gravity.  The 
befst  church  compositions  since  his  time  have  been  pro- 
vcjrbially  called  alia  Palestrina. ' 

.  PA  LEY  (WiLLiAM)y  a  very  celebrated  English  divine, 
and  one  of  the  most  successful  writers  of  his  time,  was 
born  at  Peterborough  in  July  1 743,  and  was  educated  by  his 
father, .  who  was  the  head  master  of  Giggleswick  school,  in 
Yorkshire,  vicar  of  Helpstone  in  Northamptonshire,  and  a 
minor  cieinon  of  Peterborough.  In  his  earliest  days  he  ma- 
nifested a  taste  for  solid  knowledge,  and  a  peculiar  activity 
of  mind.  In  Nov«  1758  he  was  admitted  a  sizar  of  Christ's 
college,  Cambridge,  and  before  he  went  to  reside  there 
was  taught  the  mathematics  by  Mr.  William  Howarth,  a 
master  of  some  eminence  at  Dishworth,  near  Rippon.  In 
December  1759,  soon  after  be  took  up  his  residence  in  the 
university,  he  obtained  a  scholarship,  and  applied  to  his 
studies  with  such  diligence  as  to  make  a  distinguished' 
figure  in  the  public  schools,  particularly  when  he  took  his 
bachelor's  degree  in  1763.  He  was  afterwards  employed 
for  about  three  years  as  assistant  at  an  academy  at  Green- 
wich ;  in  1765  he  obtained  the  first  prize  for  a  prose  Latin 
dissertation ;  the  subject  proposed  was  *^  A  comparison 
between  the  Stoic  and  Epicurean  philosophy,  with  respect 
to  the  influence  of  each  on  the  morals  of  a  people,'*  in 
which  he  took  the  Epicurean  side. 

Having  received  deacon's  orders,  he  became  curate  to 
Dr.  HincblifFe,  then  vicar  of  Greenwich,  and  afterwards 
bishop  of  Peterborough ;  and  when  he  left  the  academy 
above-mentioned,  continued  to  officiate  in  the  church.  In 
June  1766  he  was  elected  a  fellow  on  the  foundation  of 
Christ's  college,  and  at  the  ensuing  commencement  took 
his  degree  of  M.  A.  He  did' not,  however,  return  to  his 
residence  in  college  until  Oct.  1767,  when  he  engaged  in 
the  business  of  private  tuition,  which  was  soon  followed  by 
bis  appointment  to  the  office  of  one  of  the  college  tutors. 
On  the  21st  of  December  1767,  he  was  ordained  a  priest 
by  bishop  Terrick, 

The  duties  of  college  tutor  Mr.  Paley  discharged  with 
uncommon  assiduity  and  zeal ;  and  the  whole  of  his  system 
of  tuition,  as  given  by  his  biographer,  appears  to  have  been  " 
eminently  calculated  to  render  instruction  easy,  pleasant, 

and  of  permanent  effect.     It  is  somewhat  remarkable,  that 

.i .  .  i 

^  Ha«lMDt*s  and  Baraey's  fiigtoriet  of  Musick. — and  Buroey  in  Reet'iCyclopttd. 


40  PAL  E  Y. 

T^hile  thus  employed  in  improving  others,  he  was  laying  the 
foundation  of  his  future  fame  ;  for  his  lectures  on  moral 
philosophy,  and  on  the  Greek  Testament,  contained  the 
outlines  of  the  very  popular  works  which  he  afterwards 
published.  He  maintained  an  intimate  acquaintance  with 
almost  every  person  of  celebrity  in  the  university  ;  but  his 
particular  friends  were  Dr.  Waring,  and  Dr.  John  Jebb, 
well  known  for  his  zeal  in  religious  and  political  contro- 
yersy,  and  with  whom,  in  some  points,  Mr.  Paley  was 
thought  to  have  coincided  more  closely  than  afterwards 
;ippeared  to  be  the  case.  Even  now  they  could  not  per- 
suade him  to  sign  the  petition  for  relief  in  the  matter  of 
subscription  to  the  thirty-nine  articles,  although  he  was" 
prevailed  on  to  contribute  to  the  cause,  by  an  anonymous 
pamphlet,  ehtitled  "  A  Defence  of  the  Considerations  on 
the  propriety  of  requiring  a  subscription  to  Articles  of 
Faith,"  in  answer  to  Dr.  Randolph's  masterly  pamphlet 
against  the  "  Considerations.'*  After  he  had  spent  about 
ten  years  as  college-tutor,  he  quitted  the  university  io 
1776, 'and  married.  His  first  benefice  in  the  church  was 
the  rectory  of  Musgrove,  in  Westmoreland,  worth  only 
about  eighty  pounds  a-year,  which  he  obtained  in  th^ 
month  of  May  1775,  and  in  December  1776  he  was  in^ 
ducted  into  the  vicarage  of  Dalston,  in  Cumberland ;  and 
not  long  after  to  the  living  of  Appleby,  in  Westmoreland, 
worth  sibout  300/.  per  annum. 

In  1776,  a  new  edition  of  bishop  Law's  *' Reflections  on 
the  Life  and  Character  of  Christ,"  originally  published  ia 
the  "  Consideration  on  the  Theory  of  Religion,"  was  given 
in  a  separate  form  at  Cambridge,  for  the  use  of  the  stu- 
dents. To  this  treatise  some  brief  "  Observations  on  the 
character  and  example  of  Christ"  were  added,  with  an 
[**  Appendix  on  the  Morality  of  the  Gospel;"  both  from 
Mr.  Paley's  pen.  From  a  passage  in  this  little  essay  it  ap- 
pears, that  his  theory  of  morals  was  not  then  altogether  firmly 
fixed  on  the  basis  which  supports  it  now. 

While  at  Appleby,  he  published  a  small  volume  selected 
?rorn  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and  the  writings  of 
some  eminent  divines,  entitled  **  The  Clergyman's  Com- 
panion in  visiting  the  Sick."  This  useful  work  at  first  ap-r 
peared  without  his  name,  but  it  has  passed  through  nine 
editions,  and  is  now  printed  among  his  works.  In  June 
1780,  he  was  collated  to  the  fourth  prebendal  stall  in  th^ 
cathedral  church  of  Carlisle,  and  thus  became  coadjutor  ia 


P  A  L  E  Y. 


4^1 


the  chapter  to  his  friend  Mr.  Law,  who  was  now  arch*- 
deacon;  but  in  1782,  upon  Dr.  Law^s  being  created  an 
Irish  bishop,  Mr.  Paley  was  made  archdeacon  of  the 
diocese,  and  in  1735,  he  succeeded  Dr.  Burn,  author 
of  "The  Justice  of  Peace,"  in  the  chancellorship.  For 
these  different  preferments  he  was  indebted  either  to  th^ 
venerable  bishop  of  Carlisle,  Dr.  Law,  or  to  the  dean  and 
chapter  of  the  cathedral  church.  While  his  residence  was 
divided  between  Carlisle  and  Dalston,  Mr.  Paley  engaged 
in  the  composition  of  his  celebrated  work,  ^'  The  Element^ 
of  ]VIoral  and  Political  Philosophy  ;**  but  hesitated  long  ai 
.to  tb6  publication,  imagining  there  would  be  but  few 
readers  for  such  a  work  ;  and  he  was  the  more  determined 
on  this  point  after  he  had  entered  on  the  married  state^ 
thinking  it  a  duty  that  he  owed  his  family  to  avoid  risking 
any  extraordinary  expense.  To  remove  this  last  objection. 
Dr.  John  Law  presented  a  living  then  in  his  gift  to  Mr.  Paley^ 
on  the  promise  that  he  would  consider  it  as  a  compen8a«» 
tion  for  the  hazard  of  printing,  and  he  immediately  set 
about  preparing  his  work  for  the  press,  which  appeared 
in  1785,  in  quarto.  Of  a  work  *  so  generally  known  an4 
admired,  and  so  extensively  circulated,  it  would  be  un«^ 
necessary  to  say  much.  Although  the  many  editions  whiph 
came  rapidly  from  the  press  stamped  no  ordinary  merit  on 
it,  yet  some  of  his  friends  appear  to  have  not  been  com- 
pletely gratified.  They  expected,  that  from  his  intimacy 
with  Jebb,  and  the  latitudinarian  party  at  Cambridge,  he 
would  have  brought  forward  those  sentiments  which  Jebb 
in  vain  endeavoured  to  disseminate  while  at  the  university ; 
and  they  were  surprized  to  find  that  his  reasoning  on  sub- 
scription to  articles  of  religion,  and  on  the  British  con- 
stitution, in  which  he  not  only  disputes  the  expediency 
of  reform  in  the  House  of  Commons,  but  vihdicatf^s  the 
influence  of  the  crown  in  that  branch  of  parliament^  wap 
diametrically  opposite  to  their  opinions  and  wishes. 
.  When  at  Dalston,  in  addition  to  his  ordinary  duties,  hei 
gave  a  course  of  lectures  on  the  New  Testament,  pn  the 


*  In  this  work  there  are  some  opi- 
nions equivocally  expressed,  without 
the  characteristic  decision  which  be- 
eomes  A  public  teacher;  and  the 
foundation  of  bis  system  has  also  been 
thought  liable  to  objection.  In  1789, 
Mr.  Gisbome  published  strictures  on  it, 

3nder  the  title  of  "  l*be  Principles  of 
loral  Philosophy  investigated.*'    His 


system  was  also  attacked  by  Mr.  Pear-> 
son,  tutor  of  Sidney  college,  Cam- 
bridge, in  **  Remarks  on  the  Theory 
of  Morals,"  1800,  and  *<  Annotations 
on  the  practical  part  of  Df.  Paley'a 
Principles  of  Moral  ynd  Political  Ptii^ 
losophy,"  1801.  ^11  these  desenr* 
the  attention  of  the  readen  of  Paley.  , 


42.  P  A  L  E  Y. 

Sunday  afternoons.  There  i&  no  part  of  bis  character  more 
just]y  entitled  to  respect  than  the  active  and  zealous  db« 
charge  of  his  professional  duties,  and  his  ,eyen  enlarging 
them,  as  in  thi^  instance,  when  he  thought  it  would  be  for 
the  ^benefit  of  his  flock.  While  officiating  as  examining 
chaplain  to  the  bishop  of  Carlisle,  he  caused  a  new  edi* 
tion  to  be  pubjished  of  CoUyer's  "  Sacred  Interpreter," 
a  work  which  he  recommended  to  candidates  for  deacon's 
orders.  In  1788,  he  joined  to  his  other  meritorious  la- 
bours, an  effort  in  favour  of  the  abolition  of  the  slave 
trade,  and  corresponded  with  Mr.  Glarkson  and  the  com* 
nittee  whose  endeavours  have  been  since  crowned  with 
success. 

On  the  death  of  the  venerable  bis|iop  of  Carlisle  in  1787^ 
Mr.  Paley  drew  up- a  short  memoir  of  him.  (See  Lawj 
£dmukd).  His  next  work  places  him  in  a  high  rank  among 
the  advocated  for  the  truth  and  authenticity  of  the  Christian 
Scriptures.  It  is  enthled  "  Horse  Paulinae  ;  or,  the  Truth  of 
the  Scripture  History  of  St.  Paul  evinced,  by  a  comparisoii 
of  the  Epistles  which  bear  his  name  with  the  Acts  of  the 
Apostles,  and  with  one  another,"  which  he  dedicated  to 
bis  friend  Dr.  John  Law,  at  that  time  bishop  of  Killala. 
The  principal  object  of  this  work  is  to  shew,  that  by  a  com- 
parison of  several  indirect  allusions  and  references  in  the 
Acts  and  Epistles,  independently  of  all  collateral  testimony^ 
their  undesigned  coincidence  affords  the  strongest  proof  oif 
their  genuineness,  and  of  the  reality  of  *^e  transactions  to 
which  they  relate.  .  Instead  of  requiring  the  truth  of  any 

£  art  of -the  apostolic  history  to  be  taken  for  granted,  he 
.'aves  the  reader  at  liberty  to  suppose  the  writings  to  have 
been  lately  discovered,  and  to  have  come  to  our  hands  des* 
titute  of  any  extrinsic  or  collateral  evidence  whatever.  The 
design  was  original,  and  the  execution  admirable.  Soon 
after  ^  he  compiled  a  small  work,  entitled  ^^  The  Young 
Christian  instructed  in  Reading,  and  the  Principles  of  Re« 
Ugion.''  '  This  having  brought  upon  him  a  charge  of  pla- 
giarism, be  defended  himself  in  a  good-humoured  letter 
in  the  Gentleman^s  Magazine.  Previously  to  the  appear- 
ance of  these  work$  he  was  offered  by  Dr.  Yorke,  bishop  o( 
Ely,  the  mastership  of  Jesus  college,  Canobridge,  which, 
after  due  deliberation,  he  declined.  In  May  1792,  he  was 
instituted  to  the  vicarage  of  .Addingham,  near  Great  SaU 
keldy  on  the  presentation  of  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Car* 
lisle.    During  the  {political  ferment  excited  b^  the  French 


P  A  L  B  Y.  4» 

fevolatibhy  be  published  *^  Reasons  for  Contentment,  ad- 
dressed to  the  labouring  classes,'^  ^^^  ^^^  chapter  in  bis 
"Moral  Philosophy,"  on  the  British  Constitution.  In  1793, 
he  vacated  Dalston,  on  being  collated  by  the/bishop  of  Car- 
lisle (Dr.  Vernon)  to  the  vicarage  of  Stanwix.  His  bio- 
grapher informs  us  that,  "being  afterwards  asked,  by  a 
clerical  friend,  why  he  quitted  Dalston,  he  answered  with 
afrankness  pecnliar  to  him,  for  he  knew  no  deceit,  *  Why, 
Sir,  I  bad  two  or  three  reasons  for  taking  Stanwix  in  ex-' 
change :  first,  it  saved  'me  double  house-keeping,  as  Stan- 
wix was  within  a  twenty  minutes  walk  of  'my  house  in  Car- 
lisle :  secondly,  it  was  fifty  pounds  a-year  more  in  value  r 
and,  thirdly,  I  began  to  find  my  stock  of  sermons  coming 
over  ag^in  too  fast'." 

In  1794,  he  published  "  A  View  of  the  Evidences  of 
Christianity,  in  three  parts:   L  Of  the   direct  historical 
Evidence  of  Christianity,  and  wherein  it  is  distinguished 
from  'the  Evidence  alleged  for  other  Miracles.     II.  Of  the 
Auxiliary  Evidences  of  Christianity ;    and,    I'll.  A  brief 
Conitideration   of  some  popular  Objections."     This  work 
was  first  published  in  three  volumes,  12mo,  but  in  a  few 
months  it  was  republished  in  two  volumes,  8vo,  and  has* 
been  continued  in  this  form  through  many  successive  edi*' 
tions.     It  is  perhaps  thie  most  complete  summary  of  the 
evidences  of  our  holy  religion  that  has  ever  appeared.     In 
August  of  the  same  year  the  bishop  of  London,  Dr.  Por- 
teus,  instituted  him  to  the  prebend  of  St.  Pancras,  in  feh^ 
Cathedral  of  St.  PauPs,<  and  in  a  very  short  time*  he  was 
promoted  to  the  subdeanery  of  Lincoln,  a  preferment  of 
700/.  per  stpnum,  by  'Dr.  Pretyman,  bishop  of  that  dio- 
cese. ^    In  January  1795,  be  proceeded  to  Cambridge  to 
take  his  degree  of  D.  D. ;  and  before  be  left  that  place, 
he  was  surprized  by  a  letter  from  the  bishop  of  Durham, 
Dr.Barringtbn,  with  whom  he  had  not  the  smallest  acquaint- 
ance, offering  him  the  valuable  rectory  of  Bishop- Wear** 
mouth,  estimated  at  twelve  hundred  pounds  a-year;  When 
he  waited  otk  his  new  patron  to  express  his'  gratitude,  his 
lordship  instantly  interrupted  his  acknowledgments :  '*  Not 
a  word,"  said  he,  **  you  cannot  have  greater  pleasure  in 
accepting  the  living' of  Bishop-Wearmouth,  than  I  have  in 
offering  it  to  you."     After  reading  himsetf  in,  as  a  pre- 
bendary, at  St.  Paul's  cathedral,  March  8th,  Dr.  Paley,  for  he 
noi^  assumed  that  title,  imniediately  proceeded  to  Bishop- 
Wearmouth,  took  possession  bf  his  valuable  cure,  and  then 


44  PA  LEY. 

returned  to  Cambridge  against  the  commencement,  t^ 
cpmplete  the  Doctor's  degree,  and  on  Sunday  July  Sth, 
j)reac^ed  before  the  university  his  sermon  **  On  the  dan- 
gers incidental  to  the  Clerical  character.*'  He  now  re- 
signed the  prebend  of  Carlisle,  and  the  living  of  Stanwix, 
and  divided  his  residence  principally  between  Lincoln  and 
Bishop- Wearmouth,  spending  his  summers  at  the  latter^ 
tod  bis  winters  at  the  former  of  those  places.  He  next  un* 
dertook  the  composition  of  his  last  work,  entitled  *'  Natu-; 
xal  Theology  ;  or  Evidences  of  the  Existence  and  Attri-t 
hutes  of  the  Deity,  collected  from  the  appearances  of  Na- 
ture." In  this  he  proceeded  very  slowly,  and  was  much  in- 
terrupted by  ill-health  ;  but  the  work  was  published  in 
the  summer  of  1802.  It  was  dedicated  to  the  bishop  of 
Durham,  for  the  purpose  of  making  the  most  acceptable 
return  he  was  able  for  a  great  and  important  benefit  con- 
ferred upon  him.  In  this  work  he  has  traced  the  marks  of 
wi$dom  and  design  in  v^irious  parts  of  the  creation ;  but. 
l^as  dwelt  principally  on  those  which  may  be  discovered  in 
t\ip  constitution  of  the  human  body.  It  is  replete  with  in- 
struction, and  from  its  style  and  manner  peculiarly  calcu-* 
l^ted  to  fix  the  reader's  attention. 

In  1804,  Dn  Paley's  health  was  much  upon  the  decline, 
and  having  experieiiqed  a  severe  attack  in  May  1805,  it 
was  evident  that  the  powers  of  nature  were  exhausted,  and 
medicine  of  no  avail.  He  died  on  the  25th,  under  the  ac- 
cumulated influence  of  debility  and  disease,  and  was  in- 
terred in  the  cathedral  of  Carlisle  by  the  side  of  his  first 
wife,  by  whom  he  had  eight  children,  viz.  four  sons  and 
four  daughters.  His  second  wife  survived  him.  Since  his 
<^th  a  volMme  of  his  ^^  Sermons"  has  been  published,  and 
received  by  the  public  with  nearly  the  same  avidity  as  bis 
other  work^. 

la  private  life,  Dr.  Paley  is  said  to  have  had  nothing 
of  the  philosopher.  He  entered  into  little  amusements 
with  a  degree  of  ardour  which  formed  a  singular  con- 
tjBSt  with  the  superiority  of  his  mind.  He  was  fond  of 
cpnipany,  which  he  had  extraordinary  powers  of  eiuer- 
tfiining ;  nor  was  he  at  any  time  more  happy,  than  wheq- 
qommunicating,the  pleasure  he  co.uld  give  by  exerting  bis. 
tdlepts  of  wit  s^nd  humour.  No  man  was  ever  more  be- 
Ipyed  by  his  particular  friends,  or  returned  their  ^fFectjoii 
with  greater  sincerity  and  ardour.  That  such  a  man^^  and^ 
fifich  a  writer,  should  09t  have  been  promoted  to  the  bencb 


P  A  L  E  Y.  4S 

» 

of  bislao^s^  has  been  considered  as  not  very  creditable  to 
the  times  in  which  we  live.  It  is  generally  understood 
that  Mr.  Pitt  recommended  him  to  bis  majesty  some  years 
ago  for  a  vacant  bishopric,  and  that  an  Opposition  waj 
made  from  a  very  high  quarter  of  the  church,  which  ren* 
dered  the  recommendation  ineffectual.  If  this  be  true,  it 
is  a  striking  proof  of  Mr.  Pitt's  Kberality ;  for,  according 
to  his  biographer,  Dr«  Paley  frequently  indi'ilg^d  in  sar- 
castic and  disrespectful  notice  of  that  celebrated  staites-^ 
man.  What  truth  may  be  in  this,  or  what  justice  in  the 
complaints  of  his  friends,  we  shall  not  inquire,  jfudging^ 
from  his  writings,  we  should  be  inclined  to  regret,  witK 
them,  that  he  had  not  higher  preferment;  but,  (iontem* 
plating  his  character,  as  given  in  the  "  Memoirs  of  Wil- 
liam Paiey,  D.  D.  by  George  Wilson  Meadltey,*'  we  mustf 
rather  wonder  .that  he  had  so  much.  It  will,  hovv^ever^  be 
universally  acknowledged,  that  no  author  ever  Wrote  moM 
pleasingly  on  the  subjects  he  has  treated  than  Dr.*  Pal^y. 
The  force  and  terseness  of  his  expressions  kr6  ndt  less' 
admirable  than  the  strength  of  his  conceptions  ;  antt  there 
is  both  in  his  language  and  his  notions  a  peculiarity  of  man- 
ner^ stamped  by  the  vigour  of  his  mind,  which  will  per"- 
petuate  the  reputation  of  his  works.* 

PALFIN  (John),  a  surgeon  of  eminence,  was  Bbrh  ar 
Ghent  in  Flanders  in  1649;  and,  being  m^de  anatotnist 
and  reader  in  surgery  in  that  city,  was  much  distitigiiished 
liy  his  lectbres  as  well  as  practice,  and  wrote  upon  several 
subjects  with  learning  and  judgment.  He  died  at  Ohent^ 
about  eighty  years  old,  in  1730.  He  paid  various  visits 
to  London,  Paris,  and  Leyden,  where  he  formed  an  ac- 
quaintance with'  the  most  eminent  surgeon's  of  his  time^* 
profited  by  their  discoveries,  and  was  himself  the  inventor 
of  some  instruments.  His  first  publication  was  a  ^'  Systeni 
of  Osteology,'*  in  Flemish,  which  be  afterwards  translated 
into  French,  and  which  was  often  reprinted.  In  1708,'  he 
published  his  *^  Description  Anatomique  des  Parties  de  la . 
Femme  qui  servent  a  la  Generation,'*  together  with  Li- 
cetus'  treatise  on  monsters,  and  a  description  of  one  bora 
at  Ghent  in  1703.  In  1710,  he  printed  his  ^^Anatomie 
Cbirurgicale,  ou  description  exacte  des  Parties  du  Corps 
humaih,  avec  des  remarques  utiles  aux^  Chirurgiens  dans 

«  Uf^  by  Meadley.— 6«at.   Ma;,  vol.  hVlh  LVIII.  LXII.  LXXV.  aad 
LXXVL  «6C.  , 


46  I?  A  L  F  1*1. 

la  pratique  6e  leur  art,**  in  French;  and  in  1718;; fe* 
printed  it  in  Flemish.  It  was  regarded  as  a  vaiaabte  work, 
anjd  was  republished  after  bis  death,  in  Franpe,  It$ily,  and 
Germany.  Palfin  also  translated  the  treatise .  of  Anthony 
Petit  on  .'<  Diseases  of  the  Eyes,"  into  Flemish,  adding 
several  other  tracts  on  the  same  subject. ' 

PALINGENIUS  (Marcellus),  an  Italian  poet,  who 
fioorished  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Stellada^ 
in  Ferrara,  upon  the  bank  of  the  Po.  We  are  told  by 
$ome,  that  his  true  name  was  Pietro  Angelo  Manzolij,  of 
which  "  Marcello  Palingenio"  is  the  anagram  *.  He  is 
chiefly  known  by  his  ^'  Zodiacus  Vitae,"  a  poem  in  twelve 
books,  dedicated  to  Hercules  II.  of  Este,  duke  of  Feirara.,' 
Some  say  he  was  physician  to  that  prince,  but  this  will  ad- 
mit of  a  doubt;  at  least  it  is  certain  be  was  not  so  when  he 
wrote  the  dedication  to  bis  *^  Zodiac."  This  poem,  oiv 
which  he  had  en^ployed  several,  years,  brought  hi.m  into 
trouble,  as  it  contained  many  sarcastic  atti^cks  on  mqnka 
and  church-abuses  ;  and  his  name  therefore  appears  in  the 
5^  Index  librorum  prohibitorum,"  as  a  Lutheran  heretic  of 
the  first  class,  and  as  an  impious  author.  It  is  thought,  he; 
<;arries  too  far  the  objections  of  libertines  4nd  scoffers  at 
religion  ;  otherwise  his  work  is  interspersed  with  judicious- 
maxima,  and  some  have  considered  it  as  a  truly  philo$o- 
phical  satire  against  immorality  and  prejudice.  In  the 
close  of  the  dedication^  he  declares  himself  a  good  catholic, 
so  far  as  to  submit  all  bis  opinions  to  the  censure  of  the 
church ;  and  this  declaration  might  perhaps  have  secured 
hjm  against  the  inquisition,  had  the  affair  related  only  la 
some,  particular  tenet;  but  it  could  not  acquit  him  of  that 
impiety,  which  Palingenius  was,  not  without  reason^  sus« 
pected  to  teach. .  In  his  third  book,  for  instance,  he  in- 
eulcates  Jthe  doctrine  of  Epicurus  without  the  least  reserve. 
He. published  this  book  in  1536,  and  again  at  Basil,  ia 
1537  t/  and  seems  not  to  have  lived  long  after  that  date*.^ 
Qyraldus,  who  wrote  about  1543,  relates,  that,  after  bis 
burial,  his  body  was  ordered  to  be  dug  up,  in  order  to  be 

*  Perhaps  Palingenius  is  not  Ibe  a  French  translation,  by  M.  de  la  Moti- 

name  of  his  facniiy,  but  that  name  nerie,  was  printed  in  Holland  in  1731  j; 

turned  into,  Greek,  according  to  the.  and  again  with  notes   in   1733.    An 

custom  of  those  times,  ,  imitation  of  it  was  written  by  Barthiusa, 

•f  It  wag  also  published  under  this  and  entitled,  <*  Zodiacus  viti»  Chrifti^  ' 

title,  **  Palingenii   Marcelii   Zodiacus  anae,"  fce.  Francf.  1623,  8vo,  and  anOk^ 

Tjt«  emendattts  et aactus,  Rott.  1 722 ;V  ther  in, French  by  M.  de  RiTiere* 

^  Moreri.— Eloy.  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medicine. 


P  A  L  I  N  G  E  N  I  U  S.  47 

fahurnt ;,  which  execution  was  prevented  by  the  dtichest  of 
Ferrara,  who,  it  is  thought,  had  received  him  at  her  court 
among  the  Lutherans. ' 

PALISSY  (Bernard  de),  an  ingenious  artist,  was  bora 
at  Agen  in  France,  about  1524.     He  was  brought  up  as  a 
common  labourer,  and  was  also  employed  in  surveying* 
Though  destitute  of  education,  he  was  a  very  accurate  ob« 
server  of  nature ;  and  in  the  course  of  his  surveys,  v  he  con<- 
ceived  the  notion  that  France  had  been  formerly  covered 
by  the  sea^  and  propagated  his  opinion  at  Paris,  against  a 
ho$t  of  opponents,  with  the  greatest  boldniess.     It  was  con- 
sidered as  a  species  of  heresy.     For  several  years  after,  he 
employed  himself  in  trying  different  experiments,  in  order 
to  discover  the  methpd  of  painting  in  enamel*     But  some 
person  presenting  him  with  a  beautiful  cup  of  that  kind  of 
stone-ware  called  by  the  French  faience^  because  it  was 
first  manufactured  in  a  city  of  Italy  called  Faenz^^  the 
'  sight  of  this  cup  inflamed  him  with  an  insurmouatable  de- 
sire to  discover  the  method  of  applying  enamel  to  stone- 
ware.    At  this  time  he  was  ignorant  of  even  the  first  rudi- 
ments of  the  art  of  pottery,  nor  was  there  any  person  withia 
his  reach  from  whom  he  could  procure  information.     His 
experiments  were,  therefore,  unsuccessful,  and  he  wasted 
his  whole  fortune,'  and  even  injured  his  health,  without 
gaining  his  object    Still  he  gave  it  up  only  for  a  time, 
and  when  a  few  years  of  industry  and  frugality  had  put  it 
in  his  power,  he  returned  to  bis  project  with  more  ardour 
than  ever.     The  same  fatigues,  the  same  sacrifices,  the 
same  expences  were  incurred  a  second  time,  but  the  re« 
suit  was  different.     He  discovered,  one  after  another,  the 
whole  serie9  of  operations,  and  ascertained  the  method  of 
applying  enamel  to  stone-ware,  and  of  niaking  earthen* 
ware  superior  to  the  best .  of  the  Italian  manufacture.     He 
was  now  treated  with  respect,  and  considered  as  a  man  of  < 
genius.     The  court  of  France  took  him  under  its  protect 
tion,  and  enabled  him  to  establish  a  manufactdry,  where 
the  manufacture  of  the  species  of  stone-ware  which  he  had. 
invented  was  brought  to  a  state  of  perfection.     The  only 
i)Dprovement  which  was  made  upon  it  afterwards  in  France, 
was  the  application  of  different  colours  upon  the  enamel,, 
and  imitating  the  paintings  which  had  been  executed  long 
before  on  porcelain  vessels*    This  improvement  scarcely 

-    ^  Qen.  Dict-^Moreri.   . 


48  P  A  L  I  S  S  Y. 

I 

dates  farther  back  than  thirty  or  forty  years.  It  was  first 
put  in  practice  by  Joseph  Hanon,  a  native  of  Strasbourg, 
and  was  suggested  by  a  German,  who  sold  to  Hanon  the 
method  of  composing  the  colours  applied  upon  the  por- 
celain of  Saxony.  These  vessels  were  soon  after  super- 
sededby  the  Qxieeri*s  wdre  of  the  cdebrated  Wedgewood, 
Mrhich  both  in  cheapness,  beauty,  and  elegance  of  form, 
far  surpassed  any  thing  of  the  kind  that  had  appeared  in'* 
Europe. 

'  After  Palissy  had  thus  succeeded  in  his  favourite  object,' 
he  pursued  the  science  of  chjemistry,  and  applied  hiskndw*^ 
Icidge  to  the  improvement  of  agriculture.  *  He  was  the  first.' 
person  who  formed  a  collection  of  natural  history  at  Paris,* 
upon  which  he  gave  lectures  at  the  rate  of  half  a  crown' 
each  person,  a  hrge  sum  for  that  period,  but  he  eriterefl '. 
into  an  obligation  to  return  the  money  four-fold,'  provided' 
it  vrete  found  that  he  taught  any  thing  that  proved  false.' 
In  Ii?6^3  he  printed  at  Rochelle  "  Recepte  veriliable  par' 
I&quelfe  tons  les  hommes  de  la  France  pourrbnt  apprendre 
a  augmenter  leur  tresors,''   &c.  which,  after  hiil  dejgitB," 
v^as  reprinted  under  the  title  of  **^Moyen  de  devenir  riche,'*' 
iti  i  vols.  8vo.     In  1:580  he  published  "  Discours  admira- 
ble de  la  Nature  des  Eaux,  et'Fontaines,  de  Metaux,  des' 
Sols,  des  Saline,  des  Pierres,  des  Terres,"  &c.     This  work ' 
was  exceedingly  valuable  in  the  then   existing  state  bf 
koowliedge,  and  in  it  he  first  taught  the  true   theory  of  , 
springs,  and  asserted  that  fossil-shells  were  real  sea- shells 
deposited  by  the  v^aters  of  the  ocean.     He  also  pointed  out 
the  u^e  of  marie  a'nd  of  lime  in  agricultui'e. 

Palissy  is  supposed  to  have  died  about  1590  :    he^was  of 
tbfe  protestant  Religion,  and  was  sometimes  threatened  on 
that'account.     His  reply  to  Henry  the  flld.  deserves  to  be 
commemorated.     "  If,"  says  the  king,  "  you  do  not  change* 
yobV  reWgiorty  I  shall  be  compelled  to  give  you  lip  to  the' 
power  of  your   enemies.'*     ^*  Sire,"  said    Pal issy,  **  yoii» 
have  often  said  that  you  pitied  me,  but  I  must  now  pStyT 
yoii,  for  your  expression  of  ^  I  shall  be  compelled  f  giVe^ 
me  leave  tp  tell  yotir  majesty,  that  it  is  not  in  youf  powei^* ' 
to  compel  a  potter  to  bend  bis  knee  before  the  images^ 
which  he  fabricates.'*     His  memory  'is  still  respected '  iti' ' 
,     France',  and  a  complete  edition  of  his  works,  with  a  life,* 
vvay published  at  Paris'  in  1777,  by  Fadjas  de  St.  FoT)d,'#tor.*' 

}  Moreri.— Diet  Hiit.— Baldwin's  Literary  Jouroa),  vol.  I.  • 


P  A  L  L  A  D  I  N  0. 

PALLADINO  (James)^  known  aim  by  tb6  hwie  of 
James  de  Teramo^  from  the  city  where  he  was  .born  in 
1449,  chose  the  ecclemastical .  profession,  was  sucoes* 
sively  archbishop  of  Tareuto,  Florence,  and  Spoletto,  had 
the  administration  of  the  duchy  for  pope  Alexander  Y.  and 
lohn  XXIII.  and  was  sent  as  legate  into  Poland  in  14 17, 
vriier^  he  died  the  same  year.  He  wrote  some  forgotten 
works  eniunerated  by  Marchand,  bat  is  most  known  by  bis 
xeligioiis  romance,  entitled  ^^  J.  de  Teramo  compendium 
perbreve,  consolatio  Peccatorum  nuncupatum,  et  apud  non- 
pnllos  Belial  Tooitatuns  i  id  est, .  Processus  Luciferi  contra 
Jesum,*'  Attsb.  1479,  fol.  but  it  seems  doubtful  whether 
the  first  edition  is  not  in  German,  and  published  without  a 
date.  Mr.  Dibdin  has  amply  described  both  in  the  ^  Bib- 
Uotheca  Spenceriaoa,V  and  Marchand  has  discussed  the 
history  of  the  work  at  great  l^igth.  It  was .  reprinted  se« 
▼eral  times  since  io  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries, 
and  in  a'colleclioa  entitled.  *' Processus  juris  joco'^serii," 
Hanovis,  1611,  8vo,  which  contains  likewise  ^^  the  Pro- 
cess of  Satan  against  the  Virgin,"  .  by  Barthole,  and  ^^  Les 
Arr^  d' Amour.'*  Peter  Farget,  an  Augustine,  has  trans* 
lated  ^<  Belial's  triar*  into  French,  Lyo^ns,  14S5,  4to,  printed 
often  since,  in  the  saine  form.  It  has  also  been  .published 
■nder  the  name  of  James  d'Aooharano;  and  has  i^^onsi 
ferm  or  other  been  translated  into  most  of  .the  European 
langiniges.  ^ 

PALLADIO  (AMZ>a£W),.  a  celebrated  Italian  architect^ 
ia»  born  in  15  IS  at  Vicenza  in  Lombardy.  As  soon  as  he 
had  learned  the  principles  of  art  from  Trissino,  the  cele- 
brated poet,  who  was  his  townsman,  he  went  to  Hornet 
wnd  applying  himseif  with  gp^at  diligence  to  study  the  an* 
dent  monameats,  h^  entered.intothe  spirit  of  their. arcbi- 
tMts,  and  formed  his  taste  upoa  tihem*  On  bis  return  he 
was  employed^  construct  various  edifices,  and  obiaiped 
great  reputatioQ  tbMMigheut  Italy,  which  abounds  in  nuinu- 
qients  of  his  dull^  particulsurJy  the  palace  Foscari,  at  Ve- 
nice, and  tbe  Olypipic  theatre  at  Vicenza,  where  he  died 
io  1580.  He  excelled  likewise  in  the  theory  of  his  art, 
«L  appears  by  his  publications,  which  are  still  in  the  highest 
mpntation.  .His  ^rst  was  bis  treatise  oa  arobsteetare,  <<  I 
qaattfo  libri  deli'  Arcbitettara,'*  Venice,  1570..  This  haa 
been  often  reprinted,  and  our  country  has  the  merit  of  a 

<  Mardiuid.— L'Avocat't  Diet.  Hiit'-BiM.  Spcneerimnt,  irel.  HI.?;  .Hl->-3. 

Vot.  XXIV.  E 


4»  .  1>;A'L*L/AT)II  O.i 

irery  splendid  edittbn,  published  at  Lonfdoti  in*  fTVS'ji.  in 

iKnglisby  Italian,  and  French,  2  or  3  vol^.,  faL  .  Tbis^  ediW 

tion,  published  by  Leotfi,  is  enriched  with  .the  most.Valoi- 

able  of  the  notes  which  Inigo  Jones  wrote  on  bis  copy  of 

the  original,  now  in  the  library  of  Worcester  college^  Ox-i 

i^ord.     A  French  edition  of  the.Landoo  one  was  publisbed 

by  Nic.  da  Bois,  at  the  Hague  in^  1726,  2  voh.  fol. ;  andrin 

1740,  one  oiuch  enlarge  in  Italian  and  Freacby  at  Veaicei' 

i5  vols,  foh     This 'bos   been   mone   recently  followed  by 

Scaniozzi's  fine  edition  in  Italian  and  French,  printed  ait 

Vicenza,  1776^—83,  4  vok.  fol.     In  1730,  our  countryman^ 

lord  Burlington,  printed  an  elegant  work,  entitled  ^^  Fa-»% 

briche  anticbe  designate  da  Andrea  Palladio,  e  dale  iaWe 

da  Riceardo  Conte  de  Burli^gton,.'^  foL     This  colleciiaib 

of  Palladio's  designs  is  very  scarce,  as  >  the  noble  editor 

printed  only  a  liiaited  nnmber  of  copies  for  hiis  frieudki 

Palladio  also  composed  a  small  work,  entitled  ,^^  Le  Antiv 

cbita  di  Roma,"  not  printed  till  after  bis  death;'    He  a)ius*< 

trated  CsDsar^s  ^^Commentaries,"'  by  annexinig  to.BadelHIa 

translation  pf  that  work,  ^  prefafce  on  the  military  systeoii 

of  the  Romans,  with  copper-plates,  designed,  for  the  most 

|>art,  by  bis  t^vo  sonsy  Leooida  and  Qrazio,  who  bpth  diedi 

soon   aften     Palladio  Was  modest  in  regard   to   bis  owii> 

merits  but  be  was  the  friend  to  all  jnen  of  talents.^  hiy 

memory  is  bigUy  faonoui^ed  ^by   the   votaries  of  the  finer 

arts.^  and  the  simplicity  and  purity  of  bis  taste 'have  gi.veE^ 

bim  the  appelliitiiob  of  the  Raphael  of  architects.  * . '    .    i 

:■   PA LLA Dies,  bishop  of  Helenopolis  inBitbynia,  aiifdr 

afterwards  x>fAspona^  waa.by.uationa  Galatia;n^  and  bom* 

^bout  the  year.  368  at  Gappadoeia.     He.  became  an  ao«) 

cboret  in  tbe  mountain  of  Nebriarin  the  year. 388,  and.  was 

made  a.bisfaop  in  the  year  4<aL.     This  prelate  was  a  steady » 

friend  to  St,  John  Chryso^tom,  whom  be  neirer  forsooki 

during  the  tiiQe  of  bis  persecution,  nor  even  in  bis.£xiie«r 

Ue  went  to  Rome,  sometime  after  the  deatl^of  that  saint }' 

at)d  at  tbe  request,  of  Lausus,  governor  of  Cappadocia^i 

«;€Mnposed  the  history  of  the  Anohorets,  or*  Herioits,  ,ancb 

^titled  it  ^^  Laitsiaca,'?  after  the  name  of  fthat  lord^.ttx 

whom  he  tdedicated  it  in  tbe  year4209  w.ben  it  was  ivritt^n^ 

being  tben. id  the  20tb  year  of  bis  episcopacy,  and>53dpfT 

his  age.     Paliadius  was  'aCQused  of  being  aa  Origentstjt 

i'  . '        ■  '•  .     ■  ' '  '  '  '  - 

1  tandi  Hist.   Litt    dMtalle,  vol.  IV.— Hutton's  Pkt.'-Dicti  HisU^Reet't' 
^^c]ope!dia.-^Bruaet*s  Manuel  (la  Libraire.    '.,.,.'    -,..  '    ■■-    '■ 


I 


PALLAbltJi.  it 

t>4cause  he  ctoes  not  sp^ak  very  farburably  of  St.  Jerome^ 
lind  was  intimaitely  connected  •  with  Ruffinud  $  but  pertfaps 
no  good  proof  can  be  drawn  thence  of  his  Origenism.  He 
isad  been  the  disciple  of  Evagrias  of  Pontud,  and  was  even 
suspected  to  adhere  to  the  sentiments  of  Pelagius.  He 
died  in  the'  fifth  centtiry^  but  what  year  is-  not  known; 
His  *<  History"  was  published  ill  Greek  by  Meursiiis,  at 
Amsterdam/ in  1619,  aiid  in  Latin  in  the  '^  Bibliotheca 
Patrum  t'V  but  he  seems  not  to  have  beeii  the  writer  of  the 
'^  Life  of  St.  John  Chrysostom,  in  Greek  and  Latin^  by 
M»  Bigot/'  printed  in  168a.  ^ 

PALLAS  (Peter  Simon),  a  ceiebrated  naturalist,  th^ 
son  of  Simon  Pallas,  professor  of  surgery  at  Berlin,  was 
b^m  in  that  city,  Sept.  22,  1741,.  and  educated  at  first 
under  private  tuto^,  who  spokewith  astonishment  of  the 
progress  he  made.  .  So  early  as  the  fifteenth  year  of  hi^ 
age,  he  entered  upon  a  course  of  lectures  on  medicine  and 
the  branches  connected  with  it ;  and  two  years  afterwards 
was  enabled  to  read  a  course  of  public  lectures  on  anatomy. 
Yet  while  thus  occupied  in  his  professional  labours,  he^ 
found  leisure  to  prosecute  the  study  of  insects,  and  other 
classes  of  zoology,  for  which  he  seems  to  have  very  early 
conceived  a  predilection,  and  in  which  he  particularly  ex« 
ceiled.  In  the  autumn  of  175S  he  went  to  the  university 
of  Halle,  and  in  1759  to  Gottingen;  and  during  his  resi« 
dence.at  the  letter,  among  other  ingenious  researches,  hit 
attention  was  drawn  to  the  worms  w^ich  breed  in  the  in«^ 
festines.  This  produced  a  treatise  entitled  <^  De  itifesti^ 
Viventibus  intra  vivientia,''  in  which  he  has  with  sihgdiar 
Accuracy  described  thdae  wbtnls  which  are  found  in  th^ 
human  body, 

lit  July  1760  he  went  to  Leyden,  and  studied  under  Al^ 
binus,  Gaubius,  and  Miisehenbroeck ;  and  in  Decetbbef^ 
took  his 'doctoir^s  degree,  on  which  occasion  his  inaugural 
dissertation  had  for  its  sxibject  his  dissertation  on  worms; 
with  new  experiments;  During  his  stay  at  Leyden,  hatti'i 
ml  ^istorry  became  his  predbmifnant  passion.^  H«  employed 
all  the  time^  he  could  steal  from  his  professional  studies  in' 
lisitrng'the  -public  and  private  eabtnets  of  natural  history,^ 
with  which  Leyden  abounded,  and  was  particularly  charmed 
with  the  collection  of  Gronovius,  which  h^  repeatedly  exa^* 

.  •  .        L  .         ( 

■■  ^  Depiik— Moreri.— Lardoer's  Works^-r-Ca^e,  vol*  I«-^Saxii  Onojnaat  nhen 
are  atbrnn  of  th«  Qan^, 

«  2 


IS  PALLAS^ 

a^:rived  at  London,  is  July  1761,  Th^  pni^^pai  ipteniibn 
jof: bis  journey  tp  f^PglaQd  was  to  improvf  his  I^DpwIfKigf  ifl 
i^edi^ii^p  and  surgeiyt  and  to  inspect  t|^e  ho6|>!iutls>  Uit 
was  noiy,  hofifever,  ^O  n]^ucb.ahsofb^d  ii^  hiBp^^^ipq  tojr  n^r 
tural  b^is^ory,  that  be  neglected  eyery  other  pmnsuit,  ^tid 
gav^  hin(iself  taul}y  Mp  to  this  favourite  branch  of  loieqcj?* 
At  this  jiiitckuret  b^  zeal  was  so  ardent»  fbat  i^fte^  having 
pafsfi^d  the  ^ay  in  cuf iously  ^xMoining  the  vsMrious  cpUecf 
(\oi)s  ID  iia^r^l  bistPTyt  ^^>^  pisrusiQ^g  t\k^  principal  books 
he  could  procure  on  that  subject*  he  vfould  frequently  emf 
plqy  tb^  greater  part  of  tbf  niglitf  &H<1  qcc^ionaJly  eten 
ivt^ple  nights  together)  wtienever  he  iBet  with  neyr  pubii? 
Rations  tba^  either  awakened  his  cMriosity  of  int^epted  fai^ 
rese^cbiBs.  With  a  vi^w :  oC  €ixt0nding  ^is:  infprfttatioci  in 
|bis  departjment)  be  took  sev^rfl Journeys  to  the  9e<t-coast^ 
fnd  particularly  in  Sussex* 

Being  at  length  sqi^dpqned  by  his  fatbef  to,  ri^tu^m  to 
Berlii^  be  quitted  London  lyitb  reigret  jq  t^  iMiisr  end  of 
April  1762,  and  repaired  to  Harwich  ii|  or^er  to  ^mWI: 
for  Hqll^d.    Peingtb^re  fortuua^elj  detauiod  9000  day» 
by  cpcv^^ry.  winds^  b^  embraced  \h§x  opportiiQJty  of  e%$^ 
oijnipg  the  spa-cpaft,  fi^d  collecting  a  yarifity  of  ttiArino 
productions.    Qp  the  13th  pf  ^^y  i^  ^pd«4  w  H(4lii;Dd^ 
smdp^ssiag  throflgb  th^.%g<Wt  lijdw,  ^n4  Aqs^r(i»Qi^ 
l|^e  CQutiou^  bis  route  thiroiigh  the  Circlei  <9f  Wiestphftlif^ 
aud  arriv^  at  BMin  o;i  the  i^th  pf  Jiuiif^ 
;    Previously*  to,  h|^  comoifncipg  pr^^fotic^^  ^  father  Wit 
faim  to  HaaiQver  for  ^bo  pHrpQ^  of  prop^ri^g  tho.  p9»%  Of 
surgeon  ia  the  allied  ^TfPJi  but  ^  uppif  b<f  ^rrital  in  tb#l 
city,  in  the  month  of  July,  peace  was  on  the  point  x>f  being 
conciudied,  1^  rciiurnfd  40  %r{i9tt  !vb^e  he  pa^edvCI.  y^ar, 
chiefly  in  preparing  m^t^risAf^.^of  §  f^C^aunA  lQ$^cta(uM 
Marchica,"  or  «i  descriptiop  pf  tbe  insects  19  tbei9ftrcb<)|f 
Braiid^n^urg.     Having  at  length  pr/sva^lod  upop  his  fath^ 
to  let  biflot  settle  in  ^loll^nd;,  be  took  pp  bis  r«sidoni^at  thf» 
^%ue,  and  his  reputatiop  a^  a  pian  oJP  science  wa^,  by* 
thi;  timet  &o  well  established)  that  b^  iya9>  the  ^apie  yntp 
elected  fellow  of  thp  Royal  iSocioty  pf  Loodoo ;  atid  in  the 
.  following  ye^r  ipeaiber  of  the  Acad^piie  d^  Cprieuo^df^  la 
iKature ;  to  both  of  which  soci^ti(^s  ho  bad  previously  aetit 
▼ery  interesting  and  ingenious  papers. 
'    The  intimacy  be  now  «ontra6ted  with  the  most  celebrated 
naturalists  in  Holland^  and  particularly  with  "those  oflLfie 


r  A  L  L  A  a  M 

tiagii«,  Wbb'had  jbst  4>egoft  b  forth  « lilii^ftfy  so&ietjr  ^'ibcj 
fre^  ac(^5»  ^bhsh  he  hitd  to  tte  uvuifeiibi  of  ihe  pririob  6f 
Ofiitfge,  sind  dftbe'r  cUrioui  esbinetf ;  the  systetnatie  cata-I 
loguesDf  thOfit  cblhieiiMs'ifait  be  Hew  tip,  and  sbreral  of 
which  bl$  gat^e  ltd  dlb  pubiki;  coit^ihiited  td  4Hrahce  hib 

of  the  g&te^  Irtfd  enabled  him  to  colleot  web  inat»riais  i^ 
pLT^  h'mh  tt>  fifbie  aMbFa«e  eobi^ositiotia  4n  ^cologyn 
which  httt^  d6sbrtediyd)ftitfg|bhhed  bim^s  the  fihst  zoold^ 
gist  of  £tiW)3^«  OM'  o)F  bis  «i^li(Mt  works  'in  Ibis  bratH^b  of 
Sbiett^e,  which  Hindered  -him  emimntly  b(if»picQ0<i;i3,  w«i 
hii  **  EkMhtii  fiS<tt)i^by|[otiiti^."  U  a  dedication  piMiod 
to  bii  ^<  MisC^Uatiea  fiootogkm/*  pubibihed  iii  tbe  «amb 
^ear,  tta6  ttbthdf  }aj^s  befc^rbtbb  pritide  of  Orange  a  plan 
for  d  vdyage  t6  fbe  Cap^  of  Qood  ilope,  tod  to  the  other 
Doteb  aettiedients  in  the  Eb'^t  Indies^  and  which,  impelled 
by  his  Wonted  ard^oir  fer  seil^iitiiic  knowtedge,  lie'ofFered 
to  undertake  and  inperintend.  Ttiils  prcgeet  was  strongtj 
Fecdmflieiided  by  Gaubips,  >  and  approy^  by  dib  prmce } 
but  wad  pirevented  from  bein^  earned  into  esiiccilioh  bjt 
the  authop^i  father ;  Who  not  otHy  refuted  his  consent  td 
hvi  taking  ^tich  a'disiatit  eKpeditioni  but  even  recalled  bhit 
to  Berlin :  in  i^bedlefi<d^  ko  bis  fittfaer-s  wisbes,  but  witb 
great  rehelsanc^,  he  qtfhted  Hollahd  in  Noveniber  1^66. 

On  his  rbtniiii^e  Sertiii  (^BODtiimes  Mr.  Coxb,  from  whose 
ingenro^  tap^^U  tbeise  pariioolars  ai^  ettti^od),  bis  only 
couMiatiw  in  being  separaited  from  bis  ^iefada  in  Holland, 
and  in  baftiAg  Idst  so  niAny  oppdrtunities  nf  improving  him- 
setif  in  natural  biitefy^  consisted  in  paKing  into  order  ibw 
numerous  materials  be  bad  collected^  and  the  obteri^ationa 
be  was  ineediahtlj^  rit^akingj  aod  ih  giving  tbbm  to  the  pnb- 
Ke.  He  bad,  l^everi  fcabrcely  begun  to  poblfish  bfi» 
<'  Spicilegia  Zoologica/'  before  he  was  intited  by  tbe^m^- 
press  Oai:barine  tt.  to  accept  of  tbe  profeasc/rship  of  natural 
history  in  the  Imperial  Academy  of  Seteneea 'at  Si.  Peters*: 
burghl  Although  in  thtl  instance  his  fa^hfer  |ind  relatione 
again  refused  their  assent ;  yet  ibe  au%6f*s  ardent  ze^l  f^r 
bifi  favourite  sdien^ee,  jbinefd  to  an  irresistible  desire  to  visit 
regions  so  littteeitplorefd,  indueedbi^^  without  a  niomeiitfi 
ttestutibn,  to  aicoede  to  the  invitatioh,  and  to  hasten  his  de-^' 
partare  fo^  a  Country  v^bere  bis  ouriority  was  so  likely  tta 
be  amply  gratified.  H^  accordingly  quitted  Berlin  iii  June 
i[76ty  and  arrived  at  Pe'teisbnt^giontike  loth  bf  Aogust. 

taade^hid  ^p<ea#an«ii  amoug  tb^  Raasiafis  at  a  drittcal 


M  P  A  L  L  A  % 

period.  The  empress  had  already  brder^  the  Academfjf 
of  Sciences  to  send  astronomers  into  varioiis  parts  of  the 
Russian  empire,  to  observe  the  transit  of  Venus  over  tbo 
^un-s  disk  in  1769.  Being*  just  returned  ffom  a  voyage 
4lown  the  Volga,  and  from  visiting  the  interior  provinces 
of  European  Russia,  she  bad  perceived  the  deficiencies  of 
ihe  topographical  and  geographical  accounts,  and  antici-* 
pated  the  advantage  of  deputing- learned  and  skilful  men  to 
visit  the  distant  provinces  of  her  extensive  dominions.  For 
this  purpose  Catharine  had  directed  the  academy  to  send^ 
jn  company  with  the  astronomers,  the  most  s^ble  naturalists 
and  philosophers.  Pallas  instantly  offered  to  accompany 
this  expedition;  and  was  as /eagerly  accepted.  He^  was 
immediately  charged  with  drawing  put  general  instructions 
for  the  naturalists,,  and  wias  gratified  with  the  choice  of  hia 
associates.  To  him.was  submitted,  at  hjis  own  request,  tb^ 
conduct  of  the  expedition  to  the  east  of  the^  Volga,  and  to-< 
wards  the  extreme  parts  of  Siberia ;  and  be  was  the  most 
calculated  for  tliat  expedition, .  as  the  elder  Gmelin,  who 
bad  been  bis  precursor  in  those  regions,  bad  almqst  en^ 
tirely  neglected  the  zoology  of r  those  remote .  districts. 
Pallas  employed  the  winter  previous  to  his  departure  in 
fiH'ming  a  systematic  catalogue  of  the  animals  in  the  cabi-^ 
net  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences ;  in  putting  into  order  the 
celebrated  collection  of  professor  Breyn  of  Dantzic,  latiely 
purchased  by  prince  Orlof;  in  preparing  for  the  press  six 
numbers  of  his  '^  Spicilegia  Zoologica,'-  which  were  printed 
during  his  absence,  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Martin  ;  and 
in  forming  the  necessary  arrangements  and  notices  for  bi& 
intended,  expedition. 

At  lengthy  in  June  1768,  he  quitted  Petersburg,  itt 
company  with  Messrs.  Falk,  Lepekin,  and  Guldenstadt,  as 
bis  associates ;  passed  through  Moscow,  Vlodimir,  Kasi-^ 
mof,  Murom,  Arsamas,  to  Casan  ;  and  having  examined 
great  part  of  that  province,  wintered  at  Simbirsk.  From 
thence  he  departed,  in  March  of  the  following  year ;  and 
penetrated  through  Samara  and  Orenburg,  as  farasGurief, 
)a  small  Russian  fortress,  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the  river 
Yaik  or  Ural.  There  he  examined  the  confines  of  Kalmuo 
Tartary,  and  the  neighbouring  shores  of  the  Caspian,  and 
xeturning  through  the  province  of  Orenburg^  passed  the 
second  winter  at  Ufa.  After  several  expeditions  in  the  ad<r 
jaceqt  parts  of  that  province,  be  left  Ufa  on  the  I6tb  of 
May  1770;    prosecuted  hia  route  ibroogb  the  Uralian 


9  K  tL  t  A  S.  #« 

ivbiinitm8.'to'C^tban«(e^b«K^b;  \i3]t^d'lhtf  tfiines  of  \hat 
jdistrict;  ':pi^oc^dedtb'Teb4Uabihik^  a  small  fohressin  the 
goirernment  of  Ontubnrg* ;  and  in  Deeember  made  itii  ex-^ 
cuYsion  M  far-as  Tobolsk.  The  nextj^ear  he^was  employed 
in  traTttrsing  the  Altai  mouolains,  and  in  tracing  tbe  course 
«f/tbeIftisbtip'toOinskand  Koly van  f  where  having  in'^ 
apected  the  ceiobtaiced'  siltKer  raines^  b^-  made  for  Tomsk^ 
and  finished  tkac yeav'scfsptiditioti^a);  t^rdsnoyarsk/  a  tfowii 
upon  tbe¥enisei<  ^In^'thstt  place^  Mtuated  only  in  56"*  nortH 
latitude^  the  ooldwas.^  tnt^ns^,*  that  the  learned  prbfessoi^ 
WAS  ^Mficness  to  tbe  natural  freezing iof  '(jiiteksilver ;  whicii 
0ui»obs  f>h4nofliiehoni;be  has  ^mtnotely' described.  Froiri 
Krasnoyarsk  be  liaiied>  On  tbe  7tb  of  Marcb^  i772  ;^  afnd 
proceed«d  ^by  Irkutsk^  And  aaroissr  the  lake  Baikal/  td 
Udinsk^  Selenginsk^  arMi.KiaktayMvfaere  the  trade  between 
iltiS9ia.and  China' is^piinoipally  carried  on.^ '  Having pen^^ 
tcated  litito  that  poet  ot  Dauria^  nd^eh  is  situated  in'  t^e 
soutb-easternniostztpaipt?  erf  iMberia^  he  Journeyed*  between 
tberiveralngoda  ami  Argoon^^iae  no  great/distanoe  frOnr 
tbe  Amoor;  thence  tracing  the  linea 'wbicb  separate' the 
Russian  enspvOifrcpn  £kei  Mongul  bovdea  dependent  lipion 
Cfaina^  be  rensmed  io  iSelenginsk,  and  a^aiti^  idt^inteFed  a^ 
KcaanoyajTsk.  ill!  tbe  aununer  of  1 7  7»S^  her  visited  Ttkt^^ 
¥aitak^<«iDd  ^atracaii^^and  ooDcbided  'bis.roote  for  tb^tr 
}sear  at  Tdsariixinr^  a  txmu  upon* tbe  :Vei|^ai:;''from»  whence-h<? 
eoatinued^bis  joarney  :ip  the  ensoingi  spring ;« 'and ' arrived^ 
at^Petec^burg  on  the  30tb  of  Jjuly,  1.374^  aftei^  anabeericef 
of'sixyiearsi  •'---'' -<  ;■■  i'--"-  '.^  *  •  '- 
•  The  account  ofi^tbis  extenstv^'^nd  interesUngtour  was 
published  by  Dr.  PaUais  in  (itfr^vol nines,  4tt)>  wtiich  greatly 
extepded  bis '  fame,  and  eitablisbed  bis  cbaracter;  ^^be* 
author,,  in  this:  valuable  work^  bas^enaetfed  intp  a  ge^ra^ 
phical  and  topograpbical  description:  of  tbe  px'ovin^i^Syi 
towjis,  and  vjfilages,  wbicb*  he  visited  in-  bis  ton i",  adcotn-; 
panied  with  an  accurate  detail  of  their  antiqoitie^  history,' 
prodactions,  and  cot»meroe«  He  has  discrimihatfed-  man/* 
0f  tbe  tribes  who  wander  over  the  various  districtfi^and  near 
tbe.confines  of  Siberia;  and. specified  with  ^peiiuttar  pHre0« 
sioR  their  costoma,  manners,  and  languages  >  .be*  has  also* 
rendered*  his  trav^s  invaluable  to  the  naturali$ty  by -the 
maay.iiBportant  discoveries  ill  the  animai,- vegecUble^  and 
mifier'al  kingdoms,  ^witb  wbicb.be  bas  eanched  the  science 
of  natural  faistory.  ^  - 
;  ;Xwqp  y«ara  afterwai'ds,.  ia  177&,  tbe  pcofessor  published 


H  P  A  £.  t  A  8. 


^i9l?9vy  of  tbe  Mongul  tribiei ;  is  vfjnch.  be  throws  mlr 
li|^  t  on  ihe  ftnudls  ol  a  people^  wbosa^  aBceslors.  oonqveeid 
BiMisia,  Cbina,  Persia,  a«d  Hiildoi>sUO)  and,  alwoiotbaa 
ooq  periodi  0sliablisbed  pechaps  a  latter  empife  tban  over 
m9fi  possessed  bj  any  single-Aaliioiu  Mr.  Pallassbeci  proTbs 
luique^tionably  ibal  tbe  Mongiil  iribei  aie  a  distiriot^tafie 
Iromr  tbe  Tartavs ;  IbnbJtbejr  di&r  ffoca  tbofe  in  tbeiK  £aa» 
loresi  language^  aad 'geirernaient ;  and  resemble  them  ia 
MtbiQg  except  iti  ^a  siaiilar  propebsiiy  to  a  roving  life.  M4 
iiueoded  a  secoiidi  v^ne^  deacribiog  tbeir  rcligiow  esta^ 
blisbmeml,  oofisistiQ^  int  tbe  wdrsbip  of  Ibe  Dsdbu^ijtmoi 
]t  is  tbe  raligiofti>f  Thibet  aad  of  the  Maacbbur  sofemtgiy^ 
wbo.iKm  sit  upon  tbe  fcbmne  of  Cbtoa.  '  <<  A  vaarhi^'  as 
]tfr.  Tooke,  ia  his  BqssMk  Ilfasttafc%  latrodi  p^  exU  justly 
observes^  <^  that,  will  ^hinob  the  stoobof  human  knowledge 
wkfa  disQov^ies,  the  malest  part  entirely  new,  aad  wfaich 
no  persOQ  but  Mr.  Palla&is  able  lo  ceoKinNHeate.'*  Wbe<^ 
tber,  boKiTeYer,  this  seeood ,  irokiBie  ever  ibade  its  appeaa^ 
9iifie,  we  have  oiirdoobts* 

lo  the  leme  )war  ia  wbieh  Sis.  PaUaa  ptlnied  fats  **  Ekm 
fbiis  iSoophytoi^iMii^''^ ha tdso  jmUbhed  atrealise  nhder  th# 
t^H^e  of  <^  Miacetianea  .Zoologiew  qoifaus  ncnrss  impnmioakir 
fM^/obsieunsf  anianalimtaapeciea  descnbuDtal^  el^  obaarea^ 
liooibiiaiioofiibuiqueilki^saQtM.'^  This  work  is  ia  angtwat 
fsgwqye  ineorpoiiatwd  inlir asnbaeqaettt  wiiblioitiooi  sbade 
^  neiit'yeac on  bis  return  to  Berlin,  eotitied  ^'Sfxiciiegaa 
Zoologica,''  and  was  continued  in  numbers,  wt/mcuuti^ 
till  hl^.  Tbe  vdrka  of  ooontt  Buiffon^  the  ilbislrious 
Fireocb  2MX)lQgist^  wipfy  ^Ulest  the  Isboiirs  cf  PaUas  y  and 
9ar.coi}otfymao;Mr6  Pennant  makes  frequent  adkiiowledg«i 
ments  of  bis  QbligatioBs.  to^the  same  sowreoi  paiiidaul^riy  foa 
bis  hiiitory  of  qnadsupeds  and  arctic  aoology*  b  ^Inne  ITf^jj 
the  learaed'  professQfi  read  be&oe  tbe  academy  of  Pcilora>« 
burgb^u)  a  meeting  at  which  thelungof  SwedcawaS'piesmit^ 
a  dwerfcation  qa  the  forulKatidn  of  raoniitains^  aad  Jhe  dbaageii 
which  this  gtobe  has  undergone^  more*  partionlarly  asi  i^ 
appeara  in  the  Ruasian  empire.  Tbia  treatise^  appeared^  acn 
c^rtoua  to  Mip,.Todkev  who  was  also^  as^a  member  of  .^e^ 
academy,  present  at  thatt  sitting,  tfaafthe  bas.tgirenfttrMSM 
buion  of  it  in  bis.^<  Russia  Ulustrata.''  In  1778;  the  doe^nsr 
p«ibtisbed  *^  Nov»' species  quadrupedum  e  Glirinmoiditi^'*' 
describing  numbers  of  the. rat  genus  and  their  fuialonoy^ 
In^nai  hebcooght  oiit  <^  Snuctif folio fj^eiltariiai/ q!^^ 


9  A  h  L  A  9.  5f 

hiM0  Proeopil  i  Dtmldof  Moteiift  Tigmt;*'  w  Mldttgoe  of 
the  plaoM  HI  M*  Bimid^f't  gafdetta  at  Moaeom  His  bmt 
tunthent  ^roUadiMls  os  vtiaDua  a«ibj4eti^  is  gtogimpbjs  ii*> 
ittlai  biatoiy^  md  «gpficilkiii^»  oa«t  fbrtii  tbe  smm  year  $ 
te  wluali  #ere  4fMrwaMla  sddild  Mq  aiMa.  TotttaMfl; 

In  I7M  be  pvklovtb  twofaaaieiritortiuinkQrf  of  ^itsonea 
ittsectarom  praBseitibr  Rassm  Stbferteqoe  pdcnltanmii/'  M 
»««  ha  puUitlteit  tbar first  ovttber  of  bii  <'  Elbra  BJdsaica;** 
at-qrfftoiid  m6tki  esMOtited/ an  «hn  €it>pteia  GatbalricM^a  ost^ 
pateOi  Abmt  tbi»  period  her  ma|eiff  c^iceived-  iho  ikfelt 
^  eoHeeiifif  froaa  ait  ^nairtera  <lf  Jkte  gtobeio  vttihroraal  to^ 
mkmlmty,  Ihe  fcoperilueQdaBca  wfaet*^  she  oommtttad  14 
e«#  Mtbor^  Ubich  secksaarily  iar  a  tiflko  tetirded  his  aoo^ 
logical  leaoarchos*  fixoliiaivo  of  ih^o  aopdrato  ptrirlica^ 
tioQsj  be  pnotod  in  the  acta  of  die  ianiicaial  acotiemy  of 
iKuenoei>  varioln  toolejgioal  and  bottmieal  diiiertations.  v 

Not  long-  aftdr  tbia  he>  woa  diattngiriaiied  by  ftpeouiiar 
mtaik  of  iaiperial 'CisNNir^  in  being  appointed  member  of 
ibo'boiLrd  of  mthosi  vitb  ao  additionai  salary  qf  960l.  per 
aanaiti,.  and  b^nbured  with  the  order  of  St.  Vlodiioin  Thd 
eanpveas  albo  poitcbaaed  Ida  aoiplefcellectton  of  naitiiiral  fai«« 
tory^  inonmanorbigMy  flottoring  to*  themuthor,  and  boi 
noliri^ble  to  berael£  8faa  not  only  goeebtm  five  thoosand 
mbiba  aaore  than  he  bad  valued  it  at^bm  infiofnied  btas  than 
itabo^  reibain  in  his  posscasioAdoring  bis 'life.  lo  1784 
the  eore-of  pnkting  in  order  and  publMhiag'  ther  papers  of 
Gaietia  and  profeaftor  Gnltenstaodt,  vatf  consigned  to  Dri 
Palboy  vbi^ii  h«  eaecated  Mth^great  diligence  ami  aeeo^ 
HM^;  bat^  for  aome  reasDo^-ibe  finit  voioaae  orfly  of  Oulten^ 
stttda*a remaiasbkt'appeafed.  In i7e4»  Dr.  Pallas  trareiked 
to  the  Giimeb^  tad  oa  hi^  return 'ptithtiafaed  his  <<  Physieot 
and  Tepagia|iliiefd:  pteturs  of  Twkide.**  Oe  hss  return^ 
fioduig  his  hi9altb^  by  long  and  iilceasai^  laboiirs^  upon  ttie 
deoiiiie^'So^a  t0ttefMler>iineoesaary  for  him  toremoae  ta^ 
naarii  oltonie,  bt  pitehednpon  Taurtda,  aad  faia  mnnigeooa 
peaaottoss^  the  enspiesil,  granted  hioi-an  estate  in*  tbat.pro<- 
vioc^  ea^  ^i^e  him  «  poesent  of  lO^OOa  rubles  towarda 
bis^esfeablisiMaea^-  Here  in  i^eoo;  be  ^saa  visited  by  I^.> 
Clarhei  sriKiiD  his  taie  ttavela^  baa  given  some  Interesting 
paftaaahrs  of  bis;  InteHnasrs .  vttb  him.  It  does  not  appeal^ 
thaa  Dr.  PaUaa  was  >udioiott&  in  selecting  this  place  iaa  onac 
in  which  liealtb  could  be  promotei^  nor  was  he  in  oth^r 
re^pectb  Irttbont  disappointments  wfaieb  embittered  his  de«» 
cliai^  days*    He  survived  Dr.  Clarke's  departure,  bow^ 


ts  1^  A  L  L  A  S. 

ever,  n^Mgards  6£ ten  years,  wfaen-detevtmnihg  oiTcf^  mtst^ 
to  see  bis  brother  and  his  native  city,'  b^  took  a  jdurney  td 
JBerlin,  wfaerebedied  Sept.  S,  1811,  in  the  71sti  ye^kf- of 
his  age;*-^The' collection  of  dried  plants,  fnade*  by  Pblia^ 
for  hts  own  use,  was  purehased  of  him  by  Mr j  CripfM;  th« 
companion  of  Dr.  Clarke,  and  now  form»  a  part  of  the  va- 
liiabie  mnseam  of. >A.  B,  Lambert,  esq.*  *  .  .  i 

' :  PALLAVICINO  (Ferrantb),  one  of  the  wits:  of  ftaty; 
the  aon  of  JerbmePallavicinoy  was  bom  at  Placentiei about 
il6l5,  or  from  that- to  16201  Less  front  iildfnlation;' than 
fcom'some  family  reasons,  he  entered  tfaw  congregation  Of 
Ahe.regoiar  oanons  of  Latran,  and  took  the  habit,  .mib'tbe 
name  of  Mark  Anthony,  in  their  house  at  Milan;;  AAiev 
GonbBiencing  his  stadies  here  with  much- success,  he  went 
te  Padaa  for  f»rtber  profieiency.  He  then  set^led^at  Ve-^ 
nice,  where  be  waa  cbo^n  a.  memb^  of  the  academy  of 
ibe  Ifieogniti.  Here  he  became  captttated  by  a  courtezan, 
ivboae  cliorms  proved- irresistible  fiand,  in  order  to  Jitfva 
the  fait  enjoyment  of  them  wttbont.  restraint,  be.obtainect 
}ea\'e  from:his.'g.enel^abto<iiiak0  tbe^'toorof  Fvance,  botM 
fact  oominued  privately >at  Yeniee,  .whiiefaefaad  thear^««» 
impose  upon  his  friefitls,' by  sendifug  them  frequently,  iti 
letters,  feigned  accsountS'Of  his  travels  throirgh  France^  -Vte 
aftenKatds  went  txy  Germany,  about  1639,  with  "duko 
Amalfi  in.  the  cfajaracter  of  his  diapiain^  During  thii( 
residence  inGomany^  which  lasted  about  sixteen  months^ 
be  .addicted  himself  to,  every  species  of  debauchery;  and  . 
having  a  turn  for  satire,  employed  hispen  in  repeated 
attacks  on  the  court  laf  Rome*  iti.generaly.and  on  tbe^Ifar^ 
barini  family  in  particular.  The  chief  vehicle  of  his  ^tirer 
was  a  publication  called  ^^Tbe  Courier  robbed  of  his  matlf^^ 
aad  this  as  well  as  hisi  other  worka  contained' sq  many  |)as6 
oeosiires  of  the  abuses  of  die  court  of  Rome,  that  he  mighv 
have*  been  ranked,  among  those  honourable  nsen  who  batA 
eontributed  to  enlighten:  bis  coonttymcn,.  *had  henot  beeir 
as  remarkable  for  his  indec^icies/  wbtcb  were  so  gross  that 
many  of  his  works  were  obliged  to  be  published  trader  con-^ 
cealed  names.  His  personal  attacks  on  the  pope,  and^tbe^ 
Barbarini  family,  naturally  rouaed  their  ittdignation ;.  ancit 
after  much  search,  foe  him,  one  Charles  Morfu,  a-French-^ 
man  of  a  vile  character,  engaged  to  ensnare  him,  and-hav^ 

.■•..,.:.•■■ 
1  Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  from  Coxe's  and  Clarke's  Trareb,— Toa^e^'f  Vipw  oC    . 
Ore  Russian  Empire. 


f.ALttAYlClNO:  $♦ 

$Ag  iniumaled  bi«i«elf .  into  bis  frieadship,  at  lengtff  ek^ 
iHurted'biai  to.  go  with,  him  to  France.  He  ftattered  hinv 
with  ibe  extraordinary  encouragement  which  was  given  to^ 
men  of  letters  by  cardinal  Richelieu ;  anJ,- to  deceive  hinr 
the  mor^,  even  produced  feigned  letters  frpna  the  cardinal^ 
inviting  our  author  to  France,  andexpressihg  a  desire  be^ 
had  to  esta1;>lish  in  Paris  an  aci^eniy  for  tbe  Italian  tongue,* 
under  the  direqiioo  of  Pallavioind  Pallavicino,  young,' 
thoughtless^  aud  densperate,  and  uow  fascinated  by  tbei 
prospect  of  gain,  left  Venjce  much  against  the  advice  of 
{lis  friends,  aod  went  first  to  Bergamo,  where  he  spent  a; 
few  days  with  spine  of. bis  relations,  who  entertaiaed  his 
betrayer.  Theyi  tb^n  set  out  ior  Geneva,  to  the -great 
satisfaction  of  our  author,  who  proposed  to  get  somJe  if  hit 
works  printed  there,  which  be  bad  notbeenable  to  doii^ 
Italy.  But  Morfa,  jr»stead  of  conducting  him  to  Paris, 
took  the  road  to  Avig>noi> ;  where,  cros^ng^  the  bridge  of 
Horaces,  in  the  county  of  Veinai:ssia.(in  the  pope's  tern* 
Tories),  they  were,  seized  by  pffieets  on  pretence  of  carrya. 
ing  contraband, goods,  and  confined.  Morfu  was  soon  dis-: 
charged,  and  liberally  rewadrded;.  butrPaHaTicini,  being^ 
^arriedt.to  Avignon,  waa  thrown  into  prison;  and,  afte<* 
being  kepti. there,  for  some  months,  was'brought  to  trial,- 
and  was  beheaded  in  1 643. or  1^44.  Those  who  are  de-* 
sirous  of  farther  information  respecting,  this  young  man^* 
unfortunate  lustory,  may  be  amply  gratified  in  .the  prolix' 
articles  drawa  up  by  Bayle,  aod  particularly  Marchand.' 
(iis  \yorks  were  first  published  collectively  at  Venice,  in^ 
1655,  4  vols.  12mo.  This  ^edition,  according  to  Marchand, 
contains  only  such  of  bis  works  as  had  hetn  permitted  to 
be  printed  in  bis  life-time.  Those  which  had  been  pro- 
hibited were  afterwards  printed  in  2  vols.  i2mOy  ac  Villa* 
/ranca„  a  Bctitious  name  for  .Geneva,  1 660:  Among  these 
is  a  piece  called  ^^  U  divortio  Celeste/'  which  some  deny^ 
to  be  his*  It  is  a  very  coarse  satire  on<the  abuses  of  thei 
Romish  church,  and  was  translated  aud  4>ubUsheduinEng* 
lish  in  1679,  under  the  title  of  '*  Christ  divorced  from  the* 
church  of  Rome  because  of  their  lewdness,**  Lond.  8vo.  ^ 

PALLAVICINO  (Sforza),  an  eminent  cardinal,  was^ 
the  son  of  the  Qiarquis  Alexander  Pallavicini  and  Frances 
^fprza,  and  born  at  Rome  in  1607.  Although  the  eldest 
ion  of  his  family,  yet  he  diose  the  ecclesiastical  life,  and 

« 

I  • 

I  Marcband.— Bayle.^*-Morffri. 


#«  PA  LLAVlCINa 

VM  y^rytMj  mtddabishopby  fbpe  Urimh  VtH.  Hiirh^iA 
ki«  eondnci  wds  so  «cceptablr,    thiit  be  ^s  kpp^ititksA 
Me  of  those  [icelb«e«  who  assist  in  tbe  aiH^ikibli^  idled 
congregations  at  Rome.     Re  Was  alw)  received  iiilb  lb§ 
fi^DftOHs  tcademj  df  the  Haroortstii  amon^  #b6tti  k<E^  dftea 
sal  in  quality  of  president*     He  wai  iike#iie 'gioveiinbt  6f 
•|ei»i,  and  aftek-wards  bf  Orvietto  and  Camerino,  trbd^  tbi^ 
above  pomiiF*    Bat  all  these  bonours  and  prefermi^hts  wertt 
in9uffieient  to  divert  him  from  a  design  be  b^d  for  s^ttilei' 
ISime  forkned  6f  renonncing  the  woiid,  and  enttting  into  tfili 
aoeielry  of  the  Jesuits,  where  he  was  admkted  in  1699.   Ai 
s<K>n'  aa  be  bad  cbmpieted  bis  noviciate  be  taught  i^bilo* 
at^b^y  atid  then  theology.    At  length  Innocent  X.  bb<< 
vriliued  lum  to  examine  into  divers  matterii  reladti^  to  thift 
peaKi6catd ;  and  Atexabder  VII.  credited  him  a  caHihal  in 
1657.   Tbis  pbpe  was  an  old  friend  of  Pallavicinb,  who  had 
been  lerticeable  to  bttn  when  be  caane  to  Rbtti^  wilh  the 
n^nne  of  Fabio  Cbsgi.    Pattavicino  had  even  ebrfttibuted  to 
advance  his  temporal  fovtime,  and  bad  received  him  into 
tbe  academy  of  tb^  Hbmoristt ;  in  gratitude  fbir  whicli^ 
Chigi  addressed  to  bim  sotne  verses,  printed  in  liis  bbol^ 
entitled  <^  Phiiomathi  Musai jtrrenites/'    Wb^n  PaU^idtib 
obtained  a  plaee  in"  tbe  saered  college,  be  Wa^  ;^1so  ap^ 
pointed  at  the  same  tim^  examiner  of.  tbe  biftbop^ ;  and  b^ 
wsis  afterwards  a  member  of  the  congregation  of  tbe  holy 
o€Bce,  r.  e.  the  inqnimion,  and  of  that  of  tbe  cobncil,  &c 
His  prcMnotioh  to  the  cardiMUte  wrought  no  cbat^ge  in  bla 
m^aaner  of  life,  which  was  devoted  to  study  or  tb  tbe  duAe^ 
of  bis  office.     He  died  in  1667,  in  bis  sixtieibj^ear. 

He  composed  a  *^  History  of  tbe  Couticit  of^^TVcnt,'*  ih 
opposition  to  that  by  father  Paul.  The  history  is'  w^ 
written,  and  contains  many  facts  given  with  imptirtialitj, 
but  the  general  design  is  a  laboured  defence  bf  the  pitie 
cecdinga  of  that  council.  It  was  originally  publisbed  m 
ItaKan,  IGS^j  2  vols,  fol.;  but  tbe  Lutbi  edition  by  Ota^ 
tino,  in  3)  vols.  4to,  is  preferred.  He  Was  th^  abthbir  bf 
vajrioos  other  works  that  are  now  in  littte  estifbaiion,  e^c^plt 
pdrbaps  bis  <^  Letters,'*  which  contain  s^e  partlbulars  of 
literary  Instory  and  criticism,  Imd  seoie  critical  treatises. ' 

PALLAVICINO,  orPALLAVlCINI  (HoAAtici),  was  of 
the  same  family  with  the  preceding  cardinal,  and  mf^rits  k 
brief  notice  here,  as  being  in  soiA^  Aegtt^  cbMect^  ^ii^ 
ear  history,  although  tbe  figure  he  makes  .in  it  has  not  been 

i  Fabroni  ViUe  lUloranif  vol.  XVII.— Landi  Hbt  de  Litt  d'ltsiM,  Vol.  V. . 


P  A  Lt^yiC  IVt  O.  SI 

tlK>i|ght tbQ  jsmt reputable.    TheFatOiil;  of  Pallavibilvo,  or, 
d$  spn(ietiine&  spelt,  Paiavioini,  is  on«  of  tbe  most  nobltt  and 
ftncient  in  Jtaly^  and  its  branches  have  extended  to  RooMe, 
{ienoa,  and  Looabardy.     Many,  of  them  appeat  to  have  at-^ 
tained  tbe  highest  ranlts  in  churcb,  state,  and  €pqinierce.  Sir 
fioratiQ,  the  subject  of  this  article,  belonged  to  the  Ge-i- 
tiQese  branch,  and  was  born  in  that  city,  but  leaving  Itaiyi 
>re9t  to  reside  in  tbe  Low  Countries,  whence,  after  mar<* 
ryiog  two  wives,  one  a  person  of  low  birtb,  whom  be  did 
iiQt  acknowledge,  ajid  ibe  other  a  lady  of  distinction,  ha 
c^me  over  to  England,  with  a  recommendation  to  queen 
^Iary,  probably  from  a  relation,  one  Rango  PalktvicinOi 
who  belonged  to  Edward  Vlth^s  hottsehold.     Miiry,  who 
\id4  then  i?estored  the  Roman  catholic  religion,  appointed 
jSorittio  collector  of  the  papal  taxes  to  be  gathered  in  thia 
iiingdoaiv  but  at  her  death,  having  a  largf  sum  of  money 
in  his  bands,  he  abjured  the  religion  of  Rome,  apd  thougbl 
it  no  batm  to  keep  (he  money*    This  transaction,  howev^r^ 
does^  not  appear  to  have  much  injured  bis  cbayaoter>  or 
pierh^Mi  time  bad  efiaced  the  remembrance  of  it;,  for  in 
i5S6  queen  Elizabedi  gave  him  a  patent  of  deniBMien^ 
lind  in  tb^  following  year  honoured  nim  willi  knighthiood« 
He '  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  courage,  and  wartnly 
i^poused  the  interests  of  th6  nation  at  a  most  critical  pe« 
Tied.     In  1538  he  fitted  out  and  commanded  a  ship  agaii^i 
ibe  Sjianisb  armada,  and  must  have  rendered  himself  con- 
spicaous  on  that  occasion,  as  his  portrait  is  given  in  th^ 
tapestry  iii  the  Hottse  of  Lords,  among  the  patriots  and 
fkiifttl  commanders  who  assisted  in  defieatii^  that  me* 
morable  attack  on  the  liberty  of  England.    The  queen  also 
employed  him  in  negociations  with  tbe  German  prineeHi 
and  in  raising  loans,  by  which  he  very  opportunely  assisted 
ber,  and  improved  bis  own  fortune.     Be  died  immcnseljl 
ficb,  July  6,  16Q0,  and  was  buried  in  tbe  church  of  Ba-* 
beiWn,  in  Cambridgeshire,  near  which,  at  Litde  Sbelfordy 
be  had  built  a  seat,  in  tbe  Italiain  style,  with  piazzas*     Ue 
bad  likewise  t^Q  considerable  miLnors  in  Essex,  aod  pro-" 
bably  landed    property  in  other  counties*    His  wioow; 
abont  a  yeair  after  his  death,  married  sir  Oliver  Cromwell, 
VLB.   and  bis  only  dangbter,   Baptina,    was  mamed  to 
Henry  Cromwell,  esq.  son  to  this  sir  Oliver,  who  was  uiicle 
tsk  the  usurper.:  H^  left  three  sons>  but  the  family  is  no¥^ 
unknown tn  England.* 

*  Noble's  Memoin  of  the  CromwelU.— ^Lodge's  lUustrations,  toI^  III.— Wal- 
pole'f  Anocdolet. 


^t  IP  A  L  L  J  O  T. 

.  PALLtOT  (Pet^r),  htstoriograpber,  printer,  ih&'h(uM^ 
Heller  to  the  Icing,  and  genealogist  of  the  duchy  of  Bur-« 
gundy,  was  born  at  Paris,  March  19,  1608.  In  his  youth 
he  sho)ved  a  taste  for  genealogy,  and  beraldtc  stadies,  ift 
^faich  be  appears  to  have  been  instructed  and  encouraged 
by  his  relation,  Louvaiis  Gelliot,  who  published  a  work  oti 
iirinarial  bearings..  In  his  twenty-fifth  year  he  settled  at 
Dijon,  where  he  married  Vivanda  Spirinx,  the  daughter  of 
a  printer  and  bookseller,  with  whom  he  entered  into  busi-« 
ness.  At  bis  leisure*,  hours,  however^  he  still  continiled 
his  heraldic  researches,  and  laboured  with  so  much  per-* 
severance  in  this  s^tudy  as  to  produce  the  following  works  5 
J,.  *^  Le  parlemeut  de  Bourgogne,  avec  lesrarmoiries,*VA.Ci 
3660,  fol. .  2.  **  Genealogie  dcs  comte&'d'Amansfe,*'  fol; 
3*  ^^La.vraie  et  p^rfatte  science  des  Armoiries  de  Gelliot) 
avec  de  plus^  de  600O  ecussons,"  1660,  fol.  4*  *^^Hisfarrd 
^eneajogique  de  comtes  de  Chamilli.'*  5. '^  Extraits  d^ 
}a  chambre  des  comptes  de  Bourgogne,  foL  He  left  also 
thirteen  volumes  of  MS  collections  respecting  the  families 
of  Biirgundy.  It  is  an  additional  and  remarkable  proof  of 
his  industry  and  ingenuity,  that  be  engraved  the  whole  of 
the  plates  in  ibese  volumes  with  bis  own  hand.  His  bistor^p 
pf  the  parliament  of  Burgundy  was  continued  by  Peticoti 
and  published  in  17S3.  Palliot  died  at  Bijon  in  1698,  at 
Ihe  age  of  eighty-nine.*    . 

,  PALMA  (Jacob),  an  eminent  artist,  born  at  Serinalto,  \ti 
the  territory  of  Bergamo,  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  was  a  disciple  of  Titian.  Heemulated  bis  master'^ 
manner,  but,  according,  to  Fuseli^  v^as  more  anxious  to  attaint 
the  colour  and  breadth  of  Giorgioni.  This  appears  chiefiy 
in  his  **  St.  Barbara." :  His  colouring  had  extraordinary 
strength  und  brightness,  and  his  pictuves  are  wrought  to  great 
perfection)  yet  with  freedom,  and  withoiit  the  appearance 
of  labour.  Yasari  describes,  with  great  fqrvbur,  a  compos 
sition  of  the  elder  Palma^  at  Venice,  representing  tbe  shif^ 
in  which  the  body  of  St.  Mark  was  brought  from  Alexan- 
dria tp  Venice,  *'  In,  that  grand  design,"  he  says,  ^*  tbe 
vessel  was  struggling  agaiust  the  fury  oT  an  impetuous  tem^ 
pest,  and  is  expressed  with  tbe  utinost  judgment ;  the  dis* 
tress  of  the  maripers,  tbe  violent  bursting  of  the  wAvM 
agaiiist  the  sides  of  tbe  ship,  the  horrid  gloom,  only  eit^ 
Uvened  with  flashes  of  lightoihg^  and  every  part  of  the 

1  MQreri.--2)ict.  Hitt 


$cetie  filled  with  iinag:«s  of  terror^  sfre-  ^iir^ng^  sa  lively, 
and  naturally  represented,  that  it  seema  impossible  for  ih6 
2>ower  of  colour  or  pencil  to  rise  to  a  higher  pitch,  of- truth 
and  perfection;  and  that  performance  very  deservedly 
gained  him  the  highest  applfkqse/'  Notwithstanding  this 
deserved  praise^  his  pictures  in  general  are  not  correct  in 
design,  and  his  latter^  works  did  not  maintain  his  early  re*<» 
putation.  He  died,,  according  to  Vasari,  at  the  age  of 
forty- eight,  but  in  what  year  is  not  absolutely  kuown,  aU 
though  some  (ix  it  in  1588. ' 

PALMA  (Jacob)}  the  Young,  so  called  in  contradis* 
tinction  of  the  preceding  Jacob,  his  great-uncle,  may  he 
considered  as  the  last  master  of  the  good,  and  the  first  of 
the  bad  period  of  art  at  Venice.  Born  in.  1544,  he  left  the 
ficanty  rudiments  of  his  father  Antonio,  a  weak  painter,  to 
ftudy  the  works  of  Titian,  apd  particularly  those. of  Titii^ 
^oretto,  whose  spirit  and  slender  disengaged  forms  were 
congenial  to  his  own  taste.  At  the  age  of  fifteen  be  was 
iaken  under  the  protection  of  the  duke  of  Urbino,  carried 
to  that  capital,  and  for  eight  years  maintained  at  Rome, 
where,  by  copying  the  antique,  Michael  Angelo^  Raphael^ 
^nd  more  than  all,  Polidoro,  he  acquired  ideas  of  correct- 
ness, style,  and  effect:  these  he  endeavoured  to  embody 
if)  .the  first  worli^s  which  he  produced  after  his  return  to 
Venice,  and  there  are  who  have  discovered  in  them  ait 
union  of  the  best  maxims  of  the  Romau  and  Yenetiaa 
schools :  *they  are  all  executed  with  a  certain  facility  which.* 
i^  tbe<great  talent  of  this  master,  but  a  talent  a9  dangerous 
in  painting  as  in  poetry.  He  was.  not,  however,  success- 
ful in  his  endeavours  to  procure  adequate  eiuployment ; 
the  posts  of  honour  and  emolument  were  occupied  by  Tin- 
toretto and  Paul  Veronese,  and  he  owed  his  consideration 
as  the  third  in  rank  to  the  patronage  of  Vittoria,  a  fa-, 
shionable  architect,  sculptor,  and  at  that  time  supreme 
umpire  of  commissions :  he,  piqued  at  the  slights  o£  Paul 
and  Robusti,  took  it  into  his  bead  to,  favour  Palma,  ta 
assist  him  with  his  advice,  and  to  establish  his  name.  Ber- 
sini  is  said  to  have  done  the  same  at  Rome,  in  favour  of 
Fietro  da  Cortona  and  others,  against  Sacchi,  to  the  de-. 
struction  of  the  art;  and,  adds  Mr.  Fuseli,  as  men  and 
passions,  resemble  each  other  in  all  ages,  the  same  will 
probably  be  related  of  some  fashionable  architect  of  our; 
aime^. 

*  PlIkiDgton.— -D'ArjeQTHIe,  vol.  I. ' 


M  P  A  L  M  A. 

.  Pafada,  orerwbekned  hy  coiiraihsionS}  soon  relaxed  flrom 
hisvvonted  dtligeilK^e;  and  bis  carelessness  increased  when; 
at  ibe  dealb  of  bis  former  competitors,  and  of  Leonard<> 
Corona,  bis  nevr  rival,  he  found  himself  alone  and  in  pos^ 
session  of  the  field.  His  pictures,  as  Cesare  d*Arpino  told 
]bim,  were  seldom  more  than  sketches ;  sometimes,  indeed^ 
wben  time  a«^d  pride  were  iefk  to  bis  own  discre^n,  in 
which  he  did  not  abornid^  b^  prodnced  some  work  worthy 
ef  bh  former  fame ;  snob  as  the  aliar-piece  st  8.  Cosmo 
and  Damiano ;  the  celebrated  Naval  Battle  of  Francesco 
Bembo  in  tbe  pdi)li^,p«lae^ ;  the  S.  Apolkmiaat  Cremona  j 
18c  Ubaldo  and  the  Nunziata  at  Pesaro ;  the  Ffndmg  of  tbe 
Cross  at  Urblno :  works  partly  unknown  to  Ridoifi,  but  of 
rich  compo3itiofi,  fall  of  beauties,  variety,  and  expression, 
Hia  tints  ffesb,  sweet,  and  transparent,  less  gay  than  those 
•f  Paul,  but  livelier  than  those  of  Tintoretto,  though 
aiigfatly  laid  on,  sjtili  preserve  ^eir  bloom.  In  vivacity  of 
expression  he  is  not  much  inferior  to  either  of  those  masters; 
and  his  Plague  of  the  Bdrp^nts  at  8t.  Bartolomeo  may  vit 
for  features,  gestures,  and  bnes  of  horror,  with  the  same 
gnfa^e^t  by  Tintoretto  in  the  school  of  St  Rocco :  t>ot  none 
ef  his  pictures  are  without  some  commendable  part;  and 
it  surprises  that  a  man,  from  whom  the  depravation  of  iftyle 
may  be  dated  in  Venieo,  as  from  Vasari  at  Florence,  and 
Zttccari  at  Rome,  should  still  preserve  so  many  chatms  of 
aatuf  e  and  art  to  attract  the  eyeand  interest  the  heart.  Re 
died  in  1628,  in  the  eighty«-fourlh  year  of  his  age.'^- 
•  PALMER  (HERfiBRT),  a  learneHil  and  pious  divine,  was 
tbe  second  son  of  sir  Thomas  Palmer,  knt.  Of  Wiiigham,  in 
Kent,  where  be  was  bbrn  in  1601.  He  was  educated  at 
St.  John^s  college,  Can^bridge,  but  was  afterwards  chosen 
fisllow  of  Queen^s.  In  1626  arehbisbop  Abbot  licensed 
bim  to  preach  a  lecture  at  Stv  Alphage'^  church  in  Can- 
terbury, every  Sunday  aftei»nQOn  ;  but  three  years  after,  he 
was  silenced,  on  a  charge  of  noheORformity,  fOratime,  but 
was  again  restored,'  the  accusation  being  fpund  trffling. 
Although  a  puritan,  bis  character  appeared  so  amiabte  that 
bishop  Laud  presented  him  in  16S2^  with  tbe  vicafage  bf 
Asbw«U)  in  Hertfordshire,  and  when  the  unfortunate  prelate 
was  brought  ta  bis  trial,  he  cited  this  asan  instance  of  bh 
impartiality.  -At  Ashwell  Mr.  Pdmer  became  no  less  po- 
[Mar  than  be  bad  been  at  Canterbury.     In  the  same  year 

;     »  PilkingtQu.— jp'Ar|ot^Tim»  TfU  I- 


PALMER.  6S 

be  was  chosen  one  of  the  prctachers  to  the  nniyersity  of 
Cambridge,  and  afterwards  one  of  the  clerks  in  convoca-^ 
tipn.  In  1643,  when  the  depression  of  the  hierarchy  had 
mad^  great  progress,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  assembly  of 
divines,  in  which  he  was  distinguished  for  his  moderation, 
afid  his  aversion  to  the  civil  war*  He  preached  also  at 
various  places  in  London  until  the  followihg^  year,  wheii 
the  earl  .of  Manchester  appointed  him  master  of  Queen*s 
college,  Cambridge.  He  preached  several  times  before 
^he  parliament,  and  appear^  to  haVe  entered  into  theii* 
views  in  most  respects,  although  his  sermons  were  generally 
of  the  practical  kind.  He  did  not  live,  however,  to  see  tlijer 
issue  6f' their  proceedings,  as  he  died  in  1647,  aged  fprty-^ 
six.  Graiiger  gives  him  the  character  of  a  man  of  uncom*- 
jDon  learning,  generosity,  and  politeness,  and  adds,  that  he 
spoke,  the  French  language  with  as  much  facility  as  his 
own.  .  Clark  enters  more  fully  into  his  character  as  a 
diviiie.  His  works  are  not  numerous.  Some  of  his  par- 
fianaentary  sermons  are  in  prints  and  he  had  a  considerable 
tixw6  in  the  **  Sabbatum  Redivivum,"  with  Cawdry ;  but 
hjU  principal  work,  entitled  *^  Memorials  of  Godliness,^* 
acquired  great  popularity.  The  thirteenth  edition  was 
printed  in  1708,  12mo.  ^ 

iPALMER  (John),  a  dissenting  writer  of  the  last  century^ 
was  born  in  Southwark,  where  bis  father  was  an  undertaker^ 
and  of  the  Calvinistic  persuasion.  Under  whom  he  received 
his  classical  education  is  not  known.  In  1746  be  begs^ii 
to  attend  lectures,  for  academical  learning,  under  the  rev. 
Dr.  David  Jennings,  in  Wellclose  square,  London.  Sooa 
after,  leaving  the  academy,  about  1752,  he  was,  on  the 
rev.  James  Read's  being  incapacitated  by  growing  disorders, 
chosen  as  assistant  to  officiate  at  the  dissenting  me€^ting 
in  N^ew  Broi^rstreet,  in  coi^unction  with  Dr.  Allen ;  and 
on  the  renioval  of  the  latter  to  Worcester,  Mr.  Palmer  wa« 
ordained  sole  pastor  of  this  congregation  in  1759.  He 
continiied  in  this  connection  till  1780,  when  the  society, 
greatly  reduced  in  its  numbers,,  was  dissolved.  For  a  great 
part  of  this  time  be  filled  the  post  of  librarian,  at  Dr.  Wii- 
lianis's  library,  in  Red- Cross-street.  After  the  dissolution 
pi  his^  congregation  he  wholly  left  off  preaching,  and  re- 
tired to  Islington,  where  he  lived  privately  till  his  death,  on 
Jttoe  26^  1790^  in  the  sixty-first  year  of  his  ag^.     He  mar^- 

t  Claik't  LiT«l.«»Cd«^  US  Mbegm  in  Brit  ICiu.— drufer. 

Vol.  XXIV.  F 


$&  PALMER. 

ried  a  lady  of  considerable  property,  and  daring  the  latter 
years  of  bis  life  kept  up  but  little  connection  with  the  dis* 
senters.  H^  was  a  man  of  considerable  talents,  and  acr- 
counted  a  very  sensible  and  rational  preacher.  His  pulpit 
compositions  were  drawn  up  with  much  perspicuity,  and 
delivered  with  propriety.  He  allowed  himself  great  lati- 
tude in  his  religious  sentiments,  and  was  a  determined 
enemy  to  any  religious  test  whatever.  Tests,  indeed,  must 
have  been  obnoxious  to  one  who  passed  through  all  the 
accustomed ,  deviations  from  Calvinism,  in  which  he  had 
been  educated,  to  Socinianism. 

He  published,  besides  some  occasional  sermons,  1^'^Pray-, 
ers  for  the  use  of  families  and  persons  in  private;  with  a 
preface,  containing  a  brief  view  of  the  argument  for  prayer,*^ 
1773,  12mo.  There  has  been  a  second  edition  of  these 
prayers,  which  are  much  admired  by  those  who  call  them-, 
selves  ratmial  dissenters.  2.  '^  Free  thoughts  on  the  in-, 
consistency  of  conforming  to  any  religious  test,  as  a  con- 
dition of  Toleration,  with  the  true  principle  of  Protestant 
Dissent,'*  1779.  3.  '^  Observations  in  defence  of  the  Li- 
berty of  Man,  as  a  moral  agent ;  in  answer  to  Dr.  Priestley's 
Illustrations  of  Philosophical  Necessity,*'  .1779,  8vo.  As 
the  doctor  replied  to  it,  '^  In  defence  of  the  Illustrations 
of  Philosophical  Necessity/'  'Mr.  Palmer  published,  4.  *'  An 
Appendix  to  the  Observations  in  defence  of  the  Liberty 
of  Man,  as  a  moral  agent,  &c«"  17^0,  8vo.  Thje  contro- 
versy terminated  with  ^^  A  second  Letter  to  the  rev.  John 
Palmer,"  by  Dr.  Priestley.  5.  "  A  summary  view  of  the 
grounds  of  Christian  Baptism  ;  with  a  more  particular  re- 
lierence  to  the  baptism  of  infants  ;  containing  remarks,  ar- 
gumentative and  critical,  in  explanation  and  defence  of  the 
rite. .  To  which  is  added,  a  form  of  service  made  use  of  x>ii 
such  occasions,"  8vo.* 

PALMIER!  (Matthew),  an  Italian  chronicler,  was  born 
in  1405,  at  Florence;  and  after  being  educated  under  the 
best  masters,  arrived  at  high  political  rank  in  the  republic,, 
was  frequently  employed  on  embassies,  and  was  promoted 
to  the  great  dignity  of  gonfalonier.  He  died  in  1475.  He 
compiled  a  general  "  Chronicle"  from  th^  creation  to  his 
own  time;  of  which  a  part  only  has  been  published,  includ- 
ing the  events  from  .the  year  447  to  1449.     The  first  edi- 

»' Life  by  Mf.Toulmin  in  MontbJy  Ma^:  for  1797.— WilWtt»«  Hiitory  ©f  DU- 
sentiag  Cburchfi. 


;?  A  L  M  I  £  R  I*  67 

lion  was;  poblished^  at  the  end  of  Ensebius*  Cfaroniclf^ 
without  date  or  place,  but,  as  supposed,  at  Milan  in  14?5, 
4to.  It  was  reprinted  at  Venice  in  1483,  4to.  It  was 
continued  to  the  year  1482,  by  Matthias  Palmieri,  who» 
although  almost  of  the  same  names,  was  neither  his  relatiou 
jitor  country maUk  This  Matthias  was  a  native  of  Pisa^  waa 
apostolical  secretary,  and  accounted  a  very  able  Greek  an<i 
Latin  scholar.     He  died  in  his,  sixtieth.year,  in  1483. 

Besides  his  **  Chronicle/'  Matthew,  or  Matteo,  Pal- 
mieri wrote  in  Latin  the  life  of  Nicolas  Acciajuoli,  .grandr 
seneschal  of  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  which  is  printed  ia 
the  thirteenth  volume  of  Muratori^s  '^  Script.  Rer.  Ital.  ;*'  a 
work  on  the  taking  of  Pisa  by  the  Florentines,  '^  De  cap- 
tivitate  Pisarum,"  printed  in  Muratori's  nineteenth  volume^ 
and,  ^n  Italian,  *^  Libro  della  vita  civile,^*  written  in  the 
form  of  dialogues*  and  printed  at  ^Florence  in  1529,  iSvo* 
It  was  tuaoslated  into  French  by  Claude  des  Rosiers,  Paris, 
1557,  8vo.  Palmieri  was  also  a  poet.  He  composed  ia 
the  terza  rima,  in  imitation  of  Dante,  a  philosophioal,  or 
rather  a  theological,  poem,  which  had  great  celebrity  ia 
bis  day :  its  title  was  *^  Citta  di  Vita,*'  and  was  divided 
into  three  books,  and  an  hundred  chapters.  But  having 
^idvanced,  among  other  singular  opinions,  that  human  souU 
5vere  formerly  those  angels  who  remained  neuter  during 
the  rebellion  in  heaven  against  their  Creator,  and  were 
sent  to  the  world  below  as  a  punishment^  the  Inquisition^ 
after  his  death,  ordered  his  poem  to  be  burnt,  although  it 
had  never  been  published,  but  read  in  manuscript.  Some 
assert,  that  he  was  burnt  along  with  his  poem  ;  but  Apos« 
tolo  Zeno  has  proved  that  he  died  peaceably  in  1475,  and 
itas,  honoured  with  a  public  funeral,  by  order  of  the  state 
of  Florence,  that  Rinuccini  prpnounoed  his  funeral  ora-» 
tion,  and  that,  during  the  ceremony,  his  poem  was  laid  on 
bis  breast,  as  his. highest  honour.  ^ 

PALOMINO  (Don  Acislo  Antonio  y  Velasco),  a 
Spanish  painter  and  writer  on  the  art,  was  born  at  Buja- 
lance,  and  studied  at  Cordova  in  grammar,  philosophy^ 
.theology,  and  jurisprudence.  The  elements  of  art  he 
acquired  of  Eton  Juan  de  Valdes  Leal ;  and  to  acquaint 
Jiioftself  with  the  style  of  different  schooU^  went,' in  com- 
pany of  Don  Juan  de  Alfaro^  in  1 678,  to  Madrid.  Here 
.the  friendship  of  Carrenno  procuring  him  the  Cc^qpiission 

I  Tinbofchi.-^iDguen^  Hist.  titt.  d'ltalif-^CbSafepie.  '  ^  ~ 

F   3   , 


is  PALOMINO. 

of  painting  the  gallery  del  Cier^o,  be  pleased  the  king  und 
the  minister,  aqd  in  1688^  he  was  made  painter  to  the 
king.  He  was  now  overwhelmed  with  commissions^  for 
many  of  which>  notwithstanding  the  most  surprising  activity^ 
he  could  furnish  only  the  designs;  their  ultimate  finii^ 
was  left  to  the  hand  of  his  pupil  Dionysius  Vidal ;  but 
whatever  was  designed  and  terminated  by  himself,  in  frescd 
or  in  oil,  possesses  invention,  design,  and  colour,  in  the 
essefntial;  and  what  taste  and  science  could  add,  in  the 
ornamental  parts.  His  style  was  certainly  more  adapted 
to  the  demands  of  the  epoch  in  which  he  lived,  than  to 
those  of  the  preceding  one,  and  probably  would  not  have 
libtained  from  Murillo  the  praises  lavished  on  it  by  Luca 
Giordano ;  but  of  the  machinists,  who  surrounded  him,  he 
was,  perhaps,  the  least  debauched  by  manner. 

Palomino  may  be  considered  as  the  Vasari  of  Spain  ;  as 
copious,  as  credulous,  as  negligent  6f  dates;  too  garru- 
lous for  energy,  and  too  indefinite  for  the  delineation  of 
character,  but  eminently  useful  with  the  emendations  of 
modern  and  more  accurate  biographers.  His  work  is  di- 
vided into  three  parts,  theoretic,  practic,  and  biographic. 
The  two  first  bear  one  title,  "  El  Museo  pictorico  y  es- 
cala  optica,"  1715,  2  vols,  folio.  The  third  part,  distin- 
guished by  that  of  '^  El  Parnaso  Espannol  Pintoresco  lau- 
reado,  &c.  Tomo  Tercero,  Madrid,"  1724,  though,  per- 
haps, only  intended  as  an  appendix  to  the  two  former,  is 
by  far  the  most  important  and  interesting,  l^alomino  died 
in  1726.* 

PALSGRAVE  (John),  a  polite  scholar,  who  flourished 
in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VII.  and  VIII.  was  a  native  of 
London,  and  educated  there^in  grammar.  He  afterwards 
studied  logic  and  philosophy  at  Cambridge,  at  which  uni- 
versity he  resided  till  he  had  attained  the  degree  of  bache- 
lor of  arts;  after  which  he  Went  to  Parisy  where  he  spent 
iteveral  years  in  the  study  of  philosophical  and  other  learn- 
ing, took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  acquired  such 
excellence  in  the  French  idngue,  that,  in  1514,  when  ^ 
treaty  of  marriage  was  ri^gotiated  between  Louis  XII.  king 
of  France,  and  th^  princess  Mary,*  sister  of  king  Henrj 
VIII.  of  England,  Mr.  Palsgrave  was  chosen  to  be  her 
tutor  in  tb^c  language.  But  Louis  XII.  dying  almost  im- 
ifnedia^y  after  his  marriage.  Palsgrave  attended  his  fair 

.         (  ....         * 

1  Pilkinglon,  by  FuselL 


PALSGRAVE.  69 

pupil  bdok  to  England,  where  he  taught  the. French  laur 
guage  to  many  of  the  young  nobility^  and  was  appointed 
by  the  king  one  of  his  chaplains  in  ordinary.  He  is  said 
also  to.  have  obtained  some  church  preferments,  but  we 
know  only  of  the  prebend  of  Portpoole,  in  the  chyrch  ai 
St.  Paul's,  which  was  bestowed  upon  him  in  April  1514, 
and  the  living  of  St.  Dunstan's  in  the  East,  given  to  him 
by  archbishop  Cranmer  in  1553,  In  J  531,  he  settled  at 
Oxford  for  some  time,  and  the  next  year  was  incorporated 
master  of  arts  in  that  university,  as  be  had  before  been  in 
that  of  Paris ;  and  a  few  days  after  was  admitted  to  the 
degree  of  ^bachelor  of  divinity.  At  this  time  he  was 
highly  esteemed  for  his  learning ;  and  was  the  first  author 
who  reduced  the  French  tongue  under  grammatical  rules, 
or  that  had  attempted  to  fix  it  to  any  kind  of  standard.  This 
be  executed  with  great  ingenuity  and  success,  in  a  large 
work  which  he  published  in  that  language  at  London,,  eu-r 
titled  '^  UEclairctsseqient  de  la  Language  Francois,''  con* 
taining  three  books,  in  a  thick  folio,  1530,  to  which  he 
has  prefixed  a  large  introduction  in  English.  This  work- 
is  now  extremely  scarce.  In  the  dedication  he  says  that 
he  had  written  two  books  en  the  subject  before ;  one  dedi*^ 
cated  to  his  pupil  M^ry,  the  other' to  Charles  Brandon 
doke  of  Suffolk.  He  made  a  literal  translation  into  Eng* 
lish  of  a  Latin  comedy  called  <<  Acolastus,*'  written  .by 
FuUonius,  and  published  it  in  1540.  He. is  said  also  to 
have  writteasorae  "  Epistles." 

When  Mr^  Palsgrave  was  born,  or  to  what  age  he  lived, 
are  particulars  which  we  have  not  been  able  to  trace ;  yet 
bis  death  probably  happened  before  September  1554,  as 
Jn  that  month  Edmopd  Brygotte,  S.  T.  P;  was  .collated  to 
the  prebend  of  Portpoole  "  per  mortem  Job.  Pallgrave."  * 
'  PAMELIUS  (James),  a  learned  Fleming,  was  the,  son 
of  Adolphus,  counsellor  of  state  to  the  empei^or  Charles  V* 
and  borJi  at  Bruges  in  1536»  He  was  educated  at  Louvaia 
and  Paris,,  and  became  afterwards  a  learned  divine  and 
critic.  Obtaining  a  canonry  in  the  church  of  Bruges,  he 
collected  a  library,  and  formed  a  design  of  giving  igood 
editions  of  the  fathers ;  but  the  civil  wars  obliged  hi|n  to 
retire  to  St  Omer's,  of  which  place  the  bishop  pnade  him 
archdeacon.  Some  time  after,  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain 
named  him  to  the  provostship  of  St.  Saviour  at  Utrecht^ 

» 

1  Ath.  Ox.  TOl.  I.  new  editioo.— Tanner.— 'Allies**  Typo^Mphical  Antiqaitief. 
—ecu's  MS  Atbenn  in  Brit  Mm. 


to  P  A  M  E  L  I  tJ  S. 

f 

• 

ancf  after  that  to  the  bishopric  of  St  Omer^s :  huti  as  bd 
went  to  Brussels  to  take  possession  of  it,  he  died  nt  Mons 
in  Hainault,  in  1587.  He  is  chiefly  known  for  his  cHtics&l 
labours  upon  '<  Tertullian  and  Cyprian  ;*'  of  both  which 
writers  he  published  editions,  and  prefixed  lives.  *^  The 
commentaries  of  this  author  upon  Tertullian/'  says  Dupin^ 
<*  are  both  learned  and  useful ;  but  he  digresses  too  much 
from  his  subject,  and  brings  in  things  of  no  use  to  the  un-* 
defstanding  of  his  author  :'*  and  he  passes  much  the  same 
judgment  of  his  labours  upon  Cyprian.  All  the  later  edi« 
tors,  however,  of  these  two  fathers  have  spoken  well  of  Pa« 
melius,  and  have  transcribed  his  best  notes  into  their  edi- 
tions. 

A  new  edition  of  Rabanus,  wbieh-he  was  preparing  at 
the  time  of  .his  decease,  has  been  since  published  at 
Cologn,  and  includes  Commentaries  by  Pamelius  on  Ju- 
dith, and  St  Paul's  <<  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews."  His  other 
works  are,  <*  Catalogus  Commentar.  veterum  selectorum 
in  universa  Biblia,"  Antwerp,  1566,  8vo ;  "  Conciliorura 
Paralipomena,^'  a  discourse  in  Latin,  addressed  to  the 
Flemish  States ;  ^*  De  non  admittendis  un&  in  Republic^ 
diversorum  Religionum  exercitiis,"  1589,  8vo;  **  i^licro* 
logus  de  Ecclesiasticis  observationibus  ;'*  an  edition  of  Cas- 
siodorus  ^'  De  Dividis  nominibus  ;**  and  two  books  of  the 
<*  Liturgies  of  the  Latins,**  1571,  2  vols.  4lo./ 

PANARD  (Cj^arles-Francis),  a  French  poet,  was  born 
at  Couville  near  Chart  res  in  1691^  where  he  remained  a 
long  time  in  obscurity^  upon  some  small  employment.  At 
length,  the  comedian  Le  Grand,  having  seen  some  of  his 
pieces,  went  to  find  him  out,  and  encouraged  him ;  and 
Marmontel  called  him  the  Fontaine  of  the  place.  Panard 
bad  many  qualitiies  of  Fontaine ;  the  same  disinterested- 
ness, probity,  sweetness,  and  simplicity  of  manners..  He 
knew,  as  well  as.  any  man,  how  to  shar«pen  the  point  of  an 
epigram  \  yet  always  levelled  it  at  the  vice,  not  the  per- 
son. He  bad  a  philosophic  temper,  and  lived  contented 
with  a  little.  He  died  at  Paris  June  13,  1764.  His  works, 
under  the  title  of  "  Th^toe  &  Oeuvrea  diverses/*  have 
been  printed,  1763,  in  4  vols.  12mo.  They  consist  of 
comedies,  comic  operas,  songs,  and  all  the  various  kinda^ 
pf  smaller  poetry.' 

.  •  .1 

I  Morari.— Foppen  Bibl«  Belg.— Blonnt't  Censura.— Saxii  Onomatt] 
I  l^ecipl^iie  des  Hoounes  Cdebres  pour  aoa4e  n66,-->I>i9t.  Uitt. 


PA  N  C  t  R  O  L  U  S.  71 

PANCIROLUS  (Guy),  the  son  of  Albert  Pancirolus,  a 
fiamous  Jawyef  in  bis  time,  and  descended  from  an  illustri- 
ous family  at  Reggio,  was  born  there  April  17,  1523.     He 
learned  Latiu  and  Greek  under  Sebastian  Corrado  and  Bas- 
siano  Lando,  and  made  so  speedy  a  proficiency  in  them^ 
that  his  father,  thinking  him  fit  for  the  vtudy  of  the  law  at 
fourteen,  taught  him  the  first  elements  of  that  faculty  him- 
self;  and  Guy  studied  t^m  incessantly  under  his  father 
for  three  years,  but  without  neglecting  the  belles  lettres. 
He  was.  afterwards^  sent  into  Italy,  in  order  to  complete 
his  law-studies  under  the  professors  of  that  country.     He 
W6nt  first  to  Ferrara ;  and,  having  there  heard  the  lectures 
of  Pasceto  and  Hyppoiitus  Riminaldi,  passed  thence  to 
Pavia,  where  he  had  for  his  master  the  famous  Alciat,  and 
to  Bologna  and  Padiia,  where  he  completed  a  course  of 
seven  years    study,    during  which  he  had  distinguished 
himself  in  public  disputations  on  several  occasions ;  and  the 
fame  of  bis  abilities  having  drawn  the  attention  of  the  re- 
public of  Venice,  he  was  nominated  by  them  in   1547, 
while  only  a  student,  second  professor  of  the  Institutes  in 
the  university  of  Padua.     This  nomination  obliged  him  to 
take  a  doctor's  degree,  which  he  received  from  the  hands 
of  Marcus  Mantua.     After  he  had  filled  this  chair  for  seven 
years,  be  was  advanced  to  the  first  of  the  Institutes  in 
1554 ;  and  two  years  after,  on  the  retirement  of  Matthew 
Gribaldi,  who  was  second  professor  of  the  Roman  law,  Pan- 
cirolus succeeded  him,  and  held  .this  post  foi*  fifteen  years. 
At  length,  having  some  reason  to  be  dissatisfied  with  his 
situation,  he  resigned  it  in  1571,  when  Emanuel  Philibert 
^uke  of  Savoy  offered  him  the  professorship  of  civil  law^ 
with  a  salary  of  a  thousand  pieces  of  gold.     Here  his  patron 
the  prince  shewed  him  all  imaginable  respect,  as  did  also 
hh  son   Charles   Emanuel,  who  augmented  his  appoint* 
toenlis  with  a  hundred  pieces.     The  republic  of  Venice 
soon  became  sensible  of  the  loss  sustained  by  bis  departure, 
and  were  desirous  of  recalling  him  to  a  vacant  professor- 
ship in  l$dO.     This  Pancirolus  at  first  refused,  and  would 
indeed  have  been  content  to  remain  at  Turin,  but  the  air 
of  the  plaqe  proved  so  noxious  to  him,  that  he  lost  one 
eye  almost  entirely,  and  was  in  danger  of  losing  the  other; 
t^e  dread  of  which  induced. him  to  hearken  to  proposals, 
^hat  were  .made  afresh  to  him  in  1 582  ;  and  having  a  salary 
of  a  thousand  ducats  offered  to  him,  with  the  chair  he  had 
MP  much  wished  for,  he  returned  to  Padua.    The  city  of 


7St  P  A  N  C  I  RQ  L  U  S. 

Turin,  willing  to  give  biia  some  macks  oif  tbeir  esteem;  at 
bis  departure,  presented  bim  with  his  freedom,  aeeom-" 
panied  with  some  pieces  of  silver  plate..  -He  then  remained 
at  Padua,  where  bis  stipend  was  raided  to  the  sum  of.  twelve 
Iiundred  ducats.  Here  be  died  in  June  1599,  and  was  in- 
terred in  the  church  of  St.  Justin,  after  funeral  service  had 
been  performed  for  him  in  the  church  of  St.  Antfaony ; 
where  Francis  Vidua  of  that  university  pronounced  bis  fa* 
oeral  oration.  He  was  author  of  a  number  of  learned  works, 
of  which  the  principal  are :  1.  '^  Comroentarii  in-  Notttiam 
utriusque  Imperii  et  de  Magistratibus,''  Venice,  1593,  it>L 
often  reprinted,  and  inserted  in,  the  Roman  Antiquities  (tf 
Grsevius;  2.  '^  De  Numismatibu!^  antiquis;"'  3.  ^^Dequaw 
tuordecim  Regionibus  Urbis  Romas,*?  printed  in  the  Ley-^ 
den  edition  of  the  Notitia,  1608 ;  4.  ^^  .Rerum  Memora*^ 
bilium  jam  olim  ^deperditarum,  et  contra  rec^n»  atque  in*^ 
l^eoiose  inventarum,"  1599,  2  voI&;  8vo,  often  reprinted 
and  translated.  He  wrote  alsd  a  valuable  treatise,  which 
lyas  not  published  till  1637,  entitled  ^^De  Claris  Legum 
Int^rpretibus."  * 

PANORMITA.     Ste  BECCADELLI. 

PANT^NUS,  a  Christian  philosopher,  of  the  Stoic 
sect,  flourished  in  the  second  century.  Some  say  he  was 
born*  in  Sicily,  others  at  Alexandria,  of  Sicilian  parents. 
He  is^aid  to  have  taught  the  Stoic  philosophy  in  thereign 
of  Commodus,  from  A.  D.  180,  in  the  school  of  Alexan<> 
dria;  where  from  the  time  of  St.  Mark,  founder  of  that 
church,  there  had  always  been  some  divine  wbo-explained 
the  Holy  Scriptures,  The  Ethiopians  Jiaving  requested 
Demetrius,  bishop  of  Alexandria,  to  send, a  proper -persoa 
to  instruct  them  in  the  Christian  religion,  he  sent  PantsB'^ 
nus;  who  gladly  undertook  the  mission,  and  acquitted 
himself  very  worthily  in  it.  It  is  said,  that  he  found  the 
Ethiopians  already  tinctured  with  the  truth  of  Christian 
faith,  which  had  ^been  declared  to  them  by  St.  Bartholo- 
mew ;  and  that  he  saw  the  gospel  of  St.  Matthew  ih  He* 
btew,  which  had  been  left  there  by  that  apostle.  St.  Je^ 
rome  says,  that  Pantaenus  brought  it  away  with  him,  and 
that  it  was  still  to  be  ^een  in  his  time  in  the  AlexandHan 
library;  but  this  story  is  not  generally  credited,  since  no 
good  reason  can  be  giveti,  why  St.  Bartholomew  shoiUd 
leave  a  Hebrew  book  with  the   Ethiopians.     Pantse^s^ 

1  Cbaiifepie.«^Niceron|  toI.  IX. — ^Tiraboscbw— iSaxii  Onomi^t. 


P  A  N  T  iE  N  tJ  S.  IS 

apon  his  return  to  AlexAndria,  conttnued  to  explain  the 
•acred  books  under  the  reign  of  Severus  and  Antoninus 
Caracalia,  and  did  great  service  to  the  church  by  his  dis- 
courses. He  composed  some  **  Commentaries**  upoh-  the 
Bibie,  which  are  lost.  Theodoret  informs  us  that  Pantsnus 
first  started  the  remark,  which  has  been  followed  by  many 
interpreters  of  the  prophecies  since,  <*  That  they  are  often 
expressed  in  indefinite  terms,  and  that  the  present  tense 
is  frequently  used  both  for  the  preterite  and  future  Senses.'* 
We  may  form  a  judgment  of  the  manner  in  which  Pantae* 
nus  explained  the  Scriptures,  by  that  which  Clemeus 
Alexandrinus,  Origen,  and  all  those  have  observed,  who 
wete  trained  up  in  the  school  of  Alexandria.  Their  com- 
mentaries abound  with  allegories;  they  frequently  leave 
the  literal  sense,  and  find  almost  every  where  some  mys- 
tery or- other;  in  the  explaining  of  which,  they  usually 
shew  more  erudition  than  judgment.'  Milner  observes,  that 
the  combination  of  Stoicism  with  Christianity  must  have 
very  much  debased  the  sacred  truths;  and  we  may  be 
assured  that  those  who  were  disposed  to  follow  implicitly 
the  dictates  of  such  an  instructor  as  Pantsenus,  must  have 
been,  furnished  by  him  with  a  clouded  light  of  the  gospel. 
Cave  is  of  opinion-  that  Pantsenus's  death  occurred  in  the 
year  213.* 

-  PAKTALEON  (Henry),  a  learned  physician  and  his- 
torian, wasl)orn  at  Basil  June  13,  1522.  In  his  early  edu- 
cation he  made  very  considerable  proficiency,  but  it  ap- 
pears that  his  friends  differed  iti  their  opinions  as  to  his 
profession,  some  intending  him  for  a  learned  profession^ 
and  some  for  a  printer,  which  they  conceived  to  be  con- 
nected with  it.  At  length  after  a  due  course  of  the  Itin- 
guages  and  polite  literature,  he  studied  divinity  according 
to  the  principles  of  the  refomied  religion,  but  changing 
that  design,  he  taught  dialectids  and  natural  philosophy  at 
Basil  for  about  forty  years.  He  then,  at  an  advanced  age, 
studied  medicine,  took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  that  faculty, 
and  practised  with  much  reputation  until  his  death,  March 
8,  1595,  inthe  seventy- third  year  of  his  age.  He  com- 
posed various  works  both  in  medicine  and  history,  some  in 
Latin  and  some  in  German,  and  translated  certain  authors 
into  the  latter  language.  His  most  useful  work,  now 
aaaroe,  was  an  account  of  the  eminent  men  of  Germany, 

>  Cave^  Tol.4:-^Dnpiii.A-Lair(lner'iWoriu.— Miller's  Cb.Hiit, 


74  P  A  N  T  A  L  E  O  N. 


4 


published  at  Basil  in  1  B&S,  fol.  under  the  title  of  ^<  Poso« 
grs^hia  heroum  et  iliustrium  virorum  Germanise,"  dedi^ 
cated  to  the  emperor  Maximilian  IL  who  honoured  him 
Mdth  the  title  of  Count  Palatin.  He  published  also  a  Latii» 
history  of  the  order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  J  581,  folio. 
^5  Historia  Militaris  ordinis  Johannitarum,  Rhodiorum  aut 
Melitensium  Equitum ;''  ^^  Cbronographia  Ecclesie  Chris- 
^ti/'  ibid.  1568;  <<  Diarium  Historicum,"  1572;  aad,  m 
his  youth,  ^<  Comcedia  de  Zaccheo  piriilicaBonim  prtnctpe,'' 
1546,  8vo.* 

PANVINIUS  (Onuphrius),  a  learned  scholar  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Vctrona  in  1529.     He.dis*^ 
covered  an  attachment  to  history  and  antiquities  in.  bis, 
earliest  years,  and  entered  into  the  order  of  the  Augustins. 
As  soon  as  he  had  made  profession,  th^  general  g£  his 
order  sent  him  to  Rome  to  complete  his  studies,  and  in 
1553  he  was  appointed  to  instruct  the  novices.     He  thea 
.taught  scholastic  theology  at  Florence  for  some  time^  but 
his  chief  residence  was  at  Rome,  where  he  was  patronized 
by  cardinal  Marcello  Cervini,  afterwards  pope  Marcellua  IL 
From  theiice  he  passed  into  the  court  of  cardinal  Alexan- 
der Farnese,  with  whom  he  travelled  into  Sicily  in  1568, 
where  he  died  in  bis  thirty-ninth  year.     One  of  his  first 
labours  was  an  edition  of  the  ^^  Fasti  <  Consulares,^'  first 
brought,  to  light  by  Sigoniys,.  which  he  published,  illus- 
trated with  notes,  at  Venice  in  1557.     He  published  trea-» 
tises  also,  ^*  De  Antiquis  Romanorum  Nominibus;'*  <^  De 
Pi^incipibus  Romanis;"  "  De  Republica;*'  **  De  Trium- 
phis  et  Ludis  Circensibus ;"  and  **  Topographia  RomsB.*' 
These  valuable  works  are  founded  in  a  great  measure  upon 
ancient  inscriptions,  of  which  he  had  collected  and  copied 
nearly  three  thousand.     Some  time  after,  this  collection, 
which  had  come  into  the  handa  of  cardinal  Savelji,  disap* 
peared,  and  Maffei  is  of  opinion  that  the  collection.  p«|b* 
fished  at  Antwerp  by  Martin  Sanctius,  in  1538,  and  which 
served  as  a  foundation  for  Gruterus*s  great  work,  was  in 
reality  that  of  Panvinius.     Panvinius  was  also  a  profound 
investigator  of  sacred  or  Christian  antiquities,  as  appears 
by  bis  works,  *^De  Ritu  sepeliendi  mortuos  apud  veteres 
Christianos ;''  **  De  antique  Ritu  bapti^ndi  Catechume- 
'   nos.;^'  **  De  Primatu  Petri  ;^*  **  Cbronicon  Ecclesiasticuaa  ;^* 
^^  De  Episcopatibus  Titulis,  et  Diacouis  Cardinalium.;.? 

I  Melehior  Adam  ki  tiUi  PbUoiopboniiiv 


P  A  N  V  I  N  I  U  S.  TS 

■^  Annotationes  et  Sopplementa  ad  Platinam  de  Vitis  Pon* 
tificmn  ;*'  <<  De  Septem  precipois  Urbis  Romie  Baailicis;'* 
**  De  Bibliotheca  Vaticana/*  He  bad  undeitakeo  a  gene- 
mi  ecclesiastical  history,  for  which  he  collected  matter 
suiBcient  to  fill  six  large  manuscript  volumes,  which  are 
preserved  in  the  Vatican.  He  wrote  a  chronicle  of  his 
own  order,  and  a  history  of  his  native  city,  Verona,  *  in- 
cluding an  account  of  its  antiquities,  printed  many  years 
after  his  death.  ^ 

PANZER  (George  Wolfgang  Francis),  an  eminent 
bibliographer,  was  born  at  Sulzbach  in  the  Upper  Pala- 
tinate, March  16,  1729,  and  having  beeu  educated  for  the 
cfamt^h,  took  his  doctor^s  degree  in  divinity  and  philoso- 
phy, and  became  pastor  of  the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Se- 
baldus  at  Nuremberg,  where  he  died  in  1805.  No  farther 
particulars  have  yet  reached  us  of  this  learned  and  labori- 
ous writer,  who  has  long  been  known  here  by  his  **  An- 
nates Typographic!,  ah  artis  invents  origine  ad  annum 
,M.  D.  post  Matttairii,  Denisii,  aliorumque  doctissitoorum 
vironnn  ouras  in  ordinem  redacti,  emendati  et  aucti,V  Nu- 
remberg, 1793 — 1S03,  11  vols.  4i;o.  This  is  unquestion- 
ably a  work  of  the  very  first  importance  to  bibliographersy 
and  is  thought  to  exceed  Maittaire^s  in  clearness  of  ar?- 
rangement  and  accuracy.  It  conies  down,  beyond  his  ori- 
ginal intention,  to  1536  ;  but  is  not  quite  complete  without 
another  work  of  his  printed  in  German,  ^'  Annals  of  aur 
cient  German  Literature,  or.  an  account  of  books  printed  in 
Germany  fronl  the  invention  of  the  art  to.  15 20,"  Nurem- 
berg, 1788,  4to.  His  other  works,  also  unfortunately  in 
German,  are  an  ^^  Account  of  tbe^  most  ancient  Qerman 
Bibles,  printed  in  the  fifteenth  century,  which  are  in  the 
library  at  Nuremberg,"  1777,  4to;  "History  of  Bibles 
printed  at  Nuremberg,  from  the  invention  qf  the  Art,'* 
Knremberg,*  1778,  4to.  And  a  <*  History  of  early  Print- 
ing at  Nuremberg  to  the  year  1600,"  ibid.  1789,  4to.* 

PAOLI  (Pascal  de),  a  very  distinguished  character  in 
modem  times,  born  at  Rostino,  in  the  island  of.  Corsica» 
in  1726,  was  the  son  of  Hiacente  Paoli,  a  Corsican  patriot^ 
who,  despairing  of  the  freedom  of  his  country,  had  retired 
with  his  family  to  Naples.  Panoal  was  educated  among  the 
Jesuits,  and  at  their  college  be  made  a  rapid  progress  in 

}  CbaQfepie.— >Tiraboschi. — Bullart's  Acadefnie  dts  Scieuces.— Saxii  Onoou 
S  jp^^t.  l|ist.rrpibdi(i'i  Biblioqiasra.-7eBroDet  Manuel  da  X^ibraire^ 


7«  F  A  O  L  I. 

liis  studies,  and  displayed  an  understanding  iequally  ^Hd 
aiid  capacious.     He  appeared  in  so  favourable  a  light  to  his 
•countrymen,  that  he  was  unanimously  chosen   generalis- 
simo, in  a  full  assembly  of  the  .pec^ie,  when  he  had  at- 
tained but  to  the  29th  year  of  his  age.     He  began  with 
'new-modelling  the  laws  of  Corsica,  and  establishied  the  ap- 
p^aranccj  if  not  the  reality,  of  subordination :  he  also  in»- 
-stituted  schools,    and  laid  the  foundation  of  a  maritime 
power.     In  1761  the  government  of  Genoa,  perceiving  the 
change  lately  effected  among  the  natives,  sent  a  deputation 
to  a  general  council,  convoked  at  Vescovato,  for  the  ex* 
'press  purpose  of  prQf>osing  terms  of  accommodation ;  but 
4t  was  unanimously  resolved  never  to  make  peace  with 
-diem,  unless  upon  the  express  condition  of  Corsica  being 
guaranteed  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  its  independence.     A 
•memorial  to  the  same  effect  was  also  addressed,  at  the 
same  time,  to  all  the  sovereigns  of  Europe.     But  nothing 
was  gained  by  this  step;  and  in  1768,  the  Genoese,  despair- 
ing of  rendering  xthe  Corsicans  subservient  to  their  will, 
transferred  the  sovereignty  of  their  island  to  Erance,  on 
•condition  of  receiving  in  lieu  of  it  40,000,000  of  livres. 
^Notwithstanding  this,  Paoii  remained  firm  to  his  cause : 
and  a  vigorous  war  commenced,  in  which,  for  some  time, 
the  French  were  beaten,  and  in  one  instance  their  general 
was  obliged' to  capitulate,  with  all  his  infantry,  artillery^ 
-and  ammunition ;  but  an  immense  force  bing  now  sent 
from  France,  overwhelmed  the  Corsican  patriots ;   they 
'were  defeated  with  great  slaughter,  and  Paoli,  left,  with 
only  about  500  n^en,  was  surrounded  by  the  French,  who 
'were  anxious  to  get  possession  of  his  person :  he,  however, 
'cut  his  M^ay  through  the  enemy,  and  escaped  to  England 
with  his  friends,  where  they  were  received  with  every  de- 
gree 6f  isjrmpathy  and  respect.     Paoli  was  introduced  at 
tsourt,  and  the  duke  of  Grafton,  then  prime  minister,  ob- 
tained for  him  a  pension  of  1200/.  a-year,  which  he  libe* 
rally  shared  with  his  companions  in  exile.     From  this  time 
lie  lived  a  retired  life,  devoting  himself  chiefly  to  the  cul^ 
iivation  of  literature.     During  his  retirement,  which  lasted 
vnote  than  twenty  years,  he  was  introduced  to  Dr.  Johnson 
by  Mr.  Boswell,  and  lived  in  habits  of  intimacy  with  that 
eminent  sdholar.    Much  of  tfaek  conversiation  is  recorded 
by  Mr.  Bdswell.    . 

'  When  the^  French  revolution  took  place,  the  national 
convention  passed  k  decree  by  which  Corsica  was  num- 


P  A  O  L  t  TT 

heted  mnong  the  departiooents  of  France,  and  entitled  to 
all  the  privileges  of  the  new  constitution,  and  Paoli  was 
induced,  by  the  promising  appearance  of  a&irs,  and  fhe 
solicitations  of  the  French  assembly,  to  return  to  the  island; 
Accordingly  he  resigned  his  peusioa  from  the  English  court, 
took  a  grateful  leave  of  the  country  in  which  he. had  been 
so  hospitably  entertained,  and  in  the  month  of  April  1790, 
presented  himself  at  the  bar  of  the  national  assembly  at 
Paris,  together  with  the  Corsican  depaties.  Soon  after 
this  be  embarked  for  Corsica,  where  he  was  received  with 
an  extraordinary  degree  of  attachment  and  respect.  He 
was  elected  mayor  of  Bastia,  commander-in-chief  of  the 
national,  guard,  and  president  of  the  department ;  and,i  in 
short,  he  at  once  acquired  more  authority  in  the  island, 
than  before  its  subjugation  by  the  French.  He  was,.bow^ 
ever,  not  quite  contented ;  he  was  ambitious  of  seeing 
Corsica  wholly  independent,  which,  upon  the  execution  of 
Louis  XVL  was  the  prevailing  wish  of  the  Corsicans^  The 
French  convention,  however,  meant  nothing  less,  and  at 
length  declared  Paoli  a  traitor.  On  this  he  resolved  upon 
an  expedient  which,  though  it  was  a  renunciation  of  inde-^ 
pendence,  promised  to  secure  all  the  advantages  of  real 
liberty.  This  was  an  union  of  Corsica  with  the  crown  of 
Great  Britain  ;  after  effecting  which,  he*  returned  to  Eng** 
laud,  having  unfortunately  lost  all  his  property,  by  the 
failure  of  a  mercantile  house  at  Leghorn,  -•  and  passed  the 
reA»ainder  of  his  life  in  great  privacy.  He  died  in  Lon-^ 
don,  February  5,  1807,  in  the  eighty-first  year  of  his  age^ 
Few  foreigners,  however-  distinguished,  have  been  so  much 
caressed  in  England  as  general  PaolL  By  living  in  habita 
of  iamiliarity  with  men  of  letters,  his^  name  and  exploits 
acquired  high  celebrity :  and  Goldsmith,  Johnson,  and 
many  others,  equally  eminent  in  the  literary  world,  although 
differing  in  almost  every  thing  else,  cordially  united  in  hia 
praise.  On  the  continent  hi&  reputation  was  greatly  re-^ 
spected :  it  was  usual  to  compare  Paoli  to  Timoleon  and 
£paminondas.  He  was  unquestionably  a  great  man ;  but 
it  is  the  opinion  of  those  who  have  enjoyed  the  opportunity 
of  studying  his  character,  that  he  was  a  politician  rather 
than  a  soldier:  that  he  shone  more  in  council  than  inarms; 
and  that  the  leading  feature  of  his  public  conduct  was  a 
certain  degree  of  Italian  policy,  which  taught  him  to  te^ 
6ne  and  speculate  on  every  event.^  ^ 

*  Bofwell's  Account  of  Corsica.—AiheasBttm,  ?ol.  I.-^Rees*t  Cyclo|i»dla. 


fS  P  A  P  E  N  B  K  O  C  a  ' 

PAT^ENBHOCH  (Daniel),  a  native  of  Antwerp,  md 
born  in  162B,  and  was  educated  as  a  Jesuit.  He  has  ail<* 
ready  been  mentioned  in  our  account  of  Boilandus,  as  thcf 
coadjutor  of  that  writer  in  the  compilation  of  the  ''Acta 
Sanctorum/'  He  died  in  1714,  in  the  seventy -eighth  year 
of  his  age.  He*  was,  according  to  Dapin,  less  credulous 
than  Bollandus,  and  became  involved  in  a  controversy  with 
tbe  Carmelites  respecting  the  origin  of  their  order.  Thei^ 
is  little  else  interesting  in  his  history;  but  in  addition  to 
the  account  given  in  our  article  Bollandus,  of  the  **  Acta 
Sanctorum,"  we  may^  now  mention,  that  the  work  has  been 
continued  to  the  fifty-third  volume,  folio,  which  appeared 
in  1794,  but  is  yet  imperfect,  as  it  comes  only  to  October 
14th.  Brunet  informs  us  that  there  are  very  few  perfect 
copies  to  be  found  in  France,  some  of  the  latter  volumes 
being  destroyed  during  the  revolutionary  period.  The  re-* 
print  at  Venice,  17S4,  42  vols,  is  of  less  estimation.' 

PAPIAS,  bishop  of  Hierapolis,  a  city  of  Phrygia  in 
Asia  Minor,  near  to  Laodicea,  was  the  disciple  of  St.  John 
the  Evangelist,  or  of  another  of  that  name ;  but  Irenaeus 
says  positively,  that  he  was  the  disciple  of  St.  John  the 
Evangelist;  tor  Polycarp  was  his  disciple,  and  he  says, 
Papias  was  Polycarp's  companion.  Papias  wrote  five  books, 
entitled  <*  The  Expositions  of  the  Discourses  of  the  Lord  f ' 
of  which  there  are  only  some  fragments  left  in  the  writings 
of  Irenseus  and  Eusebius.  He  made  way  for  the  opiniotv 
several  of  the  ancients  held  touching  thp  temporal  reigii  of 
Christ,  who  they  supposed  would  come  upon  earth  a  tbpu^ 
sand  years  befol-e  the  day  of  judgment,  to  gather  together 
the  elect,  after  the  resurrection,  into  the  city  of  Jerusa-- 
Iqm,  and  let  them  there  enjoy  all  felicity  during  that  pe« 
riod.  Irenseus,  who  was  of  the  same  judgment,  relates  a 
fragment  he  took  out  .of  Papias^s  fourth  book,  where  he 
endeavours  to  prove  that  opinion  from  a  passage  in  Isaiah  ^ 
and  Eusebius,  after  having  quoted  a  passage  taken  out  of 
Papias's  Preface,  adds;  ^' That  that  author  relates  divert 
things  which  he  pretended  he  had  ^by  unwritten  tradition  ; 
such  as  were  the  last  instructions  of  our  Lord  Christ,  which 
are  not  set  down  by  the  Evangelists,  and  some  other  fabu" 
lous  histories,  amongst  which  number  his  opinion  ought  to 
be  placed  touching  the  personal  reign  of  Christ  upon  eartb 
after  the  resurrection.     <^  The  occasion  of  his  falling  inter 

^  Dupio.— >Moreri."— Diet.  Hist,— Brunei's  Manuel  du  Librairer 


P  A  P  E  N  BH  O  C  H.  n 

that  error,^*  days  Eusebius  again,  ^'  was  bis  misuricl^rstand- 
iogof-tbe  discourses  and  instructions  of  the  Apostles,  as 
not  thinking  that  those  expressions  ought  to  bear  a  mysti« 
cal  sense ;  and^  that  the  Apostles  used  them  only  for  illus- 
tration, for  he  was  a  man  of  a  mean  genius,  as  his  books 
manifest,  and  yet  several  of  the  ancients,  and,  among  the 
rest,  Irenseus,  maintained  their  opinions  on  the  authority 
of  Papias,'" 

PAPILLON  (Philibbrt),  a  learned  oanon  of  la  Cha* 
pelle-au  Riche,  at  Dijon,  .in  which  city  be  was  born.  May 
1,  1666,  was  the  son  of  Philip  Papillon,  advocate  to  the 
parliament.  He  was  a  man  of  literature,  and  an  able,  cri- 
tic, and  furnished  Le  Long  of  the  Oratory,  Desmolets, 
Niceron,  and  several  others  among  the  learned,  with  a 
number  of  important  memoirs  and  anecdotes.  He  died 
February  23,  1738,  at  Dijon,  aged  seventy-two.  His  prin- 
cipal work  is,  '*  La  Bibliotheque  des  Auteurs  de  Bour- 
gogne,"  DijoD,  1742,  2  vols,  folio,  printed  under  the  in- 
spection of  his  friend  M.  Joly,  canon  of  la  Chapelle-aa- 
Ricbe.' 

PAPILLON  (John),  was  one  of  a  family  of  engravers 
on  wood,  who  obtained  considerable  reputation  in  the  se- 
venteenth and  eighteenth  centuries*  He  flourished  about 
1670,  but  attained  less  fame  than  bis  son  John,  who  was 
bom  at  St.  Quentin  in  1661.  The  grandson  John  Bap- 
tist Michel  was  the  most  successful  in  his  art,  especially 
IB  those  engravings  which  represent  foliage  and  flowers, 
many  beautiful, specimens,  of  which  are  inserted  in  his  pub- 
lication on  the  art  of  engraving  in  wood ;  and  the  whole 
prove  that  he  was  a  very  skilful  master  in  every  branch  of 
the  art  he  professed.  The  human  figure  he  seems  to  have 
been  the  least  acquainted  with,  and  has  consequently  failedr 
most  in.  those  prints  into  which  it  is  introduced.  He  died 
in  1776  ;  about  ten  years  before  which  event  he  published 
in  2  vols.  8vo,  his  <<  Traite ,  histoHque  et  pratique  de  la 
gravure  en  bois,^'  a  work  of  great  merit  as  to  the  theory  of 
an  art,  which,  it  is  almost  needless  to  add,  has  of  late 
years  been  brought  to, the  highest  perfection  by  some 
ingenious  men  of  our  own  country,  led  first  to  this  pur« 
suit  by  the  excellent  example  and  success  of  the  Messfs» 
Bewickes.  * 

*  Care,  vol.  I.— Lardaer^s  Works.«-Dtipin. 

•  MorerL— J)icU  Hist.  »  Strutt.— Morcru— Diet. 


SOT  P  A  P  I  N. 

PAPIN  (Denys),  ah  ingenious  physician^  the  son  of 
Nicholas  Papin»  also  a  physician,  was  born  at  Blois.  He 
took  the  degree  of  doctor,  and  travelled  to  England,  where 
he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society,  in  December 
1680.  He  passed  the  following  year  in  London,  and  pub« 
lished  in  English  an  account  of  a  machine  which  he  bad 
invented,  and  which  still  bears  his  name :  this  was  ^<  The 
New  Digester,  or  Engine  for  the  softening  of  Bones,'^ 
2681,  4 to.  It  soon  appeared  in  French,  with  the  title  of 
^La  Meniere  d'^mollir  les  Os,  et  de  feire  cuire  touted 
sortes  des  Viandes  en  pen  de  terns  et  k  pen  de  fraix,*'  Pa« 
ris,  1682.  The  machine  consists  of  a  very  strong  metal 
boiler,  with  an  air*tight  cover  screwed  down  with  great 
force ;  hence  the  contained  matter,  being  incapable  of 
escaping  either  by  evaporation  or  by  bursting  the  machine, 
may  be  heated  to  a  degrise  far  beyond  that  of  boiling  wa-« 
ter,  so  as  to  dissolve  the  gluten  of  bones*  and  cartilages*' 
He  afterwards  improved  this  digester,  and  it  has  since 
been  much  employed  in  chemical  and  philosophical  expe« 
riments.  He  assisted  Boyle  in  various  experiments,  of 
which  an  account  is  given  in  the  history  of  the  Royal  So- 
ciety. Papin  was  a  protestant,  and  being  therefore  pre«» 
vented  from  returning  home  by  the  revocation  of  the  edict 
of  Nantes,  he  took  up  his  residence  at  Marpurg,  where  he 
taught  the  mathematics,  and  published  a  '^  Fasciculus  Dis<- 
sertationum  de  quibusdam  Machinis  Physicis,''  1696, 12mo;' 
and  in  1707  he  published  at  Francfort  an  account  of  a 
machine  which  he  had  invented  for  raising  water  by  the 
action  of  fire,  entitled  f^  Ars  nova  ad  aquam  ignis  admini-* 
culo  efficacissime  elevandam.^' 

His  father,  Nicholas  Papin,  was  author  of  several  works^ 
which,  however,  are  nearly  forgotten.  Two  of  them  re^ 
hted  to  the  powder  of  Sympathy,  whiph  he  defended; 
and  one  to  the  discovery  of  Harvey,  which  he  opposed.^ 

PAPIN  (Isaac),  some  time  a  minister  of  the  church  of 
England,  and  afterwards  reconciled  to  that  of  Rome,  was 
the  author  of  some  pieces  which  made  a  great  noise  in  the 
seventeenth  century.  From  an  account  of  his  life,  pnh-^ 
lished  by  himself,  it  appears  that  he  was  born  at  Blois  itt 
161^7,  and  descended  from  a  family  of  the  reformed  reli-* 
gion.  He  passed  through  his  studies  in  divinity  at  Ge* 
neva.  That  university  was  then  divided  into  two  parties 
-''■  ■•'<■  -I"-  * 

1  Morerit— Bloyi  Diet,  Hist,  de  MediGine.«-Rees's  Cyclop«dia. 


P  A  t  I  K.  81 

Hpbo  the  subject  of  gthce^  called  ^'p&rticularists'^  and 
^^universaliftts,"  of  virbich  the  former  were  the  most,  nu- 
merous and  the  most  powerful.  The*  universalists  de- 
sired nothing  more  than  a  toleration ;  and  M.  Claude 
wrote  a  letter  to  M.  Turretiu,  the  chief  of  the  preJo- 
miiiant  party,  exhorting  him  earnestly  to  grant  that  fa- 
vour. But  Torretin  gave  little  heed  to  it ;  and  M.  de 
MaratisSi  professor  at  Groningen,  who  had  disputed  the 
point  warmly  against  Mr.  Dailie,  opposed  it  zealously; 
and  .j^upported  his  opinion  by  the  authority  of  those  synods 
who^  :bad  determined  agi^inst  such  toleration.  There 
happened  also  another  dispute  upon  the  same  subject| 
which  ocoa^oned  Papin  to  make  several  reflection<i.  M. 
Pajon,  who  was  his  uncle,  admitted  the  doctrine  of  effica- 
cious grace,  but  explained  it  in  a  different  manner  from 
the  refor^ned  in  general,  atid  Jurieu  in  particular ;  and 
though  the  synod  of  Anjou  in  1667,  after  many  long  de- 
bates upon  the  matter,  dismissed  Pajon,  with  leave  to 
continue  his  lectures  at  Saumur,  yet  as  his  interest  there 
was  not  great,  his  nephew,  who  was  a  student  in  that  uni- 
versity in  1633,  was  pressed  to  condemn  the  doctrine, 
which  was  branded  with,  the  appellation  of  Pajonism. 
Papin  declared,  th^t  his  conscience  would  not  allow  him 
to  subscribe  to  the  condemnation  of  either  party  ;  on  which 
the  university  refused  to  give  him  a  testimonial  in  the 
usual  form.  All  these  disagreeable  incidents  put  him  out 
of  humour  with  the  authors  of  them,  and  brought  him  to 
view  the  Roman  catholic  religion  with  less  dislike  than  be- 
fore. In  this  disposition  he  wrote  a  treatise,  entitled  '<  The 
Faith  reduced  to  its  just  bounds  ;^*  in  which  he  maintained, 
lliat,  as  the  papists  profaned  that  they  embraced  the  doc- 
trine of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  they  ought  to  be  tolerated  by 
tbe  most  zealous  protestants.  He  also  wrote  several  letters 
to  the  reformed  of  Bourdeaux,  to  persuade  them  that^they 
might  be  saved  in  the  Bomish  church,  if  they  would  be 
reconciled  to  it. 

,  This  work,  as  might  be  expected,  exasperated  the  pro- 
tesstants  against  him;  and  to  avoid  their  resentment,  lie 
crossed  the  water  to  England,  in  1686,  where  James  II. 
was  endeavouring  to  re*establish  popery.  There  he  re- 
ceived deacon's  and  priest's  orders,  from  the  bands  of 
Turner^  bishop  of  Ely;  and,  in  1687,  published  a  book 
against  Jurieu,  entitled  ^*  Theological  Essays  concerning 
Providence  and  Grace,  &c."  This  exasperated  that  mi- 
Vol.  XXIV.  G 


82  -         P  A  P  I  N. 

oister  so  mucbj  that  when  be  knew  Papin  was  attemptiBg 
to  obtain  some  employ  as  a  professor  in  Grermanyi  be  dis- 
persed letters  every  where  in  order  to  defeat  bis  applica- 
tions ;  and,  tbough  he  procured  a  preacher's  place  at  Ham- 
burghy  Jurieu  found  means  to  get  him  dismissed  in  a  few 
months.  About  this  time  bis  ^^  Faith  reduced  to  just 
bounds"  coming  into  the  hands  of  Bayle,  that  \yriter  added 
some  pages  to  it,  and  printed  it.  These  additions  were 
ascribed  by  Jurieu  to  our  author,  who  did  not  disavow  the 
principal  maxims  laid  down,  which  were  condemned  in  the 
synod  of  Bois-le-duc  in  J  687.  In  the  mean  time,  an  offer 
being  made  him  of  a  professo»*s  chair  in  the  church  of  the 
French  refugees  at  Dantzic,  he  accepted  it :  but  it  being 
afterwards  proposed  to  him  to  conform  to  the  synodical  de- 
crees of  the  Walloon  churches^  in  the  United  Provinces, 
and  to  subscribe  them,  he  refused  to  .comply ;  because 
there  were  some  opinions  asserted  in  those  decrees  which 
he  could  not  assent  to,  particularly  that  doctrine  which 
maintained  that  Christ  died  only  for  the  elect.  Those  who 
^  had  invited  him  to  Dantzic,  were  highly  offended  at  his 
refusal ;  and  he  was  ordered  to  depart,  as  soon  as  he  bad 
completed  the  half  year  of  his  preaching,  which  had  been 
contracted  for.  He  was  dismissed  in  1689,  and  not  long 
after  embraced  the  Roman  catholic  religion  ;  delivering  his 
abjuration  into  the  hands  of  Bossuet^  bishop  of  Meaux^ 
Nov.  15,  1690. 

Upon  this  change,  Jurieu  wrote  a  pastoral  letter  to  those 
of  the  reformed  religion  at  Paris,  Orleans,  and  Blois  ^  in 
which  be  pretended  that  Papin,  had  always  looked  upon  aU 
religions  as  indifferent,  and  in  that*  spirit  had  returned  to 
the  Roman  church.  In  answer  to  this  letter,  Papin  drew 
up  a  treatise,  *^  Of  the  Toleration  of  the  Protestants,  and 
df  the  Authority  of  the  Church."  The  piece,  being  ap-» 
proved  by  the  bishop  of  Meaux,  was  printed  in  1692 :  the 
author  afterwards  changed  its  title,  which  wa&.a  little  equi* 
vocal,  and  made  some  additions  to  it ;  but,  while  he  was 
employed  in  making  collections  to  complete  it  farther,  and 
finish  other  books  upon  the  same  subject,  be  died  at  Paris 
the  19th  of  June,  1709.  His  widow,  who  also  embraced 
the  Roman  catholic  religion,  communicated  these  papers, 
which  were  made  use  of  in  a  new  edition  printed  at  large 
in  1719,  12mo.  M.Pajon  of  the  Oratory,  his.  relation, 
published  all  his  <<  Theological  Works/'   1723,    3   vols. 


P  A  P  I  N  I  A  N.  83 

I 

^3mo :  they  are  all  in  French,  and  written  with  shrewdness 
and  ability.* 

PAPINIAN,  a  celebrated  Roman  lawyer,  born  in  the 
year  175,  was  advocate  of  the  treasury  or  exchequer,  and 
afterwards  pretorian  prefect  under  the  emperor  Severus^ 
about  the  year  194.    This  emf»eror  had  so  high  an  opinion 
of  his  worth,  that  at  his  death  he  recommended  his  sons 
Caracalla  and  Geta  to  his  care  :  but  the  first,  having  mur- 
dered his  brother,  enjoined   Papinian  to  compose  a  dis- 
course, to  excuse  that  barbarity  to  the  senate  and  people. 
Papinian  could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  comply  with  this  : 
but  on  the  contrary  answered  boldly,  that  it  was  easier  to 
commit  a  parricide  than  to  excuse  it ;  and  to  accuse  an 
innocent  person,  after  taking  away  his  life,  was  a  second 
parricide.     Caracalla  was  so  much  enraged  at  this  answer, 
that  be  ordered  Papinian  to  be  beheaded,  which  sentence 
was  executed  in  the  year  212,  when  he  was  in  his  thirty- 
seventh  year,  and  his  body  was  dragged  through  the  streets 
of  Rome.     He  bad  a  great  number  of  disciples,  and  com- 
posed several  works  :  among  those,  twenty-seven  books  of 
"  Questions  in  the  Law ;"  nineteen  books  of  **  Responses 
or •  Opinions ;"  two  of  "Definitions;"  two    others  upon 
**  Adultery  ;"  and  a  single  book  upon  the  "  Laws  of  Edilea." 
His  reputation  was  so  great,  that  he  is  called  "  the  honour 
of  jurisprudence,  and  the  treasure  of  the  laws."  * 
PAPIRE-MASSON.     See  MASSON. 
PAPPUS,  a  very  eminent  Greek  of  Alexandria,  flou- 
rished, according  to  Suidas,  uiider  the  emperor  Thebdo- 
sius  the  Great,  from  the  year  379  to  395,  and  acquired 
deserved  fame  as  a  consummate  mathematician.     Many  of 
his  works  are  lost,  or  at  least  hare  not  yet  been  discovered. 
Suidas  and  Vossius  mention  as  the  principal  of  them,   his 
•*  Mathematical  Collections,"  in  8  books,  of  which  the  first 
and  parj:  of  the  second  are  lost;  a  "  Commentary  upon 
Ptolomy's  Almagest;"  an  "Universal  Chorography';"  "  A 
Description  of  the  Rivers  of  Libya  ;"  a  treatise  of  "  Mili- 
tary Engines ;"  "  Commentaries  upon  Aristarcbus  of  Sa- 
jnos,  concerning  the  Magnittide  and  Distance  of  tbe  Sun 
and  Moon,"  &c.     Of  these,  there  have  been  published, 
*<  The  Mathematical  Collections,"  in  a  Latin  translation, 
with  a  large  GOtnmentary,  by  Commandine,  in  1 588,  folio ; 
reprinted  in    1660.      In    1644,    Mersenne  exhibited  an 

1  Cbaufepie.— Niceron,  rol.  IT.— Mosheim.  '  Moreri.— Saxii  Oooma^t, 


/ 


8*  PAPPUS. 

abridgiiieilt  of  them  in  his  ^*  Synopsis  Mathematical'  in 
4l:o,  containing  only  such  propositions  as  could  b^  UbdiBr^. 
stdod  withoiit  figiHe^.  In  1655^  Mieibomius  gave  som6  of 
the  Lemmata  of  the  seventh  book^  in  his  *^  Dialogue  upott 
Proporti^nsv^'  In  1688>  Dr.  Wallis  printed  the  last  twelve 
propositions  o^  the  Isecbod  book,  at  the  end  of  his  *^  Aris* 
tarehuis  Safi&itis."  In  1703,  Dr.  David  Gregory  gave  part 
of  the  preface  of  the  seventh  book,  in  the  Prolegoitiena  to 
his  Euclid.  And  in  1706,  Dr.  Halley  exhibited  that  pre- 
fa<Je  entire,  iti  the  beginning  of  his  "  Apollonius."  Dr. 
Hiitton^  in  his  Dictionary,  has  given  an  excellent  analyst's 
of  the  "  Mathematical  Colle^ttens.''  * 

PARABOSCO  (Jeromb),  an  Italian  cowic  writer,  born 
at  Piacentia,  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  centuryy 
was  an  author  of  some  eu^nence  in  hiis  time.     Bis  come^ 
dies  have  a  eertain  chariicter  of  originality,  which  still,  in 
some  tJegree^  supports  their  credit.     They  are  six  in  num*> 
ber,  five  in  pro»e>  and  one  in  vei'se.     The  best  edition  i» 
that  printed  at  Venice,  in  1560,  in  two  small  volumes,  dud-^ 
deciitoo.     There  is  a  volume  of  letters  by  him,  entitled 
"  Lettere  Amorosie  di  M.  Girolamo  Parabosco^"  printed 
also  at  Venice  in  1545.    These  were  republished  in  154S, 
^  con  alcune  Novelle  e  Rime ;"  and  these  is  a  volume  af 
**Rime"  alone,  printed  by  Giolitoat  Venice,  in  1547,  8vo. 
He  compois^ed  also,  novels  iti  the  style  of  Boccacio  and 
Bandelli,  which  were  published  at  Venice  in  1552,  under 
the  title  of  "I  Diporti  di  M.  Girolamo  Parabosca,"  and 
reprinted  in  1558,   1564,   1586,  and  1598,  and  lately  in- 
serted in  the  collection  entitled   '*  Novelliero  Italiano,** 
1791,  26  vols.  Svo,  with  the  imprint  of  Londra  for  Livorno. 
The  work  consists  of  three  days,  or  **  Giornate ;"  the  first 
and  second  of  which  .comprise  sixteen  tales,  and  four  cu- 
rious questions.     The  third  contains  several  <'  Motti,^'  or 
bon^mots,  with  a  few  madrigals,  and  other  short  poems. 
There  is  also  a  volume  by  him  entitled  "  Oracolo,"  thi$^ 
oracle,  published  at  Venice,  in  1551,  in  4to.     In  this  the 
author  gives  answers  to  twelve  questions  proposed  in  the 
beginning  of  the  book ;  which  answers  ate  given  and  varied 
according  to  some  rules  laid  down  in  the  preface.     It  ap- 
pears that  Parabosco  lived  chiefly,  if  not  entirely,  at  Ve- 
nice, as  all  his  books  were  pifblished  there.     His  **  Di« 
porti,*'  or  Sports>  open  with  a  panegyric  upon  that  city.* 

.1  Hntton'f  Dictionwy.^Vossius  de  Soiejit  Mftth.-*Saxii  Onomast. 
3  Crescembini  Hist,  delta  Voig.  Poes.  rol.  lib.  III.  cap.  25.— Urunet  Ma- 
nuel du  Libraire. 


PARACELSUS.  85 

PARAC£LSU8  (Philippus  Aureolus  Theophrastus), 
a  man  of  a  strange  and  paradoxical  genius,  and  classed  by 
Brucker  among  the  Theosophists,  wat  born,  as  is  generally 
supposed  (for  his  birth-place  is  a  disputed  matter),  fit  Ein- 
fidleo  nearZurick,  in  1493.     His  family  name,  which  was 
B(n»ha$tusj  he  afterwards  changed,  according  to  the  custom 
of  the  age,  into  Paracelsus.     His  father,  who  was  a  phy- 
sician, instructed  him  in  that  science,  but,  as  it  would  ap- 
pear, in  nothing  else,  for  he  was  almost  totally  ignorant 
of  the  learned  languages.     So  earnest  was  he,  however, 
to  penetrate  into  the  mysteries  of  nature,  that,  neglect- 
i^g   books,  he.  undertook   long    and  hasardous  journeys 
tbiTQUgh  Qermany,  Italy,  Spain,  Denmark,  Hungary,  Mos- 
covy,  and  probably  several  parts  of  Asia  and  Africa.     He 
QOt  only  visited  literary  and  learned  men,  but  frequented 
the  workshops  of  mect^anies,  descended  into  mines,  and 
tlniugbt  no  place  mean  or  hazardous,  if  it  aflbrded  him  an 
opportunity  of  increasing  bis  knowledge  of  nature.     He 
also    consulted   barber*surgeons,    monks,   conjurors,    old 
woioen,  qoaoks  of  every  description,  and  every  person  who 
prfiiendad  to  be  possessed  of  any  secret  art,  particularly 
«aob  as  were  skilled  iri  metallurgy.     Being  in  this  manner 
a  self-taught  pbilociopher  and  physician,  he  despised  the 
medical  writings  of  the  ancients,    and  boasted  that  the 
whole  contents  of  his  library  would  not  amount  to  six  folios. 
}Ie  appears  indeed  to  have  written  more  than  he  ever 
read.     His  quackery  consisted  in  certain  new  and  secret 
medicines  procured  from  metallic  substances  by  the  che- 
mical art,  which  he  administered  with  such  wonderful  suc- 
cess, .  that  be  rose  to  the  summk  of  popular  fame,  and  even 
obtained  the  professorship  of  medicine  at  Basil.     One  of 
his  nostrums  be  called  Azoth,  which  he  said  was  the  philo- 
sopher's stOfie,  'the  medical  panacea^  ||nd  his  disciples  ex- 
U^led  it  as  the  tincture  of  life,  given  through  the  dii^ine 
favour  to  man  in  these  last  days.     But  while  his  irregular 
practice^  aiid  arrogant  invectives  against  other  physicians, 
cir^ted  him  many  enemies,  his^  rewards  were  by  no  means 
i4equate  to  bis*^  vanity  and  ambition  ;  and  be  met  frequently 
with  mortifications,  one  of  which  determined  him  to  leave 
Basil.     A  wealthy  canon  who  happened  to  fall  sick  at  that 
pUce^  offered  .hira  a  hundred  florins  to  cure  his  disease, 
fyhicb  Paracelsus  easily  effected  with  three  pills  of  opidm^. 
one  of  his  most  powerful  medicines.     The  canon,  restored 
to  health  so  soon,  and  apparently  by  such  slight  means^ 


S6  PARACELSUS. 

refused  to  stand  to  bis  engagement.  Paracelsus  brought 
the  matter  before  the  magistrate,  who  decreed  him  only 
the  usual  fee.  Inflamed  with  violent  indignation  at  the 
contempt  which  was  thus  thrown  upon  his  art,  he  railed  at 
the  canon,  the  magistrate,  and  the  whole  city,  and  leaving 
Basil,  withdrew  into  Alsace,  whither  bis  medical  fame  and 
success  followed  him.  After  two  years,  during  which  tihie 
he  practised  medicine  in  the  principal  families  of  the  coun- 
try, about  the  year  1530  he  removed  into  Switzerland, 
where  be  conversed  with  Bullinger  and  other  divines. 
From  this  time,  he  seems  for  many  years  to  have  roved 
through  various  parts  of  Germany  and  Bohemia.  At  last, 
in  the  year  1541,  he  died  in  the  hospital  of  St.  Sebastian, 
in  Saltsburg. 

Different  and  even  contradictory  judgments  have  been 
forqned  by  the  learned  concerning  Paracelsus.  His  ad- 
mirers and  followers  have  celebrated  him  as  a  perfect  mas- 
tjer  of  all  philosophical  and  medical  mysteries,  have  called 
him  the  medical  Luther^  and  have  even  been  weak  enough 
to  believe  that  he  was  possessed  of  the  grand  secret  of  con- 
verting inferior  metals  into  gold.  But  others,  and  parti«» 
cularly  some  of  his  contemporaries,  have  charged  his  whole 
medical  practice  with  ignorance,  imposture,  and  impu- 
dence. J.  Crato,  in  an  epistle  to  Zwinger,  attests,  that  in 
Bohemia  his  medicines,  even  when  they  performed  an  ap- 
parent cure,  left  his  patients  in  such  a  state,  that  they  soon 
^fter  died  of  palsies  or  epilepsies.  Erastus,  who  was  for 
two  years  one  of  his  pupils,  wrote  an  entire  book  to  detect 
bis  impostures.  We  have  mentioned  his  want  of  educa- 
tion, iand  it  is  even  asserted,  that  he  was  so  imperfect  a 
master  of  his  vernacular  tongue,  that  he  was  obliged  to 
have  his  German  writings  corrected  by  another  hand.  His 
adversaries  c^so  charge  him  with  the  most  contemptible  ar- 
rogance, the  most  vulgar  scurrility,  the  grossest  intem- 
perance, and  the  most  detestable  impiety.  Still  it  Appears, 
that  with  all  these  defects,  by  the  mere  help  of  physical 
knowledge  and  the  chemical  arts,  he  obtained  an  uncom- 
mon share  of  medical  fame;  while  to  support  bis  credit 
with  the  ignorant,  he  pretended  to  an  intercourse  with  iii- 
'  visible  spirits,  and  to  divine  illuminations. 

With  regard  to  his  system  of  chemistry,  in  which  his 
real  merit  lies,  the  fundamental  doctrines  of  it  resolved 
fsvery  thing  into  three  elements,  salt,  sulphur,  and  mer- 
cury, and  were  for  a  long  time  received,  although  in  fact 


PARACELSUS.  87 

they  were  borrowed  from  bis  predecessor,  Basil  Valentine. 
His  medical  skill  consisted  principally  in  tbe  bold  adminis- 
tration of  some  poweil'ul  remedies,  which  bad  been  here* 
tofore  thought  too  dangerous  to  be  used,  particularly  opitim, 
a  drug  with  which,  it  is  obvious,  he  would  be  able  in  many 
instances  toaflbrd  great  and  speedy  relief;  but  with  which 
also  few  permanent  cures  could  be  effected,  and  much 
mischief  would  necessarily  be  produced,  when  it  was  mis- 
applied. Antimony  and  mercury  were  also  medicines  which 
he  liberally  prescribed,  and  he  used  various  preparations 
of  them  of  the  most  active  kind.  He  deserves  the  praise^ 
however,  of  having  been  one  of  the  first  to  employ  mercury 
for  the  care  of  the  venereal  disease,  and  of  course  he 
must  have  been  successful  in  a  degree,  to  which  none  of 
bis  contemporaries^  who  did  not  resort  to  that  remedy, 
oottld  attain.  From  his  total  ignorance  of  anatomy  and  ra«> 
tional  physiology,  bis  inability  from  want  of  literature  to 
investigate  the  doctrines  of  the  ancients,  which  he  never- 
theless boldly  impdgned,  and  bis  employment  of  a  bar* 
barous  jargon,  as  well  as  bis  infatuated  notions  of  magic, 
a&trology,  geomancy,  and  all  the  other  branches  of  mysti- 
cal imposture,  be  is,  as  a  theorist,  beneath  contempt.  We 
shall  not  pretend,  therefore,  to  enter  into  any  detail  of  the 
unintelligible  jargon  and  absurd  hypotheses  which  he  Em- 
ployed, or  to  enumerate  the  immense  farrago  of  treatises,^ 
which  made  their  appearance  under  bis  name  after  his 
death,  the  notices  of  which  occupy  above  nine  quarto 
pages  in  the  Bibliotheca  of  Haller :  for  the  first  we  are 
unable  to  comprehend,  and  tbe  latter  would  be  a  waste  of 
time.  The  most  complete  edition  is  that  of  Geneva,  1658, 
3  vols,  folio.'  ^ 

PARADIN  (WiLLUM),  a  French  historian,  and  labo- 
rious writer  of  the  sixteenlb  century,  was  still  living-  in 
1581,  and  was  then  turned  fourscore.  He  was  the  author 
of  many  works,  among  which  the  following  are  remarka- 
ble :  1.  '^  The  History  of  Aristeeus,  respecting  the  version 
of  tbe  Pentateuch,"  4to.  2.  **  Historia  sui  temporis,"' 
written  in  Latin,  but  best  known  by  a  French  version  which 
was  published  in  1558.  3.  **  Annales  de  Bourgogne," 
1 566,  folio.  This  history,  by  no  means  well  dfgested,  be- 
gins at  the  year  378,  and  ends  in  1482^    4.  **  De  moribus 

1  Brucker.— Haller.— Tiiom80ii*s  Hist,  of  the  Royal  Society. *-Eloy,  Diet. 
Hist  de  MediciDe.— Reea's  Cyclopaidia. 


aa  P  A  R  A  D  I  N. 

GaUii&9  Historia/?  4to.  5.  <<  Mew^ir69  de  THUtQife  de 
Lyon/'  1625,  folio.  6.  <' De  rebus  in  Belgio,  i^nno  IS4>3 
gestis,"1543, 8vo.  7.  "  La  Chronique  de  Sayoie,"  1602^  fol. 
9.  '*  Historia  GaUiae,  a  Fraa<;iaci  1,  coronaijone  ad  annum 
1550.'*  9.  "  Historia  Kcclesiae  GaUican®,"  10*  ^*  Me* 
moralia  inaignium  Franci®  Famiiiarum."  H^  was  an  eccle*- 
siastiCy  and  becaoie  dean  of  Beauji^u* '  * 
.  PARCIEUX,  or  rather  DEPARGIEUX  (Antbony),  atk 
able  matbematiciau,  was  .bora  in  1703,  ai  a  hamlet  Mar 
Nismesy  of  iiidustrious  but  poor  parj^uts,  who  were  noable 
^o  give  him  education ;  be  soon,  however,  found  a  patron>^ 
who. placed  him  in  the  college  at  Lyons,  where  he  made 
astonishing  progress  in  roatheoiaticst.  ^  On  bis  ftrrival  at 
Paris,  he  was  obliged  to  accept,  of  humble  employment 
from  tbe  matbematieal  icistrument  makers,  .until  his  worba 
brought  him  into  notice.  Tbijse  ;wefe^  1.  **  Table  astro- 
nomiques,"  1740,  4to«  2»  ^^  Trait6  de  trigonometfie  rec^ 
tiUgffie  et  spberique,  avec  un  trait^  ue:  gnomonique  et  des 
tables  de  logarithm's,"  174.1,  4to..  3*  *^  £^$a]  sur  leaparof- 
babliit^s  de  la  dur^e  de  la  vie.  bam^iae,".  1746,  4to.  4.. 
"Reponae  aux  objections  coatre  ce  livre,"  1746,, 4to*  5. 
^  Additions  a  reasai,  &c/V  1760,  4to.  €i.  >f  Memoires'suT' 
la  possibility  et  la  facility  d'ameoer  aupres  de  I'Estrapad^ 
a  Paris,  les  eaux  de  la  riviere  d'Yvet^te,"  1763,  4to,  jre*i> 
printed^  with  additions,  in  1777.  It  was  always  Depar- 
cLeux^s  object  to  turn  bia  knowledge:  of  mathematics  ta 
practical  purposes,  and  in  the  memoirs  of  the  aeademy.-of 
sciences  are  many  excellent  papers  which  be  contributed 
with  this  view.  He  also  introduced  some  ingenious  iin<» 
provt;inent9  in  machinery.  He  was  censor-royal  and  mem-*- 
ber  of  the  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris,  and  of  those  of 
Berlin,  Stockbolm,  Metz,  Lyons,  and. .  Montpellier.  He 
died  at  Paris  Sept..  2,  1768,  aged  sixty-iive.  He  had m 
nephew  of  the  same  namei  burn  in  1763,  who  was  edu^ 
cated  at  tbe  college  of  Navarre  at  Paris,  where  he  studied 
mathematics  and  philosophy,  and  at  the  age  of  twenty*-, 
ibur  gave  public  lectures.  In  1779  be  began  a  course  of 
experimental  philosophy,  in  the  militaryschoolof  Brienne; 
after  which,  he  occupied  the  philosophical  professorship 
at  the  Lyceum  in  Paris,  where  he  died  June  23,  1799,  in 
a  state  bordering  on  indigence.  He  wrote  a  ^^  Trait6  ele<> 
mentaire  de   Mathennatiques,"  for  the-  use  of  students; 

1  Diet.  Hist. — Le  Long  Bibl.  Hist,  de  France. 


P  A  R  C  I  E  U  X.         '  »9 

"  Tr^it^  d«s  aomiu^fr  ou  dea  reotet  a  teirme,''  178l»  4to ; 
"  Disseitatioo  sur  le  moyen  d'elever  Teau  par  ia  rotation 
4'ane  corde  verticale  vans  6u/'  Amst  1782»  Hvo;  **  Dis** 
sertation  aur  les  globes  areoatottques,^*  Paris^  1783^  8va« 
He  left  also  some  uiifioiabed  works ;  and  a  ^^  Coiirs  complet 
^.  physique  et  de  cbimie/'  was  in  the  press  when  he  diftd.^ 

PARDIES   (10NAT1U3  Gastok),   an  ingenious  French 
SBattiematit^ian  and  philosopher,  was  born  at  PaU|  in  the 
provint*e  of  Gascony^  in  1636;  his  father  being  a  conn** 
i^eilor  of  the  parltaoient  of  that  city.     At  the  age  of  sixteen 
be  entered  into  the  order  of  Jesuits,  aad-oiaJe  so  greaS 
proficiency  in  his  studies,  that  he  taoght  polite  literature^ 
and  composed  many  pieces  in  prose  and  verse  withconsi^ 
d^rs^ie  delicacy  of  thought  and  style,  before  be  wastwell 
arrived  at  the  age  of  manhood.     Propriety  and  elegance  of 
lAi^Ut^e  appear  to  have  been  his  first  parsuits,  for  which 
parpose  he  «tudi0d  the  belles  lettres^  but  afterward^  h«i 
devoted  himself  to  matbematioai  and  philosophical  studies^ 
and-iPead,  with  due  attention,  the  most  valuable  authors, 
ancieiut  and  modern,  in  those  sciences..    By^sttcfa  assidiiity^ 
ift  a  3bort  time  he  m^de  himself  master  of  the  Peripatetic 
and  Cartesian  philosophy,  and  taught  them  both  with  gMati 
reputation.  .Notwithstanding  he  embraced  Cartesianism^^ 
yet  he  affected  to  be  rather  an  iniremor.  in  pbalosophy  bim^H 
self.     Ia  this  ^pint  he  soi^ietimes  advanced  very  bold  opii*. 
niona  in  natural  philosophy^  which  met  with  opposers,  who 
charged  him  with  starting  absurdities :  but  he  was  inge*-' 
aioua  enough  to  g^ve.  his  notions  a  pkuisible  turn,  so  as  to> 
dear  them  seemingly  fcom  contradtotions.    .His  reputation 
procured  him  a  call  to  Paris,  as  |nrolessor  of  rhetoric  in  the; 
college  of .  Louis  the  Great*     He  also,  taught  the  matbe<-' 
maiics  in  that  city,  as  he  had  before  done  in  other  places  ; 
but  the  high  expectations,  which  his. writings  very  reason^^ 
ably  created,  were  all  disappointed  by  his  early  death,  in 
1673,  at  tbirty«^even  years  of  age.     He  fell  a  victim  to  his' 
:9eal,  having  caught  a  contagious  disorder  by  preaching  tcr 
the  prisoners  in. the  Bicetre. 

Pardies  wrote  with  great  neatness  and  elegance.  His 
principal  works  are  as  follow:  1.  <^  Herologium  Thauma* 
ticum.duplex,*'  1662,  4to.  2,^' Dissertatio  de  Motu  et 
Natura  Cometarum,*'  1665,  8vo.  3.  ^<  Discours  du  Mouve- 
ment  Local,*'  1670,  l2mo.     4.  "  Elemens  de  Geometric," 

1  fiiog;  Utilv*  art.  Deparcieux. 


9t>  P  A  R  D  I  E  S. 

1670^  12mo.  This  has  been  translated  into  several  Ian-* 
guages;  in  English  by  Dr.  Harris,  in  171 1.  5.**  Discours 
de  la  Connoissance  des  Betes,**  1672,  12mo.  €.  ^'  Lettre 
d'un  Pbilosophe  a  un  Cartesien  de  ses  amis,"  1672,  12mo. 
7.  *^  La  Statique  ou  ia  Science  ^es  Forces  Mouvantes,*' 
1673,  12ino.  8.  ^<  Description  et  Explication  de  deux 
Machines  propres  a  faire  des  Cadrans  avec  une  graade  fa- 
cility,*' 1673,  12mo.  9#  ^^  Remarques  du  Mouvement  de 
la  Lumiere."  10.  ^^  Globi  Coelestis  in  tabula  plana  redact! 
Descriptio,*'  1675,  folio.  Part  of  bis  works  were  printed 
together,  at  tbe  Hague,  1691,  l2n)o;  and  again  at  Lyons, 
1725.  Pardies  had  a  dispute  also  with  sir  Isaac  Newton, 
about  his  new  theory  of  light  and  colours,  in  1672.  His 
letters  are  inserted  in  the  Philosophical  Transaotionsfor 
that  year.' 

PARE'  (Ambkose),  a  French  surgeon  of  eminence^  was 
born  at  Laval,  in  the  district  of  the  Maine,  in  1509.  He 
commenced  the  study  of  his  profes^on  early  in  life,  .and 
practised  it  with  great  zeal  both  in  hospitals  and  in  tbe  army ; 
and  when  his  reputation  was  at  its  height,  he  was  appointed 
surgeon  in  ordinary  to  king  Henry  II.  in  1552;  and  he 
held  the  same  office  under  the  succeeding  kings,  FrancisIL 
Charles  IX.  and  Heury  III.  To  Charles  IX.  especiatiy^ 
he  is  said  to  have  on  one  occasion  conferred  great  profes- 
sional benefits,  when  some  formidable  symptoms  had  been 
produced  by  the  accidental  wound  of  a  tendon  in  yenesec* 
tion,  which  he  speedily  removed.  His  services  app^ir  to 
have  been  amply  acknowledged  by  the  king ;  who  spared 
him  in  the  horrible. massacre  of  St. Bartholomew's,  although 
a  protestant.  ^^  Of  all  those,*'  says  the  *  duke  of  Sully, 
<*  who  were  about  the  person  of  this  prince  (Charles  IX.) 
none  possessed  so  great  a.  diare  of  his  confidence  as  Am* 
brose  Par^,  his  surgeon.  This  man,  though  a  Huguenot, 
lived  with  him  in  so  great  adegree  of  familiarity,  that,  on 
the  day  of  the  massacre,  Charles  telling  him,  the  time  was 
now  come  wheu'  the  whole  kingdom  would  be  catholics ; 
he  replied,  without  being  alarmed,  *  By  the  light,  of  God, 
sire,  I  cannot  believe  that,  you  have  forgot  yoor  promise 
never  to  command  me  to  do  four  things  ;  namely,  to  enter 
into  my  mother's  womb^,  to  be  present  in  the  day  of  bat^ 

*  This  absurd  promise  seems  injtended  as  an  illatiratioii  of  the  impossibility 
of  tbe  king's  breaking  his  word  with  him  in  tbe  other  cases.     ^ 

1  Cbaufepie.«^Niceron,  I.  and  X.—Martin's  Biog.  Philos.'— Mutton's  Diet. 


PARE'.  91 

tie,  to  quit  your  service,  or  to  go  to  mass.'  The  king 
soon  after  took  him  aside,  and  disclosed  to  him  freely  the 
trouble  of  his  soul :  *  Ambrose/  said  he,  ^  I  know  not  nrfiat 
has  happened  to  me  these  two  or  three  days  past,  but  I 
feel  my  mind  and  body  as  much  at  enmity  with  each  other, 
as  if  I  was  seized  with  a  fever ;  sleeping  or  waking,  the 
murdered  Huguenots  seem  ever  present  to  my  eyes,  with 
ghastly  faces,  and  weltering  in  blood.  I  wish  the  innocent 
and  helpless  bad  been  spared  !*  The  order  which  was  pub- 
lished the  following  day,  forbidding  the  continuance  of  the 
massacre,  was  in  consequence  of  this  conversation.*'  Par^, 
after  having  been  long  esteemed  as  the  first  surgeon  of  his 
tbae,  and  beloved  for  his  private  virtues,  died  Dec.  20, 
1590,  at  the  age  of  eighty-one;  and  as  he  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  St.  Andrew,  Eloy  would  from  that  circum* 
stance  infer  that  he  died  a  Roman  catholic,  of  which  we 
have  no  proof. 

>  Par6  was  not  a  man  of  learning,  although  we  meet  with 
I^rned  references  and  numerous  quotations  from  the 
ancients,  in  his  writings ;  but  he  must*be  considered  as  a: 
bold  and  successful  operator,  and  a  real  improver  of  his 
art ;  particularly  in  the  practice  of  tying  divided  arteries, 
which  he  effected  by  drawing'  them  out  naked,  and  passing 
a  ligature  over  them  ;  and  in  the  treatment  of  gun-shot 
wounds.  Even  in  anatomy,  in  which  he  did  not  excel,  he 
was,  by  frequent  dissections,  enabled  to  add  some  obser- 
vations of  his  own  to  what  he  had  borrowed  from  Vesalius. 
As  an  author  he  bad  high  fame,  and  his  works  were  uni- 
versally read  and  translated  into  most  of  the  languages  of 
Europe.  His  first  treatise,  '*  Maniere  de  traiter  les  playes 
faites  par  harquebuses,-  fleches,  &c.*'  was  published  at  Pa<» 
ris  in  1545,  and  again  in  1552  and  1564.  He  afterwards 
laboured  strenuously  to  put  his  brethren  in  possession  of  a 
body  of  surgical  science  in  their  native  tongue ;  and  in 
1 561  published  the  first  edition  of  his  works,  in  folio.  This 
was  translated  by  Thomas  Johnson,  Lond.  1634,  and  re* 
printed  with  additions  in  1649.  His  treatise  on  gun*shot 
wounds  was  published  by  Walter  Hammond  in  1617,  and 
that  on  the  plague  in  1630.  Numerous  editions  of  his 
whole  works  were  afterwards  printed  in  German,  Dutch, 
and  French ;  and  his  pupil,  Guillemeau,  who  was  also  sur* 
geon  to  Charles  IX.  and  Henry  IV.  translated  them  into 
Latin.  This  translation  has  been  frequently  reprinted  at 
variousplaces,  with  the  title  of  **  Ambrosii  Parsei,  Opera, 


Sl2  PAR  E'. 

QOV18  Tconibus  elegantissitnis  illustrata^  et  I^atiuitatd  do- 
nata.'*  This  volume  contains  twenty^six  treatises^  and 
there  is  no  branch  of  surgery  which  is  not  touched  upon,  in 
the  collection. ' 

PARENT  (Antony),  a  French  mathematiciaH,  was 
born  at  Paris  in  1666.  He  shewed  early  a  propensity  la 
mathematics,  eagerly  perusing  such  books  at  f^l  in  hit 
way.  His  custom  was  to  write  remarks  upon  the  margins 
of  the  books  which  he  read  ;  and  he  had  filled  ^ome  of 
these  with  a  kind  of  commentary  at  the  age  of  thirteen. 
At  fourteen  he  was  put  under  a  master  who  taught  rhe* 
toric  at  Chartres.  Here  he  happened  to  see  a  Dodeca* 
^dron,  upon  every  face  of  which  was  delineated  asun-^dial, 
except  the  lowest,  on  which  it  stood,  St;ruck  immediately 
with  the  curiosity  of  these  dials,  he  set  about  drawing  one 
himself;  but,  having  a  book  which  only  shewed  the  pra(>* 
tical  part  without  the  theory,  it  was  not  till  some  time 
after,  when  his  rhetoric-master  came  to  explain  the  doc- 
trine of  the  sphere  to  him,  that  he  began  to  understand 
how  the  projection  of  the  circles  of  the  sphere  formed  sun* 
dials.  He  then  undertook  to  v^rite  a  ^<  Treatise  upon  Gno^ 
monies,"  and  the  piece  was  rude  ^nd  unpolished  enough  ^ 
but  it  was  entirely  his  own.  About  the  same  time  he  wrote 
also  a  book  of  ^^  Geometry,'*  at  Beauvais. 

At  length  his  friends  sent  for  him  to  Paris,  to  study  the 
law ;  and,  in  obedience  to  them  he  went  through  a  coarse 
in  that  faculty,  but  this  was  no  sooner  finished,  than,  his 
passion  for  mathematics  returning,  he  shut  himself  up  in 
the  college  of  Dormans,  and,  with  an  allowance  of  less  than 
200  livres  a  year,  he  lived  content  in  this  retreat,  which  he 
never  left  but  to  go  to  the  royal  college,  in  order  to  hear 
the  lectures  of  M.  de  la  Hire,  or  M.  de  Sauveur.  As  sood 
as  he  found  himself  able  enough  to  teach  others,  he  took 
pupils ;  and,  fortification  being  a  part  of  mathematics 
which  the  war  had  rendered  very  necessary,  be  turned  his 
attention  to  that  branch ;  but  after  some  time  began  to 
entertain  scruples  about  teaching  what  he  knew  only  io 
books,  having  never  examined  a  fortification  elsewhere, 
and  communicating  these  scruples  to  M.  Sauveur,  that 
friend  recommended  him  to  the  marquis  d*Aligre,  who 
happened  at  that  time  to  want  a  mathematician  in  his  suite* 
Parent  accordingly  made  two  campaigns  with  the  marquis, 

1  Eloy,  Diet,  Hist,  de  Medicme.-»Hi|tler.-*Moreri.-*-Kees's  Cyclopaedia,  , 


PARENT.  9* 

and  insCrfticted  himself  thoroughly   by  viewing  fortified 
places^  of  -which  be  drew  a  Dumber  of  plans,  though  he 
had  never  received  any  instruction  in  that  branch.     From 
tbia  time  he  assiduounly  cultivated  natural  philosophy,  and 
the  mathematics  in  all  its  branches,  both  speculative  and 
practical ;  to  which  he  joined  anatomy,  botany,  and  che- 
mistry,  and  never  appears  to  have  been  satisfied  while 
there  was  any  thing  to  learn.     M.  de  Billettes  being  ad- 
mitced  into  the  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris  in  1699,  with 
the  tide  of  their  mechanician,  nominated  for  bis  eleve  or 
disciple.  Parent,  who  excelled  chiefly  in  that  branch.     It 
was  soon  found  in  this  society,  that  he  engaged  in  all  the 
various  subjects  which  were.brought  before  tbem,  but  often 
with  an  eagerness  and  impetuosity,  and  an  impatience  of 
contradiction,  which  involved  him  in  unpleasant  disputes 
with  the  members,  who,  on  their  parts,  exerted  a  pettish 
fastidiousness  iti  examining  his  papers.     He  was  in  parti- 
cular charged  with  obscurity  in  his  productions ;  and  in- 
deed the  fault  was  so  notorious,  that  he  perceived  it  him* 
self,  ai&d  could  not  avoid  correcting  it. 

The  king  having,  by  a  regulation  in  1716,  suppressed 
the  class  of  eleves  of  the  academy,  which  seemed  to  put 
too  great  an  inequality  betwixt  the  members,  Parent  was 
made  a  joint  or  assistant  member  for  geometry;  but  be 
enjoyed  this  promotion  only  a  short  time,  being  taken  off 
by  the  small-pox'  the  same  year,  aged  fifty.  He  was  au-« 
thor  of  a  work,entitled  ^^  Elements  of  Mechanics  and  Na? 
tural  Philosophy ;"  "  Mathematical  and  Physical  Re- 
searches,'' a  sort  of  journal,  which  fiirst  appeared  in  1705, 
and  wbioh  in  1712  was  greatly  enlarged,  and  published  m 
three  vols.  4to  ;  and  **  A  treatise  on  Arithmetic."  Besides 
these,  he  was  the  author  of  a  great  number  of  papers  in 
the  different  French  "  Journals,"  and  in  the  volumes  of  the 
^^  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,"  from  1700  to 
1714,  and  be  left  behind  him  in  manuscript  many  works 
of  considerable  research :  among  these  w^re  some  com-* 
plete  treatises  on  divers  branches  of  mathematics,  and  a 
work  containing  proofs  of  the  divinity  of  Jesus  Christy  in. 
four  parts.  ^. 

PAREDS  (David),  a  celebrated  divine  of  the  reformed 
reli^on,  was  born  Dec.  30,  1 548,  at  Frankenstein  in  Si- 
lesia,  and  put  to  the  grammar-school  there,  apparently; 

1  Cbanfepiei— Niceron,  vol.  XI.— Moreri. 


94  P  A  R  E  U  S. 

with  a  design  to  breed  him  to  lealrning;  but  bis  father 
marrying  a  second  time,  a  capricious  and  narrow-minded 
woman,  she  prevailed  with  him  to  place  his  son  apprentice 
to  an  apothecary  at  Breslau  ;  and  afterwards  changing  her 
mind,  the  boy  was,  at  her  instigation,  bound  to  a  shoe- 
maker.     Some  time  after,    however,   his  father  resumed 
his  first  design,  and  his  son,  about  the  age  of  sixteen,  wai^ 
sent  to  the  college-school  of  Hirchberg,  in  the  neighbour*' 
hood  of  Frankenstein,  to  prosecute  his  studies  under  Chris- 
topher Schilling,  a  i^an  of  considerable  learning,  who  was 
rector  of  the  college.     It  was  customary  in  those  times 
for  young^  students  who  devoted  themselves  to  literature, 
to  assume  a  classical  name,  instead  of  that  of  their  family/ 
Schilling  was  a  great  admirer  of  this  custom,  and  easily 
persuaded   his  scholar  to   change   his  German  name  of 
Wangler  for  the  Greek  one  of  Parens,  from  ma^&ay  a  cheeky. 
which  Wangler  also  means  in  German.     Pareus  had  not 
lived  above  three  months  at  his  father^s  expence,  when  be 
was  enabled  to  provide  for  bis  own   support^  partly  by 
means  of  a  tutorship  in  the  family,   and  partly  by  the 
bounty  of  Albertus  Kindier,  one  of  the  principal  men  of 
the  place.      He  lodged  in  this  gentleman*s   house,   and 
wrote  a  poem  upon  the  death  of  his  eldest  son,  which  so 
highly  pleased  the  father,  that  he  not  only  gave  him  a 
gratuity  for  it,  but  encouraged  him  to  cultivate  his  poetical 
talents^  prescribing  him  proper  subjects,  and  rewarding 
bim  handsomely  for  every  poem  which  he  presented  to 
him. 

In  the  mean  time,  his  master  Schilling,  not  content  with 
making  him  change  his  surname,  made  him  also  change 
his  religious  creed,  that  of  the  Lutheran  church,  with  re- 
gard to  the  doctrine  of  the  real  presence,  and  effected  the 
same  change  of  sentijinent  throughout  his^ school;  but  this 
was  not  at  first  attended  with  the  happiest  effects,  as 
Schilling  was  expelled  from  the  college,  and  Pareus's  fa- 
ther threatened  to  disinherit  him  ;  and  it  was  not  without 
the  greatest  difficulty,  that  he  obtained  his  consent  to  go 
into  the  Palatinate,  notwithstanding  he  conciliated  his  fa- 
ther's parsimony  by  assuring  him  that  he  would  continue 
his  studies  thera  without  any  expence  to  his  family. 
Having  thus  succeeded  in  his  request,  he  followed  his 
master  Schilling,  who  had  been  invited  by  the  elector 
Frederic  III.  to  be  principal  of  his  new  college  at 
Amberg,  and  arrived  there  in  1566.     Soon  after  he  was 


P  A  R  £  U  S.  95 

sent,  with  ten  of  bis  school-fellows,  to  Heidelberg,  where 
Zacbary  Ursiuus  was  professor  of  divinity,  and  rector  of 
the  college  of  Wisdom.  Tbe  university  was  at  that  time 
in  a  most  flourishing  condition,  with  regard  to  every  one 
of  the  faculties ;  and  Parens  had  consequently  every  ad* 
vantage  that  could  be  desired,  and  made  very  great  pro- 
ficiency,  both  in  the  learned  languages  and  in  philosophy 
and  divinity.  He  was  admitted  into  tbe  ministry  in  1571, 
and  in  May  that  year  sent  to  exercise  his  function  in  a  viU 
lage  called  Schlettenbach,  where  very  violent  contests 
subsisted  between  the  Protestants  and  Papists.  The  elec- 
tor palatine,  his  patron,  had  asserted  his  claim  by  main 
force  against  the  bishop  of  Spire,  who  maintained,  that  the 
right  of  nomination  to  the  livings  in  the  corporation  of 
Alfestad  was  vested  in  his  chapter.  The  elector  allowed 
it,  but  with  this  reserve,  that  since  he  had  the  right  of  pa- 
tronage, the  nominators  were  obliged,  by  the  peace  of 
Passaw,  to  present  pastors  to  him  whose  religion  he  ap- 
proved. By  virtue  of  this  right,  he  established  the  reformed 
religion  in  that  corporation,  and  sent  Pareus  to  propagate 
it  in  the  province  of  Schlettenbach,  where,  however,  he 
met  with  many  difficulties  before  be  could  exercise  his 
ministry  in  peace.  Before  the  end  of  the  year  he  was  called 
back  to  teach  the  third  class  at  Heidelberg,  and  acquitted 
himself  so  well,  that  in  two  years*  time  he  was  promoted  to 
the  second  class ;  but  he  did  not  hold  this  above  six  months, 
being  made  principal  pastor  of  Hemsbach,  in  the  diocese 
t>f  Worms.  Here  he  met  with  a  people  more  ready  to 
receive  the  dpctrines  of  tbe  Reformation  than  those  of 
Schlettenbach,  and  who  cheerfully  consented  to  destrov 
the  images  in  the  church,  and  other  remains  of  former 
superstition.  A  few  months  after  his  arrival  he  married 
the  sister  of  John  Stibelius,  minister  of  Hippenheim  ;  and 
the  nuptials  being  solemnized  Jan.  the  5tb,  1574,  publicly 
in  the  church  of  Hemsbach,  excited  no  little  curiosity  and 
surprize  among  the  people,  to  whom  the  marriage  of  a 
clergyman  was  a  new  thing.  They  were,  however,  easily 
reconciled  to  the  practice,  when  they  came  to  know  what 
St.'  Paul  teaches  concerning  the  marriage  of  a  bishop  in 
his  epistles  to  Timothy  and  Titus.  Yet  such  was  the  un- 
happy state  of  this  country,  rent  by  continual  .contests 
about  religion,  that  no  sooner  was  Popery,  the  common 
enemy,  rooted  out,  than  new  disturbances  arose,  between 
the  Lutherans  and  Calvinists.    After  the  death  of  the  elec- 


96  p  A  R  E  u  a. 

tor  Frederic  III.  in  1577,  hit  ton  Louis,  a  very  sealon 
Luiberan,  established  every  wfaere  in  tkiat  domioioiis  miiiia*> 
ters  of  that  persuasron,  to  tbe  exclusion  of  the  Sacrainen- 
tarians,  or  Calvinists,  by  which  measare  Pareus  lost  bis 
living  at  Hemsbach,  and  retired  into  the  territories  of 
prince  Jobn  of  Casiniir,  the  elector^s  brother.  He  was 
now  chosen  minister  at  Ogersheim^  near  Fraokenthal, 
ffbere  he  continued  three  years^  land  then  removed  to  Win* 
zingen,  near  Neustadt,  at  which  last  place  prince  Casiniir^ 
in  1578y  bad  founded  a  school,  and  settled  there  all  tbe 
professors  that  had  been  driven  from  Heidelberg.  This 
rendered  Winziugen  much  more  agreeable,  as  well  as  ad^^ 
vantageous ;  and,  upon  tbe  death  of  tbe  elector  Louis,  in 
1583,  tbe  guardianship  of  his  son,  to^getiier  with  the  ad* 
ministration  of  the  palatinate,  devolved  upon  prince  Casi* 
mir,  who  restored  the  Calvihist  ministers,  and' Parens  ob* 
tained  the  second  chair  in  the  college  of  Wisdom  at  Hei<^ 
delberg,  in  Sept.  1584.  He  commenced  author  two  years 
afterwards,  by  printing  his  '^  Method  of  tbe  Ubiquitariati 
controversy;*'  ^^Methodus  Ubtquitarias  controversisB."  He 
also  printed  an  edition  of  the  **  German  Bible,**  with  notes, 
at  Neustadt,  in  1589^,  which  occasioned  a  warm  controversy 
between  him  and  James  Andreas,  an  eminent  Lutheran 
divine  of  Tubingen. 

In  1591,  lie  was  made  first  professor  in  his  college;  u^ 

1592,  counsellor  to  the  ecclesiastical  senate;  and  in  1593, 

was  admitted  doctor  of  divinity  in  the  most  solemn  mannen 

He  had  already  bekl  several  disputes  against  tbe  writers  of 

the  Augsburg  Confession,  but  that  of  1596  was  tbe  most 

cotisi'.ierable,  in  which  he  had  to  defend  Calvin  against 

tbe  imputation  of  favouring  Judaism,  in  his  Commentaries 

iipon  several  parts  of  Scripture.     In  1595,  he  was  pro* 

moted  to  the  chair  of  divinity  professor  for  the  Old  Tes*- 

tanient  in  his  university ;  by  which  he  was  eased  of  the  great 

fatigue  he  had  undergone  for  fourteen  years,  in  governing 

the  youth  who  were  educated  at  the  college  of  Wisdom. 

Tossanus,  professor  of  divinity  for  the  New  Testament,  dy« 

ing  in   1602,  Pareus  succeeded  to  that  chair,  and  a  few 

years  after  he  bought  a  bouse  in  tbe  suburbs  of  Heidel- 

burg,  and  built  in  the  gairden  an  apartment  for  his  library, 

which  he  called  bis  ^'  Pareanum."     In  this  he  took  great 

delight,  and  the  whole  bouse   went  afterwards  by   that 

name,  the  elector  having,  out  of  respect  to  him,  honoured 

it  with  several  privileges  and  immunities.     At  tbe  same 


1>  A  R  E  US.  '        ^1 

time^  his  reputation  spreading'it^elf  every  where,  brought 
young  students  to  hiov  from  the  remotest  parts  of  Hun- 
gary and  Poland. 

In  1617  au  evangelical  jubilee  w^s  instituted  in  memory 
of  the  church's  deliverance  from  popery  an  hundred  years 
before,  when  Luther  began  to  preach.  The  solemnity 
lasted  three  days,  during  which  orations,  disputations, 
poems,  and  sermons^,  were  delivered  on  the  occasion.  Pa- 
rens also  published  some  pieces  on  the  subject,  which 
drew  upon  him  the  resentment  of  the.  Jesuits  of  Mentz  ; 
and  a  controversy  took,  place  between  them.  The  fol- 
lowing year,.  1618,  at  the  instance  of  the  States  General, 
he  was  pressed  to  go  to  the  synod  of  Dort,  but  excused 
himself  on  account  of  age  ahcl  infirmities.  After  this  tim0 
he  enjoyed  but  little  tranquillity,  '  The  apprehensions  he 
had  of  the  ruin  which  his  patron  the  elector  Palatine  would 
bring  upon  himself  by  accepting  the  crown  of  Bohemia, 
obliged  him  to  change  his  habitation.  He  appears  to  have 
terrified  himself  with  a,  thousand  petty  alarms,  real  or 
imaginary,  and  therefore  his  friends,  in  order  to  relieve 
him  from  this  timidity  of  disposition,  advised  him  to  take 
refuge  in  the  town  of  Anweil,  in  the  dutchy  of  Deux- 
Ponts,  near  Landau,  at  which  he  arrived  in  Oct.  1621.  He 
left  that  place,  hqwever,  some  months  after,  and  went  to 
Neustadt,  where  bis  courage  reviving,  he  determined  to 
return  to  Heidelberg,  wishing  to  pass  his  last  moments  at 
his  beloved  Pareanum,  and  be  burled  near  the  professors 
of  the  university.  His  wish  was  accordingly  fulfilled;  for 
he  died  at  Pareanum  June  15^  1622,  and  was  interred  with 
all  the  funeral  honours  which  the  universities  in  Germany 
usually  bestow  on  their  members.    , 

He  left  a  son  named  Philip,  who  wrote  the  life  of  his 
father.  Although  Pareus  was  a  great  enemy  to  innovations, 
yet  his  "  Irenicum'*  proves  that  he  was  a  friend  to  conci-  . 
liation,  and  his  services  in  promoting  the  reformedretigion 
were  very  extensive.  ,His  exegetical- works  were  pub- 
lished ,  by  his  son  at  Francfort  in  1647,  in  3  vols,  folio. 
Among  these  are  his  "Commentary  upon  St.  Paul's  iEpistle 
to  the  Romans,*'  in  1617,;  which  gave  such  offence  to 
James  L  of  England,  as  containing  some  anti-mon£^rchical 
principles,  that  he  caused  it  to  be  burnt  by  the,  common 
hangman  ;  and  the  university  of  Oxford  also  condemned  it. 
It  was  refuted  by  David  Owen,  who  was  D.  D.  arid  chap- 
lain to  John  Ramsay,  viscount  Haddington  and  earl  oi 

Vol.  XXIV.  H 


Holderness,  io  apiece  entitled  " Anti-taraus,  sive  deter- 
'^minatio  de  jure  regio  habitk  C^ntabfi^id^  ih  scholis  tfaeolo- 
gicis,  19  April,  1619,  contra  Davidem  Pkraeum,  caeterbs- 
que  refofmatde  religionis  ^n'titnonaYdbds/*  Caritab.  1%32, 
'8vo.  He  had  before  pubRsbed  "  The  Cbncord  of  a  Papist 
and  Puritan,  for  the  doerci6ti,  depoBition,  and  ktlliog  of 
kings,'*  C^tnb.  1610,  4to.* 

PARE  US  (John  PfirLiP),  Soft  of  the  preceding,  one  elf 
the  taost  laborious  grammariails  that  Germany  ever  pro- 
duced, was  born  ^t  Hembacb,  May  24,  1576.     He  began 
"his  studies  sit  Neustadt,  continued  thetn  at  fieidelberg, 
"ancf  afterwards  "visited  some  df  the  foWign  tiniversities,  at 
*the  expence  of  thie  elector  Palatine,  where  he  was  always 
courteously  received,  not  only  dn  account  of  his  own  merits 
but  his  father's  high  re^utatioii.     Among  others,  he  re- 
'iJeived  great '  civilities  from  Isaac  ;Casaubon  at  Paris.     Ih 
1612,  he  wis' made  rector  of  the  coUege  of  Neustadt,  which 
post  be  held  till  the  plaCe  was  taken  by  the  Spaniards  iiF 
1622,  when  he  was  ordered  by  thoden'ew  masters  to  leave 
the  country  immediately,  at  which  tirne  his  library  was 
lalso  pldndfered  by  the  soldiers.  He  ptiblisHed  several  boo°ks 
on  gi^n\tbaiticat  subject's,  sLtid  Was  remarkably  fond  of  Plau- 
'tus.     This  Are'w  him  into  a  dispute  with  John  Gruter,  pro- 
fessor'at  tieiddbefrg,  in  1 620,  Whieh  Was  carried  to  such 
a  height,  that  neither  the  desolatioh  which  ruined  both 
'their  urtivtefsities  and  their  libraries,  and  reduced  their 
persons  to  the  greatest  extremities;  nor  even  their  banish- 
ment, proved  sufficient  to  restrain  theif  atiitnosity,  or  in- 
'cline  them  to  the  forbearance ' of  mutual  sufferers.     Philip 
Also  undertook  the  cause  of  his  late  fathisr  against  Oweri, 
mentioned  in  the  last  article,  V^hom'he  answered   in    a 
'piece  entitled  "  Anti-Owetlils,'*  &c.     He  was  principal  of 
^several  colleges,  as  he  was  bf  that  at  tlanau  in  1645.    The 
dedication  of  his^  father^s  e^tegetlcal  works  shews  him  to  he 
living  in  1 647,  and  Saxnis  corijectures  that  he  died  the 
following  yfear.     The  satte  wWt^r  iftforms  us  that  his  lirst 
publication  was  **  CastigatioU^s  in  brevem  et  maledicam 
aditaonitionem  Jbannis   Magiri  Jesuits   predicantis   apud 
Nemetes'Spiratites,'*  Heidelberg,  16()8,  8vo.    This  refers 
to  a  controversy  which  his  father  had  with  Magirus,  the 
Jesuit.  'He 'wrbte  also  soiDe  comtnentaries  upon 'the  "Holy 
Scriptures,^'  and  other  theological  works.     He  published 


A .Qen.  Dict.-^Lif0  by hiirion.^MortH.'-'4ftxiiO*«nait. 


P  A  R  E  U  -S.  9» 

"Maatqs,**  in  1609,  with  notes;  also  a  ."  Lexicon  Plau- 
.tinum,'*  in  1614;  «*  Analecta  Plautina/*  in  1617  ;  a  trea- 
.tise  <'  De  imitatione  TerentianSl,  ubi  Plautum  imitatus  est,*' 
1617;  a  second  edition  of  <*  Plautus/'  in  1619,  and  of 
the  **  Analecta  Plautina/^  in  1620,  and  again  in  1623.  R« 
also  published  a  third  edition  of  his  '^Plautus''  in  I64i. 
The  "  Prolegomena"  which  it  contains  of  that  poet's  life, 
,  the  character  of  his  versification,  and  the  nature  of  his  co- 
medy, have  been  prefixed  entire  to  the  Delphin  edition. 
Re  published  his  answer  to  Gruter  in  1620,  with  this  title^ 
'^  Provocatio  ad  senatuni  criticuoi  pro  Plauto  et  electis 
jPlautinis;"  and  more  of  this  angry  controversy  may  be 
seen  in.  the  long  preface  prefixed  to  his  **  Analecta  Plati- 
tina/^  He  also  published  *^  Calligraphia  Romana,  sive 
Thesaurus  phtasium  linguae  Latinse,"  in  1620;  and  <^  Electa 
Symmachiana,  Lexicon  Symmachianum,  Calligraphia  Syik-' 
machiana,'^  in  1617,  8vo:  to  which  we  may  add  his  father's 
life,  "  Narratio  de  curriculo  vit»  et  obitu  D.  Parei,'*  1633, 
8vo. ' 

PAREUS  (Daniel),  son  of  the  preceding,  trod  in  the 
«atepsof  his  father,  applied  himself  vigorously  to  the  study 
of  the  classics,  and  published  several  laborious  pieced  i 
for  which  he  was  obliged  to  Vossius,  who  had  a  great  re- 
spect for  him,  and  made  it  his  business  to  procure  book- 
sellers who  would  print  his  works.  He  was  unfortunately 
killed,  in  1635,  by  a  gang  of  highwaymen,  or,  as  others  say, 
by  some  soldiers  at  the  siege  of  Keiserslauteren.  He  was 
a  considerable  master  of  Greek.  His  publications  are,  1. 
'*  The  Poem  of  Mussbus  upon  the  Loves  of  Hero  and  Le- 
ander,  with  notes,"  1627.  2.  "  Mellificium  Atticum,"  a 
thick  4to,  being  a  collection  of  sentences  extracted  from 
Greek  authors,  which  he  dedicated  to  the  university  of 
Oxford.  3.  Medulla  Historise  Ecclesiasticae,"  in  1631  ;  tq 
which  he  added  **  Notes."  4.  An  edition  of  Lucretiiis, 
Fjfancfort,  1631,  Svo.  5.  "  Historia  Bavarico-Palatina,'* 
1633.  6.  '^  Spiciiegium  subsecivum,"  or  notes  upon  Quin« 
tiiian,  published  in  an  edition  of  that  author  at  London,  in 
1641,  8vo.* 

PARIS  (Francis),  usually  called  the  Abb6  Paris,  would 
not  have  deserved  notice  here  unless  for  certain  impostures 
connected  with  his  name,  in  which,  however,  he  had  ho 
hand.     He  was  )>orn  at  Paris^  and  was  the  eldest  soil  of  a 

^      1  Gen.  Dict.*-Freheri  Theatnin.— ^Moreri.-^'Saxii  Onomatt. 
*  Gen,  Diet.— Mortri.— Saxii  OnomMt. 

H  2 
I 


100  PARIS. 

<;ounseIIor  to  the  parliament,  whom  he  was  to  hav.e  suc- 
ceeded in  that  office ;  but  he  preferred  the  ecclesmsticai 
profession;  and,  when  his  parents  were  dead,  resigned 
the  whole  inheritance  to  his  brother,  only  reserving  to 
himself  the  right  of  applying  for  necessaries.  He  was  a 
^man,  says  the  abb6  L'Avbcat,  of  the  tnost  devout  temper, 
.  and  who  to  great  candour  of  mind  joined  great  gentleness 
.  of  manners.  He  catechized,  during  some  time,  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Cdme  ;  undertook  the  direction  of  the  clergy, 
and  held  conferences  with  theni.  Cardinal  de  Noailles,  to 
.  whose  cause  be  was  attached,  wanted  to  make  him  curate 
.  of  that  parish,  but  found  many  obstacles  to  his  plan  ;  and 
M.  Paris,  after  different  asylums,  where  he  had  lived  ex- 
tremely retired,  confined  himself  in  a  house  in  the  faux- 

.  bourg  St.  Marcoul,  where,  sequestered  from  the  world,  he 
devoted  himself  wholly  to  prayer,  to  the  practice  of  the 
most  rigorous  penitence,  and  to  labouring  with  bis, hands, 
having  for  that  purpose  learnt  to  weave  Istockingsi. '  He 
was  one  of  those  who  opposed  the  bull  Unigenitus,  and 
was  desirous  also  to  be  an  author,  and  wrote  ^*  Explications 
of  St.  Paul's  Epistle  to  the  Romans,"  to  the  *^  Galatians," 
and  "An  Analysis  of  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews;"  but 

.  acquired  no  reputation^  by  these*  He  died  May  1,  1727, 
at  Paris,  aged  thirty-seven,  and  was  interred  in  the  little 
church-yard  belonging  to  St.  Medard's  parish.  Though 
M.  Paris  had  been  useless  to  the  Jansenists  while  alive,  they 
thought  proper  to  employ  him  in  working  miracles  after 
his  death;  and  stories  were  invented  of  miraculous  cures 

,  performed  at  his  tomb,  which  induced  thousands  to  flock 
thither,  where  they  practised  grimaces  and  convufsions  in 
so  ridiculous  and  disorderly  a  manner,  that  the  court  was 
at  last  forced  to  put  a  stop  to  this  delusion,  by  ordering 
the  church-yard  to  be  walled  up,  January  27,  1732.  Some 
time  before,  several  curates  solicited  M.  de  Vintimille,  arch- 

.  bishop  of  Paris,  by  two  requests,  to  make  judicial  inquiry 
into  the  principal  miracles  attribiited  to  M.  Paris ;  and  that 
prelate  appointed  commissioners 'who  easily,  detected  the 
imposture,  which  would  not  deserve  a  place  here^  had  it 
not  served  Hume  and  some  other  deists  with  an  argument 
against  the  real  miracles  of  the  gospel,  the  fallacy  of  which 
argument  has  been  demonstrated  with  great  acuteijess  by 

the  late  bishop  Douglas,  in  his  "  Criterion."  * 

••  •  ■  . 

1  Diet.  Hist.-*Doug1ftsVCrtterioD,  . 


P  A  R  L  S.   ei  IQI 

PARIS  (Matthew),  an  English  historiani  was  a  Bene- 
dictine monk  of  the  congregation  of  Clugny,  in  the  monas- 
tery of  St.  Alban's,  the  habit  of  which  order  he  took  in 
1217.  He  was  an  universal  scholar;  understood,  and  had 
a  good  taste  both  in  painting  and  architecture.  He  was 
also  a  mathematician,  a  poet,  an  orator,  a  divine,  an  his- 
torian, and  a  man  of  distinguished  probity.  Such  rare 
accomplishments  and  qualities  as  these,  did  not  fail  to 
place  hioi  very  high  in  the  esteem  of  his  contemporaries ; 
and  he  was  frequently  employed  in  reforming  some  monas- 
teries, visiting  others,  and  establishing  the  monastic  disci- 
pline in  all.  He  reproved  vice  without  distinction  of  per- 
sons, and  did  not  even  spare  the  English  court  itself;  at 
the  same  time  he  shewed  a  hearty  affection  for  his  country 
in  maintaining  its  privileges  against  the  encroachments  of 
the  pope.  Of  this  we  have  a  clear,  though  unwilling, 
evidence  in  Baronius,  who  observes,  that  this  author  re- 
monstrated .with  too  sharp  and  bitter  a  spirit  against  the 
court  of  Rome ;  and  that,  except  in  this  particular  only, 
his  history  was  an  incomparable  work.  He  died  at  St. 
Alban^s  in  1259.  His  principal  work,  entitled  "  Historia 
Major,*'  consists  of  two  parts  :  The  first,  from  the  creation 
of  the  world  to  \Yilliam  the  Conqueror  ;  the  second,  from  ■ 
that  king's  reign  to  1 250.  He  carried  on  this  history  after- 
wards to  the  year  of  his  death  in  1259'.  Rishanger,  a' 
monk  p{  the  monastery  of  St.  Alban's,  continued  it  to 
1272  or  1273,  the  year  of  the  death  of  Henry  HI,  It  was 
first  printed  at  London^  1571,  and  reprinted  1640,  1684, 
fol.  besides  several  foreign  editions.  There  are  various 
MS  copies  in  our  public  libraries,  particularly  one  which 
he  presented  to  Henry  III.  and  which  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  From  his  MSS.  have  also  been  published  "  Vitse 
duorum  Offarum,  Merciae  re'gum,  S.  Albahi  fundatorum ;" 
**  Gesta  viginti  duo  abbatum  S.  Albani;"  "Additamenta 
chronicoriim  ad  historiam  majorem,'"all  which  accompany 
the  editions  of  his  "  Historia  Major"  printed  in  1640  ar^d 
1684.  Among  his  unpublished  MSS..  are  an  epitome  of 
bis  **  Historia  Major,"  and  a  history  from  Adam  to  the 
conquest,  principally  from  Matthew  of  Westminster.  This 
is  in  the  library  of  Bene't  college,  Cambridge.  The  titles 
of  some  other  works,  .but  of  doubtful  authority,  may  be 
«een  in  Bale  and  Pits.  *  ' 

•1  Tanner.— Bale  and  Pits.— Nico1son*s  HistoftOal  Library. 


162  P  A  A  r  8  d  T. 

'  .       ■  * 

PARISOT,  or  NORBERT  (Peter),  famous  for  his 
adventures,  and  bis  hostility  to  the  Jesuits,  was  the  son  of 
a  weaver  at  Bar-le-duc,  of  the  name  of  PariSot,  whi^re  he 
was  born  March  8,  1697,  He  embraced  the  monastic  life 
in  1716,  and  the  provincial  of  his  order  going  to  Rome,  tb 
attend  the  election  of  a  general  in  1734,  took  Parisbt  with 
him  as  his  secretary.  In  1736  he  went  to  Pondicherry, 
and  was  made  a  parish-priest  of  that  city  by  M.  Dupleix, 
the  governor ;  but  the  Jesuits,  with  whom  he  quarrelled, 
found  means  to  remove  him  from  the  East  Indies  to  Ame- 
rica, whence  he  returned  to  Rome  in  1744.  He  was  now 
employed  in  drawing  up  an  account  of  the  religious  rites 
of  the  Malabar  Christians;  but,  dreading  the  intrigues  of 
the  Jesuits,  withdrew  to  Lucca,  where  he  completed  his 
work,  under  the  title  of  ^<  Historical  Memoirs  relatke  to 
the  Missions  into  the  In*dies,^^  in  2  vols.  4to.  Ad  this  work 
contained  some  curious  discoveries  of  the  means  made  use 
of  by  the  Jesuit  missionaries  to  increase  their  number  of 
converts,  he  greatly  offended  both  his  own  order  and  them^ 
and  was  obliged  to  quit  bis  country :  he  went  first  to  Ve- 
nice, then  to  Holland,  and  afterwards  to  England*  where 
he  established  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London  two  nianu- 
factories  of  tapestry.  From  London  he  removed  to  Prussia, 
and  from  thence  into  the  duchy  of  Brunswick.  Here  he 
was  allowed  by  the  pope  to  assuoie  the  habit  of  a  secular 
priest.  He  now  assumed  the  name  of  the  .abb£  Platel, 
went  to  France,  and  from  thence  to  Portugal,  where,  on 
account  of  the  persecutions  which  he  endured,  he  obtained 
a  pension.  Having  completed  his  great  work  against  the 
Jesuits,  he  revisited  France,  and  committed  it  to  the  press, 
in  6  vols.  4to.  Afterwards  he  re-entered  the  order  of  the 
capuchins  at  Commercy,  but,  being  of  a  restless  disposi- 
tion, he  soon  quitted  their  community,  and  took  up  his 
abode  at  a  village  in  Lorrain,  where  lie  died  in  ^70,  at 
the  age  of  seventy- three.* 

PARKER  (Henry)  Lord  Morley,  a  nobleman  of  lite- 
rary taste  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  was  the  son  and  heir 
of  sir  William  Parker,  knight,  by  Alice,  sister  and  heir  of 
Henry  Level,  and  daughter  of  William  Level,  a  younger 
^son  of  William  lord  Lovel  of  Tichmersh,  by  Alianore, 
daughter  and  heir  of  Robert  Morley,  lord  Morley,  who 
died  21  Henry  Vlth.  He  was  educated  at  Oxford,  but  at 
what  college,  or  at  what  time,  does  not  appear.    After 

1  Diet.  Hilt.— and  L'Avocat. 


PARKiTR.  ifi9t 

lf9iung  ^  vmzw^  be.  i^^tjf^  tp  hi^  <9^t%  i/^  Nonh- 
apciDton^hir^  and  in  the  2lst  jear  pf  t^ie  reigp,  o(  He^iy. 
yi|I.  w^  ^upuQoued  t<x  p^rliafji^egit  by  U^e  title^  of  lor^ 
Jjilojcl^y*  He  w(as  pae  pf  {be  ^js^ons,  \?jhp,  iq  tbe  y.?ar  fpji- 
lowii^,  sigyed  the  memor^hl!^  4^.<^lar4tiod  to  pppe  Cj^-, 
ipent  V^.  tjijrea.teiv^g  bipi  wii;ljii,  th^  Iq$s,  p^  h^j  ^ppcemacy. 
ip  Epgl^ad^  ivaWss  ^e  cpja^s^nt^  t9  t^e  kip^'s  divorce,  bu^ 
be  atiU  ren^^ined  abigoj^e^  J^^hejcent  tq  the  ppp.isb  r^igioa. 
In  the  25th  of  the  s;gi,pip  reign,  haying;  ^  disppte  fcv  p,rece- 
4epc.e  YfMh  lofd  Papre.  of  (^l\^l^ftd,  nU  pretensions  werei 
con^rmed  by  Pfirliament  Aptl^yr^j^Wood  s^ys,  that  "  his 
younger  ^eara  were  ^domf  d  wi^b  a.11  kii\d  of  superficial 
k^rpipg,  especially  with  dr^^iatip  ptoetty,  and  his  elder 
vi(itb  tb^t  whicb  was  divine."  Wood  adds^  that  he  was, 
l^vingy  "  f^n  ancient  (nap^  and  'm  esteem  afnong  the  nobility, 
in  the  lat^eif  end  of  Hepry  YIU-'*  ^^^  fv^"*  bis^  epitaph, 
which  is  inserted  in  CoUins's  Peerage,  it  appears  that  hq 
died  in  Nov.  1556,  aged  eighty,  His  grf  at  grandson,  Ed-r 
^ard  lord  Morley,  ^ho  piarried  Elizabeth,  sole  daughter 
^nd  heir  of  WilUapa  Stanley,  lo^d  Montegle,  had  issue 
Mary,  who  by  her  husband  Thomas  (labington,  of  Henlip 
in  Worcestershire,  was  fpotber  pf  WilUani  ll^bington  the 
poet,  and  wa^  supposed  ^o  have  been  the  person  who  wrote 
to  her  brother  William,  lord  Morley  and  Montegle,  the 
famous  letter  of  warning  respecting  the  gun-rpowder  plot. 

Phillips  Sfiy«  that  pur  lord  Morjey  w^s  sent  by  Henry 
yni.  with  the  garter  to  the  archduke  of  Austria*  Of  bis 
works,  nothing  nas  been  published  bpt  ^'  A  Declaration  oi 
the  94th  Psalm,'*  printed  by  T.  Berthelet  in  1539.  Th^ 
rest,  lyhich  remain  in  MS.  in  ihe  king's  library,  and  whosc^ 
titles  are  given  in  Casley's  catalogue,  are  translations  from 
catholic  writers,  three  or  four  livef  ifrom  piut^rch,  and! 
gully's  Dream  of  Scipio.  Waldron,  in  his  "  Literary  Mu- 
seuip,"  has  ^iven  a  specirjjen  of  one  of  lord  Morley's  trans-, 
lations  from  Boccaccio.  Lord  Morley  is  also  said  to  have 
written  several  tragedies  and  coniedies,  whose  very  titles 
^re  lost,  and  which,  as  Mr.  Warton  thinks,  were  nothing 
more  than  grave  mysteries  and  n^oralities,  which  probably 
would  not  ha.ve  been  lost  had  tbey  deserved,  to  live* 
**  Certain  Ehimes,"  and  the  "  Lives  pf  Sectaries,'*  are 
mentioned  as  his,  but  of  tbepi  nothing  is  np\y  known,  e^-' 
cept  some  lines  which  may  be  seen  in  our  authorities.^ 

^  Alb.  Ox.  vq!L  I.  n«w  edit. — VviVa  edition  of  Uie  jtpyal  aad  Nobl^  AnUMrs* 
—Phillips's  Theatrum,  by  sir  £.  Bryd£«s.—WarU)a'8  Hist,  of  Poetry. 


/ 

104  PARKER. 

PARKER  (Matthew)/  the  second -protestant  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  a  very  learned  prelate,  and  a  great  bene- 
factor' to  the  literature  of  his  country,  was  born  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Saviour's,  Norwich,  Aug.  6,  1504..  He  was 
of  ancient  and  reputable  families  both  by  the  father^s  and 
mother's  side.  .  His  father  dying  when  he  was  only  twelve 
years  of  age,  the  care  of  his  education  devolved  on  his. 
mother,  who  appears  to  have  spared  no  pains  in  procuring 
him  the  best  tutors  in  such  learning  as  might  qualify  him 
for  the  university,  to  which  he  was  removed  in  September 
1521^.  He  was  entered  of  Corpus  Christi  or  Bene't  col- 
lege, Cambridge,  and  was  at  first  maintained  at  his  mo- 
ther's expense,  but  in  six  months  after  admittance  that 
expense  was  in  some  measurejrelieved,  by  his  being  chosea 
a  scholar  of  the  house,  called  a  bible  clerk.  In  1524  he 
took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  and  in  1526  was  made 
subdeacon,  under  the  titles  of  Barnwell,  and  the  chapel  in 
JNorwich  fields.  While  at  college,  he  had  for  his  contem- 
poraries Bacon  and  Cecil,  Bradford  and  Ridley,  afterwards 
men  of  great  eminence  in  state  and  church,  and  the  two 
latter  distinguished  sufferers  foir  the  sake  of  religioa. 

In  April  1527  he  was  ordained  deacon,  in  June  priest, 
and  in  September  created  master  of  arts,  and  chosen  fel- 
low of  the  college,  having  approved  himself  to  the  society 
by  his  regular  and  studious  behaviour.  He  now  studied 
the  Scriptures,  fathers,  and  ecclesiastical  writers,  with  such 
diligence  and  attention,  that  in  a  few  years  he  made  great 
progress  in  every  branch  of  knowledge  necessary  for  a  di- 
vine ;  and  began  to  be  so  much  noticed  on  thataccount,  that 
when  cardinal  Wolsey  was  looking  out  for  men  of  the 
greatest  learning  and  character,  to  fill  his  new  college  at 
O^^ford,  Mr.  Parker  was  one  of  those  whom  he  selected 
for  this  mark  of  distinction ;  but,  through  the  persuasion 
of  his  friends,  he  declined  the  cardinal's  offer,  as  did,  at 
the  same  time,  his  celebrated  predecessor  Cranmer,  then 
on  the  eve  of  being  n;iade  archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

In  1533,  when  Mr.  Parker  had  reached  his  twenty-ninth 
year,  Cranmer,  who  was  now  promoted  to  the  archbishop- 
ric, granted  him  a  licence  to  preach  through  his  province, 
as  the  king  did  a  patent  for  the  same  throughout  the  king- 
dom, good  and  solid  preachers  being  at  that  time  very 

*  In  thig  and  a  few  following  dates  wer  have  followed  Mr.  Masters,  in  bis 
History  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  who  seems  to  correct  Strype's  dates  on  good 
Authority. 


P  A  R  K  E  R.^  105 

rare.  The  university,  likewise,  as  he  was  much  afflicted 
with  a  head-ache,  readily  passed  a  grace  that  he  might 
preach  covered,  and  showed  him  other  marks  of  thetr  re- 
gard. We  have  already  noticed  some  of  bis  celebrated 
coDteinporaries,  and  it  may  now  be  added,  that  he  lived 
in  great  intimacy  and  friendship  with  Bilney,  Stafford, 
Arthur,  friar  Barnes,  Sowode,  master  of  the  college,  Fowke, 
and  many  others,  by  whose  means  religion  and  learning 
were  beginning  to  revive  at  Cambridge.  For  Bilney  he 
had  so  great  a  veneration,  that  he  went  down  to  Norwich 
to  attend  his  martyrdom,  and  afterwards  defended  him 
against  the  misrepresentations  of  sir  Thomas  More,  who 
had  asserted  that  he  recanted  at  the  stake.  In  the  above- 
mentioned  year  (1533)  he  ^as  sent  for  to  court,  and  made 
chaplain  to  queen  Anne  Boleyn,  with  whom  he  soon  be- 
came a  great  favourite,  she  admiring  his  piety,  learning, 
and  prudence.  .  A-  short  time  before  her  death,  she  gave 
him  a  particular  chiarge  to  take  care  of  her  daughter  Eliza- 
beth, 'that  she  might  not  want  bis  pious  and  wise  counsel ; 
and  at  the  same  time  laid  a  strict  charge  upon  the  young 
princess,  to  make  him  a  grateful  return,  if  it  should  ever 
be  in  Jier  power. 

In  July  1535  he  proceeded  B.  D.  and  in  the  same  year 
was  preferred  by  the  queen  to  the  deanry  of  the  college  of 
Stoke-Clare  in  Suffolk,  which  was  the  more  acceptable,  as 
affording  him  an  agreeable  retirement  for  the  pursuit  of  his 
studies.  His  friend  Dr.  Walter  Haddon  used  to  call  it 
Parker's  Tusculanum.  Meeting  here  with  many  super- 
stitious practices  and*  abuses  that  stood  in  need  of  correc- 
tion, he  immediately  composed  a  new  body  of  statutes, 
and  erected  a  school  for  the  instruction  of  youth  in  gram- 
mar and  the  studyof  humanity,  which  by  his  prudent  care 
and  management  soon  produced  the  happiest  effects. 
These  regulations  were  so  generally  approved,  that  when 
the  duke  of  Norfolk  was  about  to  convert  the  monastery  at 
Thetford,  of  his  own  foundation,  into  a  college  of  secular 
priests,  he  requested  a  sight  of  them  for  his  direction. 
Mr.  Parker  now  continued  to  be  an- assiduous  preacher, 
often  preaching  at  Stoke,  and  at  Cambridge,  and  places 
adjacent,  and  sometimes  at-  London,  at  St.  Paur^-cross. 
•At  what  time  he  imbibed  the  principles  of  the  reformers 
we  are  not  told,  but  it  appears  that  in  these  sermons  he 
attacked  certain  Romish  superstitions  with  such  boldness, 
that  articles  were  exhibited  against  him.  by  some  zealous 


10«  ^  ,P;  A  R  K,  E  R,. 

jj^pists,  a^nst  w|;ioia  be  yiildicated  hioo^lf  wit^p  grea^ 
ability  before  the  li^rd  ChanceUor  Audleyy  wl^  QiiQpi}rage4 
bim  io  gq  on  without  feajr.  On  tbe  death  of  queen,  Ani^ 
In  1537,  the  king  took  bipi  under  his  more  imincfdiate  ^^q^ 
lection,  appointed  him  one  of  bis  ch^plain^^^  and,  up9i^ 
pew*modelling  tbe  church  of  Ely,  nqmii^ted  biof^  to  oi^l 
pf  tbe  prebends  in  the  charter  of  erection. 

In  163$  he  made  a  visit  to  the  university,  ^heroy  aftei 
having  performed  his  exercises  with  general  applauae^  h% 
fsommenced  D.  O.  In  1542  be  was  presented  by  tbe^^hi^ 
ter  of  Stoke  to  the  reqtory  of  A«ben  iii  £ssiei(,  which  h^ 
resigned  in  1544,  and  wa^  presented  to  the  rectory  9f  Birn 
mingbam  All  Saints,  in  the  county  of  Norfolk;  bi|t  hi^ 
most  important  pronation  that  year,  was  %o  the  miuitersbip 
of  BeneU  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  had  been  educatecU 
On  this  occasion  be  was  recommended  to  the  society  by 
the  king,  as  the  (ittest  person  in  every  respect;  and  they 
knowing  his  character,  did  not  hesitate  to  elect  him,  an4 
he  was  admitted  accordingly  Pec.  4,  1544.  He  began  hii| 
government  of  the  college  with  making  some  useful  ojfdon^ 
concerning  certain  benefactions  and  foundations  belonging 
to  the  college;  and,  to  prevent  the  college  goods  from 
being  embezzled,  he  caused  exact  inventories  of  them 
to  be  made,  and  deposited  in  the  common  chest,  ordering 
at  the  same  time  that  they  should  be  triennially  inspected 
find  renewed  by  the  master  and  fellow^.  Finding  likewise 
their  accounts  in  great  confusion,  oci^asioned  principally 
by  tbe  neglect  of  registering  them  in  books  belonging  tQ 
the*  society,  be  put  them  into  such  a  *  method,  that  by 
pomparing  tbe  rentals,  receipts,  expenses,  &c.  together, 
they  might  at  aqy  tio^e  appear  as  clear  as  possible,  and 
these  be  caused  to  be  annually  engrossed  pn  parchmept  for 
their  better  preservation.  He  also  undertook  the  rey^isal  of 
the  statutes,  and  reduced  them  to  nearly  their^  present 
form,  being  assisted  in  this  by  his  friend  Pn  Mey,  the 
civilian,  and  one  of  the  visitors  who  cpnfirDied  th^p^in  tha 
^cond  year  of  Edward  VJ.  All  these  regulajt^ojis  and 
transactions,  with  sogae  other  matters  relating  both  tp  the 
college  and  university,  be  caused  to  b^  registered  in  a 
book,  called  the  Black  Book,  ^hiph  has  ever  si^ge  beej^ 
in  the  custody  of  the  master.  The  pld  si^atjates  yv^re  in- 
4eed  once  more  introduced  in  the  time  of  queen  Mary, 
hut  continued  no  longer  iji  force  thw  to  the  first  year  of 

.Elizabeth's  reign,  when  the  fon»^r  were  9gaia  Jcevivied, 


P  A  R  K  £  K.  109 

^ndiD  iS^Sfinally  reviewed,  corrected,  and  approved  bjr 
faer  visitors.  In  1  545  he  was  elected  vice-chancellor, '  in 
which  office  he  batd  an  opportunity  of  exerting  btmseif  stift 
farther  for  the  wel  fare  of  his  college  and  the  aniversitj  at 
large ;  and  he  gav<r  such  satisfaction,  that  within  the  space 
of  three  years  he  vras  elected  to  the  same  office.  On  his 
election.  Dr.  Haddon,  the  public  orator,  gave  him  this 
character  to  his  friend  Cheke,  *^  cujas  td  gravitatem,  con  ^ 
siliutn,  literas,^  120^^1,  no%  experimur  ;^*  adding,  ^^Catonem* 
aut  QuintQfn  Fabium  renatum  putes.'* 

In  the  same  year,  1545,  the  society  presented  htm   to 
ibe  rectory  of  Land-Beach  ;  but  to  his  great  mortification, 
he  was  obliged  to  resign  his  beloved  college  of  Stoke  in 
1547,  although  be  laboured  as  much  as  possible  to  pre- 
-vent  its  dissolution.     To  preserve,  however,  as  far  as  he 
could,  the  m€l6iOfy  of  its  founder  Edmund  Mortimer,  earl 
of  Mar<cb,  he  braogbt  away  with  him  his  arms  painted  on 
glass,  and  placed  them  in  a  window  of  the  master* j  lodge; 
and  secured  the  books  of  history  and  .antiquities,  which 
made  part  of  that  invaluable  collection  with  which  he  after- 
awards  enriched  his.  college.     The  same  year,  and  in  the 
forty-third  of  his  age,  he  married  Margaret  the  daughter 
of  Robert  Harlstone,  gent,  of  Mattishall  in  Norfolk,  and 
-sister  of  Simon   Harlstone,  who  bad  lived  some. time  at 
Mendiesbam  in  Suffolk,  where  he  was  distinguished  for  his 
piety  and  sufferings  in  the  reign  of  queen  M^ry.     Or* 
Parker  had  been  attached  to  this  lady  for  about  seven  years, 
but  they  were  prevented  A'om  marrying  by  the  statute  of 
Henry  VIII.  which  made  the  marriage  of  the  clergy  felony. 
Mr.  Masters  conjectures  that  it  was  about  this  time  he 
drew  up,  in  his  defence,  a  short  treatise  still  preserved  in 
•the  college  library  ^' De  conjugio  Sacerdotum,'*  and  an- 
t)ther  against  alienation  of  the  revenues  6f  the  church, 
^wfavch  Strype  has  printed  id  his  Appendix,' No.  VII.     It  is 
also  probable  that,  on  the  increase  of  hiis  family,  be  added 
'the  long  gallery  to  the  master's  lodge.     The  lady  fae^  mar- 
ried proved  a  most  affectionate  wife,  and  had  so  much 
sweetness  of  temper  and  amiable  disposition,  that  bishop 
Ridley  -te  said  to  have  asked,  **  If  Mrs.  Parker  had  a  sister  ?•* 
intimating  that  he  would  have  been  glad  to  have  married 
c^ne  who  'ca,me  near  her  in  excellence  of  character. 

In  1545,  wlien  Kett*s  rd>ellion  broke  out,  Dr.  Parker 
'  happened  to  be  on  a  visit  to  iiis  friends  at  Norwich,  where 
'^ke  4id  gi^at  service  by  his  exhortations  and  sermons;  aod 


les  .     P  A  K  K  E  B. 

ieven  yentuced  into  the  camp  o£  therebels,  and,  withoul 
regarding  the  imminent  danger  to  which  this  exposed  bim^ 
boldly  inveighed  against  their  rebellioo  atid  cruelty,  ex- 
horted them  to  temperance,  sobriety,  and  submission,  and 
placed  in  the  strongest  light  every  argument  and  warning 
that  was  likely  to  prevail.  To  give  a  faithful  account  of 
this  affair,,  he  s^fterwards  employed  Mr.  Nevile  (see  Ne* 
VILE,  Alexander),  who  wrote  it  in  elegant  Latin,  and  re- 
ceived for  his  resvard  an.  hundred  pounds.  In  1550  he  lost 
bis  most  intimate  friend  Dr.  Martin  Bucer,  who  left  him 
one  of  his  exeputors;  and  to. testify  his  great  regard. for 
that  eminent  reformer,  he  preached  his  funeral  sermon. 
In  this,  with  great  modesty  and  diffidence,  he  has  drawn  a 
most  ea;cellent  character  of: him,  and  indeed  the  whole. is 
written  in  a  style  so  plain  and  uniform,  as  to  be  much  su,- 
perior  to  the  common  rate  of  sermons  in  those  days.  It 
was  printed  by  Jugge,  under  the  title,  '^  Howe  we  ought 
to  take  the  death  of  the  godly, .  a  sermon  made  in  Cam- 
bridge at  the  burial  of  the  noble  flerck,  D.  M.  Bucer.  .  By 
Matthew,  Parker,  D.  of  Divinitie." 

In  1552.  the  king  presented  him  to  the  canonry  and  pre- 
bend of  Covingham,  in  the  church  of  Lincoln,  where  he 
was  soon  after,  elected  dean,  upon  Dr.  Taylor's  promotion 
to  that  see.  He  had  before  been  nominated  to  the. master- 
ship of  Trinity-college,  probably  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Red- 
man in  1551,  but  this  did  not  take,  effect.  It  is  also  said 
that  he  declined  a  bishopric  in  this  reign. .  On  the  acces- 
sion of  queen  Mary,  however,  the  scene  was  changed,  and 
be,  w.ith  all  the  married  clergy  who  would .  not  part  with 
their  wives,  and  conform ,  to  those  superstitious  rites  and 
ceremonies  they  had  so.  lately  rejected,  were  stript  pf  their 
preferments.  He  bore  this  reverse  of  fortune  with  pious 
resignation.  "  After  my  deprivation"  (he  says,  in, his  pri- 
vate journal)  "  I  lived  so  joyful  before  .God  iu  my  con- 
science,, and  so  neither' ashamed  nor .  dejected,  that  the 
most  sweet  leisure  for  study,  to  which  the  good  providence 
of  God  has  now  recalled  me,  gave  me. mugh. greater,  and 
more. solid  pleasures,  than  that.fornjer  busy  and  dangerous 
kind  of  life  ever  afforded  me.  What  will  hereafter  befall 
me,  I  know  not;  but  to  God,  who  takes. care,  of  all,  an.d 
who  will  one  day  reveal  the  hidden  things. of  men*s  hearty, 
I  commend  myself  wholly,  and  my  pious  and  most  qhfiste 
wife,  with  my  two  most  dear  little  90ns.*'  It  appears  aUo 
by  a  MS.  in  the  college,  quoted  by  Strype,  th^t  Dr.  Parker 


.i 


1»  A  R  K  E  R.  10J> 

**  lurked  secretly  \h  those  years  (the  reign  of  queen  Mary) 
within  the  house  of  one  of  his  friends,  leading  a  poor  life, 

"without  8«ny  men's  aid  or  succour ;  and  yet  so  well  con- 
tented with  his  lot,  that  in  that  pleasant  rest,  and  leisure 
for  his  stxidies,  he  would  never,  in  respect  of  himself,  have 
desired  any  other  kind  of  life,  the  extreme  fear  of  danger 
only  excepted.  And  therein  he  liv^d  as  all  other  good 
men  thf3n  did.  His  wife  he  would  not  be  divorced  from,  or 
put  her  away  all  tbis  evil  time  (as  he  might,  if  he  would,  in 
those  <bays,  which  so  rigorously  required  it),  being  a  woman 
very  chaste,  and  of  every  virtuous  behaviour,  and  behav* 
ing  herself' with  all  due  reverence  toward  her  husband.** 

It  ^may  seem  extraordinary  that  one  who  had  so  early 
imbit>ed  the  sentiments  of  the  reformers,  and  had  adhered 
to  th(em  so  constantly,  should  have  escaped  the  vigilance 
t)f  the  persecut6rd  ;  and  it  is  certain  that  strict  search  was 

-sometimes  made  for'him,  and  that  on  one  occasion,  when 
t)bUged  to  make  his  escape  on  a  sudden,  he  got  a  fall  from 
his  horse,  by  which  he  was  so  much  hurt,  that  he  never  re- 
corered  it.  Yet  either  from  the  remissness  of  his  enemies, 
•or' the  kindness  of  his  friends,  he  was  enabled  to  secrete 
Lifaiself,  and  notwithstanding  the  danger  he  was  in,  he 
«Biployed  his  time  in  study.  Among  other  things,  it  was 
during  this  alarming  interval,  that  he*  wrote  or  rather  en- 

;  lirged  a  treatise,  supposed  to  be  drawn  up   by  bishop 

'  Ponet,  in  defence  of  priests*  miarriages,  against  a  book  of 
i)r.  Martin's,  which  he  caused  to  be  printed,  biit  without 
his  name,  in  1562.  The  title  was  "  A  Defence  of  Priests' 
[Marriages,  established  by  the  Imperial  laws  of  the  realm 
(of  England ;  against  a  civilian,  naming  himself  Thomas 
Martin,  dbctor  of  the  civil  laws,"  &c.  This  work  is  no- 
ticed in  our  account  of  Dr.  Martin^  and  a  full  account  of 
it  is  given  by  Strype,  p.  504.     Dr.  Parker  also  employed 

^  6ome  part  of  his  time  in  translating  the  book  of  Psalms  into 
'various  and  elegant  English' metre,  which  was  likewise 
afterwards  printed,  but  in  what  year  is  uncertain,  unless 
in  1567,  as  mii^uted  with  a  pen  in  the  copy  which  is  in  the 
college  -library.  This  book,  which  Strype  says  he  never 
could  get  a  sight  of,  is  divided  into  three  quinquagenes 
with  the  argument  of  each  psalm  in  metre  placed  before  it, 
and  a  suitable  collect  full  of  devotion  and  piety  at  the  end. 
Some  copies  of  verses,  and  transcripts  from  the  fathers  and 
others  on. the  use  of  the  psalms  are  prefixed  to  it,  with  a 
^table  dividing  them  into  Propheticiy  Eruditorii,  Consolatorii, 


&c.  and  at  the  eod  are  ad4ed  the  ^ght  sever^  ii  tuties^  wllb 
alphabetical  tables  to  the  whole.  , 

On  the  acces&ion  of  queen  Elizabeth,  be  )eft  ^  bis  retrei^t 
in  Norfolki  and  being  on  la  vi§it  to  his  friends    at  Oam-^ 
bridge^  was  sent  for  up  to  tawn  by  hi$  old  acc^.uaintanqe 
and  contetnjporaries  at  tbe  university,  sir  Nicholl\:  s  Baco^, 
BOW  lord-keeper,  of  tbe  great  seal,  and  sir  Williav  n.Ceci)^ 
secretary  of  statef  who  well  koew  bis  wor^b.     9ujt    be  w^ s 
now  become  enamoured  pf  retirement,  and  suspectl  ng  they 
designed  him  for  some  high  dignity  in  tbe  cbtircb,  o\  f  whiqb 
however  no  i^ntifHation  bad  yet  h,ee^  given^  be  wrot<  3  4tb^^ 
many  letters^,  setting  forth  his  owii  inabilities  and    in&f-' 
mities,  and   telling  the  lord-keeper  in  confidence}    ^^  he 
would  mucb  rather  end  bis  days  upon  some  sucb  smaL  I  pr^"* 
ferment  as  tbe  mastership  of  bis  college,  a  living  of  t%  ^enty 
nobles  p^r  a72n.  at  most,  than  to  dwell  in  the'deam^  9^ 
Lincoln,  which  is  200  at  the  least,'*     These  statesi^  nen, 
however,  still  considered  him  as  in  every  respect  (;be  *  be^t 
fitted  for  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbury  ;  and  tbe  re^  uc^« 
ance  be  showed  to  accept  it,  and  |be  letters  be  wrpte  };,  >o(h 
to  them  and  the  queen,  only  served  to  convince  all  paf>  ti^s 
that  they  bad  m^de  a  proper. choice.     He  was  aecprdini  g^y 
consecrated  on  Dec.  17,  .1559,    in  ^Ifambetb  chapel,     by 
William  Barlow,  late  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  and  th  ^Q 
elect  of  Chichester ;  John  S^ory,  late  bishop  of  Cbichestti  ^r, 
and  then  elect  of  Hereford;  Miles  Qoverdale,  bishop  ^pf 
£xeter,  and  John  Hodgkin^  suffragaji  bishop  of  Bedfort  .1 
'An  original  instrument  of  the  rites  aqd  ceremonies  used  o,n 
this  occcasion,  corf^$pon4ing  exac^tly  with. the  archbishop^,  s 
jegister,  is  still  carefjully  preserved  iii  BeqeH  college  library; , 
jaod  prov.ed  of  great  service,  wben^tbe:papis.ts,  some  yeani  > 
after,  invented  a  story  that  Parfcer  was  cqnsecrs^ted  at  tb^ 
Nag's  head  inn,  or  tavern,  in  Qboapside.    .That  this  was  ^ 
.mere  fable  has  been  sufficiently  shown  by  many  aptbors^ 
and  is  ;acknowledged  even  by  catholic  "writers,     ^i^ifig  tbi^ 
constituted  primate  and  metropolitan,  .Dr.  Parker  end^^ 
vouired  to  fill  the  vacant  sees  with  m^en  of  l^^rning  ;a|[i4 
piety,  who  were  well  affected  to  tbe  refprmation ;  ,and  spofi 
.after  his  own  consecration,  bec^oQseorated  in  bis  chapel  s^t 
Lambeth,  Grindal,  bishop  of  J^ondon ;  >Cox,  bishop  of  Ely,; 
Sandys,  bishop  of  Worcester;  Jewell,  b^bpp  <;>f  .^aUsburyj 
mad  several  others. 

*  These  letters  are  printed  in'  Bur-  of  his  '*  Antiqnitates''  in  tbe  Lambeth 
vet's  Hmlory  of  the  Reformation,  Uuttbe  library,rp|th  many  other^cnriojis^iy 
•rif  inals  are  in  tbe  arohbishop's  copy   '  docnmeixts  resjpectiog  him. 


PARKER.  lU 

Tti€  sifb^tient  history  of  an^bishop  Porktr  is  tbit  of 

the  church  of  Er>gIaiKl.     He  had  assisted  atherfoundatioR, 

and  for  the  remainder  of  his  Kfe  had  a  principal  hand  in 

ibe  superstructure.    Referring^   however,   to  ecclesiastic 

histoiyj  and  particularly  to  Strype's  invaluable  vo1u«b«,  for 

the  full  details  of  the  archbishop's  conduct,  we  shall  confine 

ourselves  to  a  few  of  the  most  prominent  of  tiiose  measures 

in  which  he  was  personally  ^concerned*     Soon  after  bis  oon«- 

^isecration  he  veceived  a  letter  from^^e  celebrated  Calvin, 

ih  which  that  reformer  said  that  <<  be  rejoiced  in  the  hi^«. 

piness  of  England^  and  that  God  had  raised  up  so  gracious 

a  queen,  to  be  instrumental  in  propagating  tbe  true  faifih 

^f  Jesus  Ohrist,  by  restoring  the  gospel,  und  expelling 

-idoiaitry,   together  with  the  bishop  of  Rome's    usurped 

^wer."     And  then  in  order  to  unite  protestants  together, 

-as  he  had  attempted  before  in  king  Edward'iEt  ^ign,  he 

intreated  tbe  archbishop  to  prevail  with  her  miyesty,  to 

"•tfmmon  a  geheral  assembly  of  all  tbe  {M-otestant  clergy, 

whete^oever  dispersed ;  and  that  a  set  form  and  method 

(natfiely  of  public  service,  and  government  of  the  cburcb) 

"toiight  be  established  ^^  not  only   within   her  dominions, 

but  also  among  all  the  reformed  and  evangelical  chm'ches 

^abroad.     Parker  commanicated  this  letter  to  the  queen^s 

'^council,  and  they  took  it  into  consideration,  and  desired 

'^e  archbishop  to  return  thanks  to  Calvin  ;  and  to  signify 

^ihat  they  thought  his  prq)osals  very  fair  and  desireabit, 

but  as  to  church-government,   to  inform  bim,  that  the 

iihurch  of  England  would  adhere  to  the  episcopal  form. 

Thle  death  of  Calvin  prevented  any  farther  intercourse  on 

^thfs  subject,  but  Strype  has  brought  sufficient  evidence 

that  -Calvin  was  not  absolutely  averse  to  episcopacy,  and 

-that  be  was  as  zealous  for  uniformity^  as  our  archbishop, 

iN^ho  has  been  so  much  reproached  for  his  endeavours  to 

promote  it. 

In  1560,  Parker  wrote  a  letter  to  tbe  queen,  with  the 
concurrence  of  tbe  bishops  of  London  and  Ely,  exhorting 
her  majesty  to  marry,  which  it  is  well  known  she  declined. 
He  also  visited  several  dioceses,  in  some  of  which  he 

*  It  is  worth  the  noUee  of  tliMevlfo  the  refotmen,  «nd  that  no  man  «»■• 

Tail  against  Parker  for  bis  ondeaTOurs  ceired  that  religion  would  be  benefited 

to  prdmote  uniformity,  and  his  conse-  by  being  split  into  an  hundred  sects, 

i|«eBt  fa«rB)i  treatment  of  the  Paritans,  with  as  many  difftrent  ways-of  thinU 

that  in  those  d«y»  tun  etiaibUtknmnt  of  ing,  and  petty  diurch  goTernmeota. 
■ome  description  was  the  object  of  all' 


112  PARKER. 

found '  tbe  cBorches  miserably  supplied  with  preacbeHtf^ 
The  bishop,  of  Ely  certifiefd,  that  of  152  livings  in  his  dio^ 
cese,  fifty-two  only  were  duly  served ;  and  that  there  were 
thirty-four  benefices  vacant^  thirteen  that  had  neither  rec- 
tors nor  vicars,  and  fifty-seven  that  were  enjoyed  by  non- 
residents. This  was  not  owing  to  the  popish  clergy  beiog 
deprived  of  their  benefices,  for  the  number  so  deprived 
did>not  exceed  two  hundred  in  the  whole  kingdom;  but 
the  truth  was,  that-  at  the  conclusion  of  Mary's  reign  the 
great  bulk  of  the  clergy  were  grossly  ignorant,  and  it  was 
long  before  the  universities  were  encouraged  to  furnish  a 
series  of  learned  divines. 

In  1561,  archbishop  Parker  and  some  of  the  other  pre- 
lates made  an  application  to  the-  queen  against  the  use  of 
images,  to  which  hter  majesty  still  discovered  a  very  great 
inclination,  and  it  may  be  inferred  that  they  induced  her 
to  change  her  opinion  on  this  matter,  from  tbe  anecdote 
given  in  our  account  of  deaaNowell,  who  incurred  her 
'displeasiire  by  only  presenting  her  with  a  prayer-book, 
illustrated  with  engravings.  In  other  respects  she  adhered 
to  many  of  her  father's  notions,^  and  when  about  this  time 
•she  took  a  journey  into  Essex  and  Suffolk,  she  expressed 
great  displeasure  at  finding  so  many  of  the  clergy  married^ 
and  at  observing  so  many  women  add  children  in  cathedrals 
and  colleges. '  She  had,  indeed,  so- strong  an  aversion  to 
matrimony  in  the  clergy,  that  it  was  owing  to  Cecil's  cou- 
rage and  dexterity,  as  appears  by  a  letter  of  his  to  Parker, 
that  she  did  not  absolutely  prohibit  the  marriage  of  all 
ecclesiastics.  He  was>  however,  obliged  to  consent  to  an 
injunction,  '^  that  no  head  or  member  of  any  college  or 
cathedral,  should  bring  a  wife,  or  any  other  wonian,  into 
the  precincts  of  it,  to  abide  in  the  same,  on  pain  of  for* 
'feiture  of  all  ecclesiastical  promotions."  Archbishop  Par- 
ker took  the  liberty  to  remonstrate  with  the  queen  against 
this  order,  and  on  this  interview  she  treated  the  institution 
of  matrimony  with  contempt,  declared  to  him  that  she  re- 
pented her  making  any  of  them  bishops,  and  wished  it  had 
been  otherwise ;  nay,  threatened '  him  with  injunctions  of 
another  nature,  which  his  grace  understood  to  be  in  favour 
of  the  old  religion;  In  his  letter  to  Cecil  on  this  occasion^ 
he  assures  him  that  the  bishops  have  all  of  them  great  rea- 
'son  to  be  dissatisfied  with  the  queen;  that  be  repents  his 
having  engaged  in  the  station  in  which  he  was;  atid  that 
the  reception  which  he  had  from  her'  majesty  the  day 


F  A  a  K  K  H.  11$ 

before,  h«d  quUe  iodUpc^ed  bim  for  nU  other  business,  and 
he  could  Qoly  looQrQ  to  God  in  the  bitterness  6f  his  sou}; 
bat  if  abe  went  on  to  £urce  the  clergy  to  any  compliance^ 
they  muat  obey  God  rather  than  men,  and  that  m^any  of 
them  had  cop^ience  and  courage  epough  to  sacrifice  their 
lives  in  defence  of  their  religion. 

But,  whatever  our  archbishop  might  suffer  from  the  des*- 

potic  caprices  of  the  que^n^  he  had  yet  moi:e  trouble  with 

the  di^seotions  which  appeared  in  the  diurch  itself,  and 

n^ver  cfiased  to  prevail,  in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  until 

the  w^le  fabric  wa$  overturned  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I. 

These  first  appeiMred  in  the  opposition  given  t,o  the  efscle* 

siastic  habits  by  a  considerablie  niimber  of  divines,  and 

those  wen  of  worth  aad  piety,  \yho  s(c»emed  to  be  of  opinioi) 

that  pppery  might  consji^t  in  4re$s  as  well  as  doctrine^     By 

virtue  of  the  clause  in  the  act  of  uniformity,  which  gav^ 

the  queen  a  power  of  adding  aqy  other  rit^s  and  c^remo* 

nies  she  pleased>  she  3et  forth  inji^nctions  ordering  tbMt  thi9 

clergy  should  wear  seemly  garmentsi,  sqjuaitQ  cap$,  and 

copes,  whiph  bad  been  laid  asi4e  in  the  reign  of  Hing  Ed-t 

war4.     Many. conformed  to  tbe&e  in  every  ^iroum^rice, 

but  others  refused  the  cap  and  surplice^  Qon^id^nng  the?) 

as  relics  of  popi^ry,  and  therefore,  b^th  aupi^ratitic^s  aad 

niijfuK    The  queen,  enraged,  at  tbi^  oppoaiitioat  which  wa^ 

favoured  even  by  some  of  her  courtiers,  wri9te  a- lettec  to 

the  two  archbishops,  reflecting  with  spin^  acriiaony  on<  it, 

as  the  eijEect  of  remissness  in  the  bishops ;  and.  requiring 

them  to  confeir  wi(b  her  ecol^^i^stica)  qom^mi^sion^rs,  thac 

an  exact  oirder  and  ouiformity  might  be  mP^Otaioed  in  all 

external  xit^s  and  cereippni^s ;  and  that  none  b^r^s^ftec 

should  be  admitted  t^  any  ocpleaias^tical  pr^ermei^it,  hi^t 

those  who  were  disposed  to  obedW^QQ  m  thia  re9[>eQtV 

Arvhl>i^hop  Parker,   aooorrfiogly^  wilh   the  a^ff^f^^^®  ^f- 

s^v^i»l  (of  bis  brethren,  drew  up  ordiflanojjs  for.  the  dw^ 

order  in  pre^jihifig  and  adwipis^e^ing  tti^  ^<rram^ft^j  J>nd:fori 

the  apparel  of  persori*  ecglewft^tical.  Ao^ort^i  vug  to  tbi^ei  th« 

pre^ph^rs  wpre.  directed  to  study  «difi<;qktift0,.and:tp  mam^i^ 

cpntroyerpy  with  sobriety;  exhorjii^g  tii^  p^ojple  to  frei^; 

q^j^nt  the  commnniop,  and  to  ob.(^y.  the  laws,  ai)d  ibe. 

queen's  injon9tioQ9p    AH  the  liceucjes  for  preaobing  weir© 

declaried  void  aQd.of  no. effect,  bu^t  wt^^.to  be  renewed  to 

such  .as  theif  bishops  thought  ^oxtby  of  the  offi?^ ;  and 

si^ph  «s  preached  unbound  doqtrine  were  tq  be  deooupoed, 

19  the  bishop,  an4i>Qt  ooo^radict^  ift.thc  ohorch.    Thi^t 

Vol.  XXIV.  I 


114  PARKER. 

who  bad  licences  were  to  preach  once  in  three  months ; 
and  those  who  were  unlicensed,  were  to  read  homilies.  In 
administering  the  sacrament,  the  principal  minister  was  to 
wear  a  cope,  but  at  all  other  prayers  only  the  surplice  ;  in 
cathedrals  they  were  to  wear  hoods,  and  preach  in  them  ; 
the  sacrament  was  to  be  received  by  every  body  kneeling ; 
every  minister  saying  the  public  prayers,  or  administering 
the  sacraments,  was  to  wear  a  surplice  with  sleeves ;  and 
every  parish  was  to  provide  a  communion-table,  and  to 
have  the  ten  commandments  set  on  the  east  wall  above  it. 
The  bishops  were  to  give  notice  when  any  persons  were  to 
be  ordained,  and  none  were  to  be  ordained  without  de» 
grees.  Then  followed  some  rules  about  wearing  apparel, 
caps,  and  gowns ;  to  all  which  was  added,  a  form  of  sub* 
scription  to  be  required  of  all  who  were  admitted  to  any 
office  in  the  church ;  that  they  would  not  preach  without 
licence,  that  they  would  read  the  Scriptures  intelligibly, 
that  they  would  keep  a  register-book,  that  they  would  use 
such  apparel  in  service-time  especially  as  was  appointed, 
*  that  they  would  keep  peace  and  quiet  in  their  parishes, 
that  they  would  read  some  of  tbe  Bible  daily,  and  in  con- 
clusion, that  they  would  observe*  uniforniity,  and  conform 
to  all  the  laws  and  orders  already  established  for  that  pur- 
pose ;  and  to  use  no  sort  of  trade,  if  riieir  living  amopnted 
to  twenty  nobles. 

It  might  have  been  expected  that  these  ordinances 
would  have  pleased  the  queen,  as  being  in  conformity  with 
her  wishes,  and,  in  fact,  in  answer  to  her  orders ;  but  the 
opponents  of  the  habits,  who  began  to  be  called  Puritans, 
applied  to  their  friends  at  court,  and  especially  to  her 
great  fa^rourite  Robert  Dudley,  earl  of  Leicester,  who  pre- 
vailed so  far  with  her  niajesty,  that  all  her  former  resolu- 
tion disappeared,  and  she  refused  to  sanction  the  ordi- 
nances with  her  authori^,  telling  tbe  archbishop,  that  the 
oath  tof  canonical  obedience  was  sufficient  to  bind  the  in- 
feriof  i&lergy  to  their  duty,  without  the  interposition  of  the 
crowti.  The  archbishop,  hurt  at  such  capricious  conduct, 
and  at  being  placed  in  such  a  situation  between  the  court 
and  the  church,  told  Cecil,  that  if  the  ministry  persisted 
in  their  indifference,  he  would  '^  no  more  strive  against 
the  stream,  fume  Or  chid^  who  would  ;^*  and  it  is  most  prOf 
bable  his  remonstrances  prevailed,  for  the  above  ordi- 
nances were  a  few  days  after  published,  under  the  name 
#f  Advertisements ;  and  he  then  proceeded  upon  them  wit^ 


P  A  tl  K  E  R.  Us 

that  zeal  which  procured  him  from  one  party  the  reproach 
of  being  a  persecutor,  and  from  the  other  the  honour  of 
being  a  firm  friend  and  supporter  of  the  church-estabiish- 
ment.  The  particular -steps  he  took,  the  trials  he  insti- 
tuted, and  the  punishments  he  inflicted,  are  detailed  at 
length  by  Strype  and  other  church-^historians  ;  but  on  the 
merit  of  his  conduct  there  is  great  diversity  of  opinion. 
It  has  been  said,  both  in  excuse  and  in  reproach  of  his 
measures,  that  he  was  too  subservient  to  the  queefi.  To  us 
it  appears,  that  he  took  as  much  liberty  in  advising  'th6 
queen,  and  in  contending  with  her  humours,  as  any  prelate 
or  statesn^an  of  her  reign,  and  that  what  he  did  to  pro- 
mote uniformity  in  the  church  arose  from  a  sincere,  how- 
ever mistaken  opinion,  that  uniformity  was  necessary  to  the 
advancement  of  the  reformation,  and  in  itself  practicable. 
All  that  is  wrong  in  this  opinion  tnust  be  referred  to  the 
times  in  which  he  lived,  when  no  man  conceived  that  an 
established  church  could  flourish  if  surrounded  by  secta- 
ries, and  when  toleration  was  not  at  all  understood  in  its 
present  sense. 

He  continued  to  struggle  with  the  difficulties  attending 
his  oflSce  and  measures,  until  his  seventy-first  year,  when, 
finding  himself  in  a  declining  condition,  he  signed  his 
Will  April  5,  1575,  and  died  on  May  17  following.  He  was 
buried  in  his  own  chapel  at  Lambeth,  with  a  Latin  inscrip- 
tion by  his  friend  Dr.  Walter  Haddon :  but  this  was  de*^ 
molished,  and  his  bones  taken  up  and  scattered,  during  the 
usurpation ;  nor  was  it  known  what  became  of  them  till 
they  were  discovered  by  Dugdale,  in  archbishop  Bancroft's 
time,  who  again  replaced  them  in  the  midst  of  the  area  of 
the  chapel,  as  a  small  marble  stone  facing  the  altar,  with 
this  inscription  upon  it,  now  denotes,  **  Corpus  Matthaei 
archiepiscopi  tandem  hie  quiescit  f '  the  monument  itself, 
with  an  epitaph  upon  it  of  his  own  drawing  up,  being  since 
temOved  into  the  anti-chapel. 

Concerning  his  learning  and  zeal  for  the  promotion  of 
learning,  there  is  no  difference  of  opinion.  His  skill  in 
ancient  liturgies  was  such,  that  he  was  one  of  the  first  se- 
lected to  draw  up  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer;  and  when 
he  came  to  be  placed  at  the  head  of  the  church,  he  la- 
boured much  to  engage  the  bishops,  and  other  learned 
men,  in  the  revisal  and  correction  of  the  former  transla- 
tions of  the  Bible.  This  was  at  length  undertaken  and 
tarried  on  under  his  direction  and  inspection,  who  assigned 

I  2 


116  p  A  R  |C  E  p. 

.particular  portions  to  each  of  hif  assistantf,  which  he  after- 
wards perused  and  corrected,  and  spared  no  pains  in  get- 
.tipg  it  completed.     It  was  first  publisbed  in  1569}  and  h;|s 
usually  been  called  the  *'  Bishop's  ^ible,'*   an^    ran   its 
course  with  the  Geneva  tr^sj^tion,  until  the  present  ver- 
sipn  was  executed,  in  the  reign  of  \Xug  James.     He  also 
published  a  *^  Saxon  homily  on  the  Sacrament/'    trans- 
lated oiit  of  Latin  into  that  langufige,  by  £lfrlc  a  learned 
abbot  of  St.  Alban's^  about  900  years  before ;  with  two 
epistles  of  the  same,  in  which  is  not  the  least  mention  of 
the  (ioctrine  of  transubs^antiation.     He  was  the  editor  also 
of  editions  of  the  histories  of  Matthew  of  \Vestminster  and 
Matthew  ofParis^  and  of  various  other  works,  enumerated 
.by  Tanner ;  some  of  which  were  either  composed  by  him, 
or  printj^d  at  his  expence.     The   work  on  which   he  if 
thought  to  have  spent  most  time  was  that  **  I)e  Antiqui- 
itate  Britannic®  Ecclesiis  /'  but  his  share  in  this  is  a  disputed 
point  among  antiquaries.     In  his  letter  to  the  lord  treasu-: 
rer,  to  whom  he  presented  a  copy,  he  speaks  of  it  as  hif 
own  collection,  which  had  been  the  employment  of  his 
leisure  houri^.     Dr.  Drake  likewise,  in  the  preface  to  bis 
edition  of  it,  quotes  a  letter  of  the  archbis||ip{>'s  in  tbe| 
pollege-library,  in  which  he  expressly  styles  it,  *'  My  booi( 
of  Canterbury  Predecessors;"    and  archbishop  Bramball 
was  of  opinion,  that  the  conckision  of  the  preface  proved 
Parker  himself  to  have  been  the  author.     But  notwith^ 
standing  these  testimonies,  the  matter  is  (i|oubtful.     SeU 
deh  was  the  first  who  called  it  in  question,  although  with- 
out giving  his  reasons ;  and  sir  Henry  Spelman  considered 
Dr.  Ackworth  to  have  been  either  the  author  or  collector 
of  the  work.  Archbishop  Usher  thinks  that  Ackworth  wrote 
only  the  first  part,  concerning  the  British  antiquities ;  and 
he,  Selden,  and  Wharton,  ascribe  the  lives  of  the  arch- 
bishops to  Josselyn,  and  make  Parker  little  more  than  tb^ 
director  or  encourager  of  the  whole.     And  this  certainly 
seems  to  be  confirmed  by  the  copy  now  in  the  Lambeth- 
library.    This  copy,  which  originally  belonged  to  that  li- 
brary, but  was  missing  from  the  year  1720,  was  replaced 
in  1757   by  Dr.  Trevor,  bishop  of  Durham,  who  found 
it  in  the  Sunderland-library.     This,  which  Dr.  Ducarel 
thought   the   only   perfect  one  existing,  contains-  many 
manuscript  papers,    letters,  a.nd  notes,    respecting  arch* 
bishop  Parker  and  the  see  of  Canterbury;  and,  ainpog 
tiiese,  soo^e  proofs  that  Ackworth  and  Josselyn  bad  ^  c^n- 


P  A  H  K  E  r:  in 

i 

^der^ble  sfaftri  lA  the  eornntpositidn  of  the  woVE  A,t  tbel 
beginning  o6St  Augustine's  life  we  find  this  note:  ^' These 
94  pages' of  St  Atigustine*s  Hfewere  thus  begun  by  George- 
Acworib  Dr.  of  taiws^  at  n  the  appointment  of  Matthe\f 
Kavker  Abp.  df  Cdfit«  and'  the  lives  of  all  the  arch- 
bishops should  hi^ve  in  thi^  course  been  perfected  —  (sonie 
words  not  intelligible) — ^but  deth  prevented  it."  This  Dr. 
AckWorth,  ais  we  b^ve  memj'oined  in  our  account  of  him 
(vol.  i.)  ttna^  alive  in  VSl^y  bttt  how  long  after  is  not  known; 
bnti  as  thiB  i^  a  y^ar  aftev  out'  prelate's  death,  there  seems 
iome  di^divy  in  undersiat^ding  the  latter  part  of  thjs^ 
■otie,  witkouC  adopting  arobbi^bop  Usher's  opinion  above 
mSentioned;  We  aftso  find  in  the  Lambeth  copy,  on  the' 
title-pageof  the  Irii^tQry,  the  following  note-:  << This  His- 
torife  was  oollMted  and-  penned  by  John  Jotsselyn,  one  of 
the  sons  €^  sk"  Tliomas  Jt>s6elyn)  knight,  by  the  appoint-^ 
fiiem  and  oversigiit  of  Matthew  Parker  archbishop  of  Cant.- 
tjle  said  Jobm  beitlg-  entertained  in  the  said  archb.  house, 
a»  One  of  bifr  aotiquaries,  to  whom,  besides  the  allowance 
arfforde^  to  biiii  in  his  howse,  he  gave  to  hym  the  parsonage 
df  Bollinborn  in  Kent,''  &c.     . 

It  seettis  probable  therefore  that  Parker  planned  this- 
iroffe,  ilnd  s^uppHed  his  assistants  with  materials  from  bis! 
own  colie<}tiona  respecting  ecclesiastical   antiquities.      It 
was  printed  probably  at  Lambeth,  where  the  archbishop 
bad   an   eis^blishment  of  printers,    engravers^    and   iitu«- 
mmatorsr,   ih   ai  folio,  volume,   in  1572.     The  number  of. 
copies  piriinted  appears  to  have  been  very  small,   some 
tbfilk  nbt7  more  than  four  or  ilve^   lor  private  distribu- 
tion; but  tbifs:  must  be  a  mistake;  for  Dr.  Drake   men- 
tions bis  having    consulted  twenty^one   copies,    most  of 
whiieb,    He  add^,   were  imperfect.      The  copies   ettant^ 
however,  in  a  perfect  state,  are  very  few:  Strype  mentions 
only  five,  and  one  of  these,   which  he  calls  the  choicest  of' 
aVl,  belonged  to  archbishop  Sancroft,  came  afterwards  into 
tW  b$mdsvof-Mr.  Wharton,  and  appears  to    be  the  one 
n0w  at  Latubeth.     There  is  a  very  fine  copy  in  the  British 
Museum,  bo^nd  io  green  velvet  eutbroidered,  which  ap- ' 
piaafK  to  have  been  the  presentation-copy  to  qu^en  Eliza- 
bolb.    A  bad  edition  of  the  work  was  published  at  Har^over 
'\%\^0^\  afod  a  Very  elegant  one  by  Dr.  Di^£ike  in  J 729, 
folio.     Iti  1574,  a  short  lite  ef  archbishop  Parker  was  pub- 
lished abroad,  most  probably  by  one  of  his  eneitiies  among 
the  puritans,  iind«fr  the  title  ^<  The  Life  of  the  70  Arch<* 


lis  P  A  R  K  E  B. 

hUhopp  of  Castcrboryy  preieiidj  settings  En^khedy  and 
to  be  added  to  tbe  69  lately  sett  forth  in  Latin.  This 
number  of  serenty  is  so  complete  a  oninber  as  it  is  great 
pitie  tber  sbonld  be  one  more :  bnt  that  as  Angnstin  was 
the  first,  to  Matthew  might  be  the  last.**  Of  this  scnrri- 
loos  publication  an  account  may  be  seen  in  the  '^  Besti- 
tota,**  vol.  I. 

To  tbe  oniversity  of  Cambridge,  and  particulariy  to 
Ills  own  college,  be  was  a  most  munificent  benefactor, 
founding,  at  bis  own  expence,  many  fellowships  and  sebo* 
Jarsbips.  He  was  also  tbe  founder  of  tbe  first  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  over  which  be  presided  during  bis  life,  and  in 
this  oiEce  was  succeeded  by  ^  archbishop  Whitgift.  He 
bad  the  taste  and  spirit  of  an  antiquary  from  his  earliest 
years,  and  employed  bis  interest,  when  he  rose  in  tbe 
world,  as  well  as  bis  fortune,  in  accumulating  collections, 
or  transcripts  of  manuscripts,  from  tbe  dissolved  monas* 
teries.  In  bis  library  is  a  letter  from  tbe  privy-council, 
dated  July  1568,  signifying  tbe  queen*s  pleasure,  that  the. 
archbishop,  or  bis  deputies,  sbould  be  permitted  to  peruse 
all  tbe  records  of  the  suppressed  houses.  The  greatest 
favour,  tberefore,  which  be  conferred  on  literature,  was 
the  invaluable  collection  of  MSS.  and  printed  books  which 
he  gave  to  bis  college,  and  which  is  there  still  preserved. 
Fuller  styled  this  collection  ^^tbe  Sun  of  English  Antiquity^ 
before  it  was  eclipsed  by  tbat  of  sir  Robert  Cotton,**  and 
justly,  as  it  contained  more  materials,  relating  to  the  civil 
and  ecclesiastical  history  of  this  kingdom,  than  bad  ever 
been  collected,  Tbe  manuscripts  are  of  tbe  eleventh, 
twelfth,  thirteenth,  fourteenth,  fifteenth,  and  sixteenth 
centuries.  Some  are  as  old  as  tbe  tenth,  ninth,  ^  and 
ejghth.  They  relate  to  the  writings  of  the  fathers  and 
sphodl-divinity,  to  civil  and  ecclesiastical  matters,  to  the 
concerns  of  various  religious  houses,  of  the  university,  &c. 
Many  of  them  are  in  tbe  old  Saxon  character,  and  they 
are  all  well  described  in  Nasmith*s  Catalogue.  A  copy  ^ 
his  will  is  preserved  in  the  College-library,    as  are  tw^ 

I)ictures  of  him  in  oil,  with  a  beautiful  one  iu  water-co- 
ours,  taken  in  the  seventieth  year  of  his  age,  at  the  end^ 
of  the  college-statutes.  His  only  surviving  son,  John,  was 
knighted  in  1603,  and  died  in  1618,  but  diere  is  nothing 
remarkable  in  his  history;  and  the  family  is  now.  thought 
^o  be  extinct. ' 

I  Strype*s  Lifv.— Mtaters't  Hist,  of  C.  C.  C.  C. — Biog.  Brit  •  Tery  cupey*. 


PARK  E  R.  Yl» 

PARKER  (Robert),  wigts  a  puritan  divinQ  of  con^f- 
.deffable  learmng  and  reading,  but  bis  early  history  is  very 
variously  represented.  Mr.  Brpok,  lo^iis  late  ^^  Lives  (^ 
tbe  Puritans/'  places  bim  as  rector  of  North- Benflete,  ift 
Essex,  in  1 57 1,  on  the  authority  of  Newcourt,  but  New^ 
court  is  evidently  speaking  of  a  Robert  Parker,  who  held 
Bardfield*parva  in  1559,  and  must  have  been  a  diiferent 
person..  Ou  the  other  band,  Mr.  Masters,  in  his  History 
of  C.  C.  G*  C.  informs  us  that  he  was  in  1581  a  pensioner 
of  Bene't  collie,  Cambridge,  and  was  made  scholar  of 
the  house  in  1583,  at  which  time  he  published  a  copy  of 
. Latin  verses  on  the  death  of  sir  William  Buttes,  and  suc*- 
ceeded  to  a  fellowship  in  the  latter  end  of  tbe  year  follow-^ 
ing.  He  was  then  A*  B.  but  commenced  A.  M.  in  1585, 
and  left  the  university  in  1589.  Both  his  biographers  agree 
.that  the  person  they  speak  of  was  beneficed  afterwards  at 
Wilton,  in  Wiltshire,  and  the  author  of  '*  A  scbolastical 
Discourse  against  symbolizing  with  Anti*christ  in  cere*» 
monies,  especially  in  the  sign  of  the  Cross,"  printed  in 
1607,  without  a  printer^s  name,  consisiing  of  near  400 
pages  closely  printed  in  folio.  In  this  he  appears  to  have 
employed  very,  extensive  reading  to  very  little  purpose, 
aecordiog  to  Dr.  Grey;  and  even  Mr.  Pierce,  in  bis  ^<  Vin- 
dication of  tbe  Dissent^rsf"  owns  that  ^^  bis  fancy  was 
somewhat  odd  as  to  his  manner  of  handling  his  argument." 
Iticontained  at  the  same  time  matter  90  very  offensive,  that 
a  proclamation  was  issued  for  apprehending  the  author, 
who,  after  many  narrow  escapes,  was.  enabled  to  take  re- 
fnge  in  Hojlaod.  Here  i^Oine  of  his  biographers  inform  os 
that  he  was  chosen  minister  of  tbe  Engliah  church  at  Aoir 
aterdam  ^  but  tbe  magistrates  of  the  city,  being  unwilling  to 
disoblige  the  king  of  England  by  continuing  him  their 
pastor,  he  removed  to  Doesburgh,  where  he  became  chap- 
lain to  tbe  garrison.  Others  tell  us  that  he  would  have  been 
chosen  pastor  to  tbe  English  church  at  Amsterdam,  had  not 
.the  magisjtrates  bieen  afraid  of  disobliging  king  James. 
According  to  Mr.  Brook,  it  would  a|>pear  tbat  he  had  pubr 
Jished  his  work  *^  De  Descensu"  before  he  left  England, 
Jbmt  we  can  more  safely  rely  on  Mr.  Masters,  who  had  seen . 
tbe  bo(^,  and  who  inform^  ustbat  it  was  while  he  was  at 
Amsterdam  tbat  he  publi^ed  a  treatise,  >^  De  Descensu 

iicial  aiticle.-^Le  Neve's  Protestant  Bishops.— Burnet's  Hist  uf  tbe  Reforma. 
tion.— MS  Letter  of  Dr.  Ducarel's,  &c.  &c.  ,  See  also  various  ourioui  fii^f^* 
jUcttUrt  in  Lysoiis's  Envirunsj  the  ^isiory  vf  Lamiieth,  ^c» 


120  PARKER. 


'■'  5^ 


>domini  nonfari  Jesa  Gbristi  ad  Inferos^"  4to^  M&iiili  bad 
1>een  begun  by. fab  learncki  friend  Hvgb  Sotndford,  who 
iinding  deatb  iipproacbing)  comoiitt^d  tbe  peiiiectirrg  of  it 
to  bioi.  This  be  wa&  about  to  do  When  compellvd  to  leait^ 
Englaml.  His  prefhce  is  dated  Amsterdam,.  Ded.>  30^  1611. 
He  was  also  the  autb6r  of  a  traadse  ^'  De  PoUtia  Eeete- 
«iastica  Cfaristi  et  Hierarcbicaoppdsita^*'  published  in  16l'6, 
at  which  time  he  bad  been  dead  two  years.  Ke  is  indeed 
here  represented  ^'  as  an  emimdnt  serranl  of  Christ,  callied 
jbotne  to  rest  from  his  labonrs  in'  tbe  midst  of  his  course.** 
The  Bodleian  catalogue  assigns  to  him  t^o  other  post- 
bumous  works,  ^^  A  Discourse  concerning  PuntanV' 1641, 
4to^  and  ^'  Tbe  Mystery  of  tb^  Vials  opened  in  tbe  \Mh 
chapter  of  the  Revelatiofns.*'  He  left  a  son,  ThomsM, 
author  of  a  wofk  called  '^^  Mieibodus  gratitiB'ditiU{6  it^  ^tna^ 
dtjctione  bominis  peccatoris  ad  vitan^"  Lond.  1657^  Hyo, 
'which  the  editor  considered  as  a  work  of  importance  by  tbe 
care  be  took  to  c6llate  four  MS  copies.  Brodk  say's  hie 
wrote  also  <*  Meditations  on  the  Pfo^ecy  of  Daniel,'^  ftAd 
died  in  1677,  in  New  England,  to  whicii  fae  went  in  1634, 
io  avoid  the  consequence^  of  nonconforimity  at  botfie.  * 

PARKER  (Samuel),  a  t&kn  of  sodio  learning,  and  nb 
contemptible  writer,  but  of  despicable  dbatiiot^f,  was  bcffti 
an  Sept.  1640,  at  Northampton,  where  bis  father,  John 
Parker,  then  practised  tbe  law.  John  bad  \teen  bfsed  to 
that  profession  in  one  of  tbe  Temples  at  London,  slnd  i^ 
dining  to  the  parliament  against  the  king,  wtts  prefen^eii 
to  be  a  mtoilier  of  the  high  court  of  jumiide  in  1€49,  in 
ivbich  office  he  gave  sentence  i^inst  the  thuee  lords,  Ca- 
pel,  Huiland)  and  Hamilton,  who  were  bebeaded.  During 
■Oliver's  U9urpati6n  be  was  made  an  assistant  committee- 
man for  his  county*  In  1650,  be  published  m  book  in  de<- 
/ence  of  the  new  government,  as  a  common wetflKhi  wicfaw 
€)ut  a  king  or  hou^e  of  lords,  entitled  "Tbe  Governwent 
of  tbe  People  of  England,  precedent  and  presenjt,*'  with 
An  emblematical  engraved  title-page*  lb  Jntie  16i5,wfa6n 
Cromwell  was  declared  protector,  he  was  appointed  one  6f 
the  commissioners  for  removing  obbtructioiis  at  WdrdentieN 
bouse,  in  the  Strand,  near  London,  and  was  swom  seij^Mstt 
at  law  next  day.  In  Jan.  16.59,  he  was  appointed  hf  ^t 
rump-^pttfliament  onfe  of  tbe  barons  of  th^  ^mbequetr;  bt^ 

*  Master's  Hist,  of  C.  C.  C'C. — Broi»k*fi  Lives  of  th€  Puritiins*— ^ie*l>g  P#- 
rifcana*  mitik  Orey's  ExtiiimdiiflAi,  vol.  L 


If  A  B  K  E  K.  121 

Upon  a  ocfQtiplaint  againit  h\tti^  wad  soon  afb^  disiilaced. 
His  cbaracteri  hofwiever^  appearrs  to  have  been  midh^  that 
he  was  again  made  i^gQlarly  sex^eant  at  Uw,  by  the  re- 
commendatioti  of  chancellor  Hydei  at  the  first  call  after 
die  return  of  Charles  IL 

His  son,  Samuel,  tbe  i»ub}eotv  of  the  present  article,  was 
educated  among  the  Puritans  ti  Northampton ;  whence, 
when  prepared  for  tbe  university,  he  was  sent  to  Wadlilam'* 
college  in  Oxford,  and  addditted,  in  1659,  under  a  pres-^ 
byterian  tutor.  While  here  be  affected  to  lead  a  strict  and 
reHgioas  life,  entered  into  a  weekly  society,  then  called 
the  gruellers,  because  their  chief  diet  waa  wafcer-grael; 
and  it  was  observed  **  that  he  put  m^ire  graves  into  his 
porridge  than  ^U  the  rest.'*  This  society  met  at  a  house 
in  Holywell,  where  he  was  so  zealous  and  constant  an  at- 
tendiant  upon  prayers,  sermons,  and  aacramentSi  that  he 
was  est^^emed  one  of  the  most  vaioable  young  men  in  tbe 
university.  He  took  the  degree  B.  A.  Feb.  28,  1 660.  At 
the  titue  of  the  restoration  he  was  a  vibl^nt  independent, 
and  as  forborne  time  be  eontintied  to  rail  against  episco- 
pacy, he  was  mueh  diseountenanced  by  the  new  warden, 
Dn  Blandford.  Upon  this  he  nemoved  to  Trinity  college, 
wb6rei  by  the  advi<^^  of  Dr.  Ralph  Bathtirst,  then  a  senior 
fellow  of  that  society,  b6  was  induced  to  change  his  opi- 
nions, and  became  as  violent  against  the  nonconformists  as 
he  bad  ever  been  for  them.  He  afterwards  thanked  Dr. 
Balhurst  for  having  restored  him  '^  from  the  chaiiis  and 
fetters  of  an  unhappy  education."  He  now  proceeded 
M.A.  in  1663,  add  .having  taken!  orders,  resorted  fre« 
gueutly  to  Londt>n,  and  became  chaplain  to  a  nobleman, 
whom  be  atliuaed  by  his  humourous  sallies  at  the  expenco' 
of  his  old  fri^dds  tbe  prtdsbyteriiiiTs,  independents,  &c. 
Mason  was  R0.y6r  more  mistaken  than  when  in  his  ^*  Ode 
to  Independence"  be  misntions  him  by  the  epithet  *^  mitred 
dullness."  Parker  was  undoubtedly  a  man  of  wit,  and 
although  Marvel!  was  his  match,  y^t  the  success  of  the 
latter  was  not  a  litde  owing  to  his  having  tbe  best  cause* 

In  1665  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society,  and 
published  about  th^  same  time  some  phyricb-^theological 
assays,  in  Latin,  with  tbid  title  '^  Teotaihina  Pbysico-Theo<^ 
logica  de  Deo ;  sive  Tbeologia  Scholastica,  ad  normam' 
nov8^  et  reformats^  pbilosophite  cohcinnata,"  Lond.  1665, 
4tov  This  he  dedicated  to  archbishop  ShjeMon.  .  The  work 
iras  attatked  by  N.  Fairfax,  M.  D.  in  a  treatise  with  tbe 


122  P  A  R  K  £  It 

wbinisical  tide  of  <^Tbe  Bulk  and  Selvedge  of  the  World.** 
Ill  1666  he  published  **  A  free  and  impartial  Censure  of 
tbe  Platonic  Philosophy ;"  and  shortly  after  '<  An  account 
of  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  Divine  Dominion  and  Good- 
ness, especially  as  they  refer  to  the  Origenian  hypothesis 
"coticerning  tbe  pre-existence  of  souls,  together  with  a 
special  account  of  tbe  vanity  and  groundlessness  of  tbe  hy^- 
pothesis  itself/'  Oxon;  1666, 4to.  About  Micbaelfnas,  1667, 
archbishop  Sheldon  appointed  him  one  of  his  chaplains,  a 
proof  that  at  this  time  be  was  in  estimation ;  and  this  seems 
to  have  led  the  way  to  higher  preferment.  He  now  left 
Oxford,  and  resided  at  Lambeth,  under  the  eye  of  his  pa<^ 
iron;  who,  in  June  1670,  collated  him  to  the  archdea^ 
conry  of  Canterbury,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  Sancroft,  after* 
wards  archbishop.  On  Nov.  26,  the  same  year,  having  accom- 
panied William  prince  of  Orange  on  his  visit  to  Cambridge, 
he  bad  the  degree  of  D.  D.  conferred  upon  him.  On  Nov.  1 8, 
1672,  he  was  installed  prebendary  of  Canterbury ;  and  had 
the  rectories  of  Ickham  and  Chartham,  in  Kent,  conferred 
upon  hi  in  by  the  archbishop  about  the  same  time.  About 
this  time  he  published  some  of  those  writings  against  the 
presbyterians  which  involved  him  in  a  controversy.  The 
iirst  of  these  was  his  **  Discourse  of  Ecclesiastical  Polity, 
wherein  tbe  authority  of  the  civil  magistrate  over  the  con* 
sciences  of  subjects  in  matters  of  external  religion  is  as^ 
serted."  This  was  first  answered  by  the  anonymous  author 
of  ^*  Insolence  and  Impudence  triumphant,"  &:c.  1669;  and 
by  Dr.  John  Owen,  in  "Truth  and  Innocence  vindicated.** 
He  then  published  "  A  Defence  and  Continuation  of  Ec- 
clesiastical Polity  (against  Dr.  Owen),"  Lond.  .1671,  6vo  $ 
"  Toleration  discussed,'^  &c.  1670,  4to;  "  A  DisCourset  in 
Vindication  of  bishop  Bramhall  and  the  Church  of  Eng-* 
land,  from  the  fanatic  charge  of  Popery,"  &c.  This  was 
prefixed  to  a  ^  Treatise"  of  the  said  bishop,  written  in  hii 
bwii  defence,  1672,  8vo.  A  humourous  censure  of  this 
piece  being  published  by  Andrew  Marvellj  entitled  ^^  The 
Rehearsal  Transprosed,"  &c.  our  author,  in  the  same  hu* 
mourous  taste,  wrote  *^  A  Reproof  to  the  Rehearsal  Trans- 
prosed,"  1673,  8vo.  Wood,  however,  observes,  that,  "  find- 
ing  himself  beaten  in  this  cudgelling  way,  his  high  spirit 
was  abated  for  ever  after,  and  though  Marvell  replied  to 
fkis  ^  Reproof,'  yet  he  judged  it  more  prudent  to  lay  down 
tbe  cudgels.  It  put  him  upon  a  niore  sober,  serious,  and 
inodeiraie  way  of  writing."  (S^se  M^rvelv)    Parker'^  bst 


PARKER.  12S 

publication  Id  this  coDtroversy  was  ^*  A  free  and  impanial 
Inquiry  into  the  causes  of  that  very  great  esteem  and  ho-^ 
nour  the  Nonconformist  Ministers  are  in  with  their  foU 
lowers/^  1673,  Hvo.  In  1678  be  published  bis  <<  Disputa- 
tiones  de  Deo  et  providentia  divioa,"  &c.  4to,  which  is 
highly  commended  by  Dr.  Henry  More  in  the  general  pre* 
tsLce  to  his  works.  This  was  followed  by  other  works,  en^ 
titled  ^'  Demonstration  of  the  divine  authority  of  the  Law 
of.  Nature,  and  of  the  Christian  Religion,'*  1681,  4to ; 
'^  The  Case  of  the  Church  of  England  briefly  stated  in  the 
three  first  and  fundamental  principles  of  a  Christian  Church, 
i.  The  Obligation  of  Christianity  by  Divine  Right.  II. 
The  Jurisdiction. of  the  Church  by  Divine  Right.  III.  The 
institution  of  Episcopal  Superiority  by  Divine  Right," 
London,  8vo ;  ^'  An  account  of  the  Government  of  the 
Christian  Church,  in  the  first  six  hundred  years;  parti* 
cularly  shewing,  I.  The  Apostolical  practice  of  Diocesan 
and  Metropolitical  Episcopacy.  II.  The  usurpation  of  pa<- 
triarchal  and  papal  authority.  III.  The  war  of  two  hundred 
years  between  the  bishops  of  Rome  and  Constantinople,  of 
universal  supremacy,"  London,  1683,  8vo  ^  *^  Religion 
and.  Loyalty,  or,  a  demonstration  of  the  power  of  the 
Christian  Church  within  itself,  supremacy  of  sovereign 
powers  over  it,  and  duty  of  passive  obedience  and  nonr 
resistance  to  all  their  commands,  exemplified  out  of  re^* 
eords,^'  &c.  8vo  ;  and  the  year  following,  the  second  pari 
of  the  same  work,  containing  ^*  the  history  of  the  concur- 
rence of  the  imperial  and  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction  in  the 
.Government  of  the  Church,  from  the  beginning  of  the 
reign  of  Jovian  to  the  end'Of  Justinian,"  1685,  8vo. 

As  he  thus'by  his  writings,  as  well  as  personal  conduct, 
maintained  an  unreserved  obsequiousness  to  the  court,  du*' 
ring  the  reign,  of  Charles  II.  so  upon  the  accession  of  his 
brother  to  the  throne,  kp  continued  in  the  same  servil^ 
complaisance ;  and  it  was  not  long  before  he  reaped  the 
fruits  of  it  in  the  bishopric  of  Oxford,  to  which  be  was 
nominated  by  James  11.  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Fell  in  1686, 
being  allowed  to  hold  the  archdeaconry  of  Canterbury  in 
jcommendam.  He  was  also  made  a  privy  counsellor,  and 
constituted,  by  a  royal  mandamus,  president  of  Magdalen^ 
college  in  Oxford,  a  situation  which  amounted .  to  a  dis* 
grace,  as  it  was  in  violation  of  the  statutes,  and  in  resist^ 
^nce  to  the  lawful  election. of  Dr.  Hough.  (See  Hou€»H  )  • 

flaying  now  openly  rejected  the  4:hurch  of  £nglamd| 


124  P  A  H  K  £  R. 

which  h^  had  «aeriftoed  to  his  ambition,  be  became  oiie'  of 
the  Romish^  m^cenariesi  prostituttng  bis  pen  in  defepcd 
of  transubslantiation,  and  the  worship  of  saints  and  itaagen* 
The  papists,  it  is  certain,  made  sure  of  htm  as  a  proselyte; 
one  of  whom,  in  a  letter  from  Liege,  informs  his.  cor-* 
respondent  that  be  even  proposed  in  council,  whether  ii 
was  not  expedient  that  at  least  one  college  in  Oxford  should 
be  allowed  to  be  catholics,  that  they  niight  not  be  f6rced 
to  be  at  such  charges  by  going  beyond  the  seas^  to  study. 
In  the  same  spirit,  having  invited  two  popish  noblemen, 
with  a  third  or  the  church  of  England,  ta  dn  entertaifi^ 
rhent,  he  drank  the  Icing's  health,  v^ishing  a  happy  succesi 
to  all  bis  affairs ;  adding,  that  the  religion  of  the  protest- 
ants  in  England  seemed  to  him  to  be-  in  no  better  a 
condition  than  Buda  was  before  it  was  takeo,  and  thai 
tbey  were  next  to  Atheists  who  defended  that  faith«  So 
very  notorious  was  his  conduct,  that  the  more  prudent  and 
artful  of  the  popish  party  condemned  it  Father  Peter,  a 
JjCsnit,  and  privy-counsellor  to  king  James,  in  a  letter  ti^ 
father  la  Chaise,  confessor  .to  Louis  XIY.  uses  these  ex^ 
pressioos:  ^^  The  bishop  of  Oxford  has  not  yet  declared 
himself  openly;  the  great  obstacle  is  his  wife,  whdm  he 
cannot  rid  himself  of;  his  design  being  to.  continue  d 
bishop,  and  only  change  communion,  as  it  is  not  doubled 
but  the  king  will  permit,  and  our  holy  father  confirm ; 
though  I  don't  see  how  he  can  be  farther  useful  to.  u^siu< 
the  religion  be  is  in,  because  he  is  suspected,  and  of  no* 
esteem  among  the  heretics  of  tbe  Eirglish  cbdrch ;  nor  dty 
I  see  that  tbe  example  of  hi^  conversion  is  like  to  dtaw^ 
many  others  aft^r  hitn,  because  be  declared  bimlself,  so> 
s,udd:enly.  If  he  bad  believed  my  counsel,  which  ii^as  to 
teotiporize  for  some  longer  time,  he  would  have  done  beuer ; 
but  it  is  his  temper,  or  rather  zeal,  that  hurried  hi  in  4n  to 
it"  These  two  letters  were  first  printed  in  a  **  Third  Col-. 
lection  of  Papers  relating  to  the  present  juQctt»re  of  affairs 
in  England,^'  &c.  1689,  4ta^  and  havd  been  sinee  inserted^ 
in  Ecbard's  and  Rapin's  bistoi^ies. 

His  character  vf^as  now  become  ctotemiptible,  amd  hk- 
authority  in  his  diocese  so  very  insignificant,  that  when  be> 
assembled  his  ckrgy  and  desired  them  to  s^ubftcribe  an 
^'  4ddress  of  Thanks  to  tbe  king  fi»  bis  deotai'^iofi  of  Li*' 
beity  of  Conscience,''  tbey  rejected  it  with  such  ananlmity, 
that  be  got  btit  one  clergyman  td  eo^tir  wifb  him  in  it. 
The  last  eiffbrt  be  ^nade  to  serve  the  ^jsurt  was  ]»s  pub*- 


.      P  A  R  K  e  R.  i25 

iisbiug  <<  Reasons  for  abrbgating  the  Test  ;*'  and  this  pro- 
duped 'a  controversy,  in  which  be  was  completely  foiled, 
bis  character  despised,  and  his  spirit  broken.  He  died  nn- 
l^rpeoted  at  Magdalen  college,  May  20,  1687,  and  was 
buried  in  the  outer  chapel.  He  was  a  man  of  learning, 
iM>d  in  sooie  instances  an  acute  writer*.  Of  that  character 
l^aryeirs  wit  cannot  deprive  him.  But  it  may  be  allowed, 
with  Burnety  that  he  was  a  man  of  no  judgment,  and  of  as 
little  virtue ;  and  as  to  religion,  rather  impious ;  that  he 
wa?  covetous  and  ambitious,  and  seemed  to  have  no  other 
suiise  of  religion  but  as  «  politioal  interest,  and  a  subject 
pf  party  and  faction.  He  seldom  came  to  prayers,  or  to 
finy  exercises  of  devotion  ;  and  was  so  lifted  up  with  pride 
that  be  grewinsuflPerable  to  all  that  came  near  him. 

It  iQUst  have  been  as  the  last  effort  of  a  desperate  cause 
when  he  sent  a  **  Discourse''  to  James,  persuading  him  to 
embrace  the  protestant  religion,  with  a  ^'  Letter"  to  the 
same  purpose,  which  was  printed  at  London  in  1690,  4to. 
His  works  have  but  few  readers  at  this  day ;  and  Swift 
observes,  tliat  /'  Marvell's  remarks  on  Parker  continued  to 
be  read  when  the  book  which  occasioned  them  was  long 
ago  sunk.'*  He  left  a  son  of  his  own  name,  who  was  an 
ei^cellent  scholar,  and  a  man  of  singular  modesty.  He 
Qever  took  the  oaths  after  the  revolution.  He  married  a 
bookseller's  daughter  at  Oxford,  where  he  resided  with  a 
numerous  family  of  children ;  to  support  which  he  pub-> 
liahed  some  books,  particularly,  I .  <^  An  English  Transla- 
tion of  TuUy  de  finibus,  1702,''  Svo,  in  the  preface  to 
which  he  has  some  aoimad  versions  upon  Locke's  Essay  con- 
cerning Human  Understanding.  2.  *^  An  abridgment  of 
the  Ecclesiastic  Histories  of  Eusebius,  Socrates,  Sozomen, 
s^nd  Theodoret,"  1729.  He  also  published  a  Latin  ma- 
nuscript of  bis  father,  containing  the  history  of  his  own. 
tigie,  under  this  title,  '^  Reverendi  admodum  in  Christo 
patris  Sartiuelis  Parkeri  episcopide  rebus  sui  temporis  com* 
mentariprum  Jibri  quatuor,"  1726,  8vo,  of  which,  two 
English  translations  were  afterwards  published,  one  by  the 
rev.  Thomas  Newlin,  fellow  of  Magdalen  college.  But 
Mr.  Paifker's  last  and  greatest  work  wa^  entitJed  **  Biblio- 
tbeca  Biblica,"  printed  at  Oxford  in  5  vols.  4to,  the  first 
of  which  appeared  ia  two  parts  in  1720,  and  the  fifth. in 

.*  Lafdoer  ipeaks  ia  termi  of  r«*  use  of  it  in  chapter  xmcix  of  fans  »<  Tes- 
•pect  of  his  "  Demonstration  of  tb6  limonies  uf  Ancient  Hfathsns,"  vol. 
itriM  Authority,"  !atnd'  makes  great     VILI,  of  his  Works. 


126  P  A  R  k  E  ft. 

*  1735|  with  an  account  of  the  other  writings  of  the  autbo^ 
and  some  particulars  of  his  life,  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Thomas 
Haywoody  of  St.  John^s  college,  to  whom  were  attributed 
most  of  the  dissertations  in  the  work.  He  describes  it  asr 
.^*  being  a  neW  Comment  upon  the  five  Books  of  Moses, 
extracted  from  the  ancient  fathers,  and  the  most  famous 
critics  both  ancient  and  modern,  with  occasional  annota- 
tions or  dissertations  upon  particular  difficulties,  as  thej 
were  often  called  for."  Mr.  Parker  died  July  I*,  1730, 
in  his  fiftieth  year,  leaving  a  widow  and  children.  The 
metrical  paraphrase  of  Leviticus  xi.  13,  &c.  in  vol.  IIL 
was  written  by  Mr.  Warton,  of  Magdalen  college,  father 
to  the  late  learned  brothers,  Joseph  and  Thomas  Warton ; 
and  the  ^^  Fragment  of  Hyppolitus,  taken  out  of  two  Arabic 
M8S.  in  the  Bodleian,"  in  the  fourth  vol.  was  translated  by 
the  late  Dr.  Hunt.  Mr.  Parker  never  was  in  orders,  as  he 
could  not  reconcile  his  mind  to  the  new  government;  but 
he  associated  much  and  was  highly  respected  by  many 
divines,  particularly  nonjurors,  as  Dr.  Hickes,  Mr.  ColHer, 
Mr.  Dodwell,  Mr.  Leslie,  Mr.  Nelson,  and  Dr.  Grabe, 
whose  liberality  lessened  the  difficulties  which  a  very  large 
family  occasioned.  He  appears  to  have  had  a  place  in  the 
Bodleian  library,  as  Mr.  Wheatly,  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Raw- 
linson^  dated  Dec.  1739,  says,  *^  Sam.  Parker's  son  I  had 
heard  before  was  apprenticed  to  Mr.  Clements :  but  the 
account  you  give  me  of  his  extraordinary  proficiency  is 
new.  If  it  be  true  also,  I  hope  some  generous  patron  of 
learning  will  recall  him  from  the  bookseller's  shop,  and 
place  him  in  his  father's  seat,  the  Bodleian  library.'*  This 
son,  Sackville  Parker,  was  afterwards  for  many  years  an 
eminent  bookseller  at  Oxford,  and  one  of  the  four  Octo* 
genarian  booksellers,  who  died  in  1795  and  1796,  namely, 
James  Fletcher,  at  eighty-six ;  Sackville  Parker,  at  Weighty- 
nine ;  Stephen  Fletcher,  at  eighty -two,  and  Daniel  Prince, 
at  eighty-five.  They  were  all  born  at  Oxford,  except 
James  Fletcher.  The  present  worthy  bookseller,  Mr.  Jo- 
seph Parker,  is  nephew  and  succer^sor  to  Mr.  Sackville 
Parker." 

PARKHURST  (John),  an  eminent  prelate  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  was  born  at  Guildford,  in  Surrey,  in  1511, 
and  was  tfae  son  of  Mr.  George  Parkhurst  of  that  place. 

■  Alfa.  Ox.  vol.  If. — Bfcg.  Brit.->Bor»el'8  Own  Tines.— Gnit.  Mag.  Tof. 
LXX.  p..7.— LeUers  by  eminent  PerscMS,  1813,  3  vols.  8vo  —D* Israeli's  QuftrW 
rel?,  vol.  II.  p.  174.— Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  II.— Nichols**  Bowyer. 


P  A  R  K  H  U  R  S  T.  12T 

fie  was  educated  there  in  the  grammar-school  adjoining" 
to  Magdalen  college  gate,    under  Thomas  Robertson,  a 
▼ery  falnous  teacher.     He  was  elected  fellow  of  Merton 
college  in  1529,  and  three  years  after,  proceeding  in  arts, 
entered  into  holy  orders;    Anthony  Wood  says  that  he  was 
at  this  time  better  esteemed  for  poetry  and  oratory  than 
divinity.     Yet  we  find  him  recorded  in  the  life  of  Jewell, 
as  the  tutor  of  that  excellent  prelate,  who  entered  of  Mer- 
ton college  in  1535,  and  as  "  prudently  instilling,  tog^her 
with  his  other  learning,  those  excellent  principles  into  this 
young  gentleman,  which  afterwards  made  him  the  darling 
and   wonder  of  his  age."     Among  other  useful  employ^ 
ments,  we  find  him  collating  Coverdale  and  TindaPs  trans* 
lations  of , the  Bible  along  with  his  pupil,  of  whom  he 
conceived  a  very  high  dpinion,  and  on  one  occasion  ex- 
claimed *^  Surely  PauPs  Cross  will  one  day  ring  of  this 
boy,'*  a  prophecy  which  was  remarkably  fulfilled  in  JewelPs 
celebrated  sermon  there  in  1560.     Parkhurst,  it  is  true, 
was  a  poet  and  an  orator,  but  he  had  very  early  examined 
the  controversy  that  was  about  to  end  in  the  reformation, 
and  imbibed  the  spirit  of  the  latter.     In  154S,  according 
to  a  MS  note  of  Baker,  he  was  presented  by  Thomas  lord 
Seymour  to  the  rich  benefice  of  Bishcfp's  Cleve  in  Glou- 
cestershire, which  he  held  three  years  in  commendam, 
and  where  be  did  much  good  by  his  hospitality  and  charity ; 
but  the  author  of  Jewell's  life  says  that  he  held  this  living 
in  1544,  and  when  in  that  year  Jewell  commenced  master 
of  arts,  he  boce  the  charges  of  it.     Nor,  says  Jewel  l*s  bio- 
grapher, ^'  was  this  the  only  instance  wherein  he  (Jewell) 
did  partake  of  this  good  man's  bounty,  for  he  was  wont 
twice  or  thrice  in  a  year  to  invite  him  to  his  house,  and  not 
dismiss  him  without  presents,  money,  and  other  things  that 
were  necessary  for  the  carrying  on  bis  studies*     And  one 
time  above  the  rest,  coming  into  his  chamber  in  the  morn- 
ing, when  he  was  to  go  back  to  the  university,  he  seized 
upon  his  and  his  companions  purses,  saying,  What  money,  I 
wonder,   have  these  miserable,  and  beggardly  Oxfordians? 
And  finding  them  pityfuUy  lean  and  empty,  stuffed  them 
with  money,  till  they  became  both  fat  and- weighty.'* 

After  the  death  of  Edward  VI.  be  joined  the  exrlei 
abroad,  and  took  up  his  residence  at  Zurich,  where  he 
remained  till  the  death  of  queen  Mary.  Here  he  met 
with  his  pupil  Jewell,  and  on  the  change  of  affairs  in 
England  they  intended  to  have  retvirned  together^    bu^ 


128  F  A  B  K  H  U  R  S  T. 

Parkhur9t,  thinking  that  Jewell  bad  not  chosen  the  sa&i^ 
route  for  bis  travels,  lef(  bim  and  went  by  himself^  tbe  cod^ 
sequence  of  wbicb  was  tbat  Parkhorst  was  robbed  of  all  he 
ba^  on  the  road^  and  Jewell  arrived  safe  in  England,  and 
had  the  satisfaction  of  relieving  tbe  wants  of  bis  fbrmer 
benefactor.  Soon  after  Parkburst  arrived,  be  was  elected 
to  the  see  of  Norwich  April  13,  1560,  and  consecrated  by 
archbishop  Parker,  &c.  on  Sept.  1.  He  held  tbe  living  of 
Cleve  for  some  tiine  after  this  along  with  bis  bisbopiic« 
He  now  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Thomas  Garnish^ 
of  Kenton  in  Suffolk,  esq.  by  Margaret  bis  wife,  daugihter 
of  $ir  Hugh  Francis,  of  Giffard^s  Hall  in  Suffolk,  kin'ght. 
In.  15 66,  by  virtue  of  a  commission  from  the  principal 
ministers  of  tbe  university  of  Oxford,  directed  to  Laurence 
Humphrey,  the  queen's  divinity  professor,  he  and  four 
other  bishops  were  created  doctors  of  divinity,  Oct.  30,  in 
the  house  of  one  Stephen  Medcalf  in  Loudon,  in  tbe  pre-^ 
sence  of  William  Standbib,  public  nc^ary  and  registrar  of 
the  university,  and  others. 

In  the  conduct  of  his  diocese,  it  appears  that  be  differed 
in  many  respects  from  his  metropolitan  archbishop  Parker, 
and  exerted  bis  authority  towards  tbe  puritans  with  such 
moderation,  as  was  accounted  ^^  great  remissness."  This 
produced  frequent  remonstrances  on  the  part  of  tbe  arch- 
bishop. To  one  of  the  last  of  these  recorded  l^  Strype,* 
our  prelate  returned  for  answer,  ^^  What  I  am  and  what 
my  doings  are,  cannot  be  hidden.  And  therefore  do  refet' 
myself  to  the  reports  not  of  any  one,  but  of  all  severally. 
This  I  find  by  good  proof,  that  the  rough  and  austere, 
manner  of  ruling  doth  the  least  good.  And  on  the  other 
part,  the  contrary  hath  and  doth  daily  reclaim  and  win 
divers.  And  therefore  do  I  chuse  rather  to  continue  my 
accustomed  and  natural  form  and  manner,  which  I  know, 
how  it  hath  aiid  doth  work,  than  with  others  by  rigour  and 
extremity  to  over-rule,"  &c. 

Strype»  on  the  authority  of  his  contemporary  Becaij^^' 
who  knew  him  well,  gives  him  this  character  :  '^  He  war 
naturally  somewhat  hasty ;  but  soon  appeased  again.  He 
would  speak  his  mind  freely,  and  fear  none  in  a  good 
Qause.  A  true  friend,  and  easily  reconciled  to  any 
against  whom  be  had  taken  a  displeasure.  He  appointed: 
in  his  diocese  (that  was  %ge)  for  the  better  oversight 
thereof,  ten  commissaries^  to  whom  he,  as  occasion  servied, 
il^nt  instructions  for  the.  regulation  and  ordef  of  bis  iffe^' 


P  A  R  K  H  U  H  S  T.  129 

He  could  bave  been  willing  lo  allow  a  liberty  of  officiating 
in  the  church,  to  such  as  could  not  conform  to  some  of  the 
ceremonies  of  it,  looking  upon  them  as  indifferent  matters ; 
but  upon  command  from  aboye,  he  readily  obeyed  his 
prince's  and  metropolitan's  authority.  He  was  a  friend  to 
frophesjfes ;  that  is,  to  the  meetings  of  the  ministers  in 
several  appointed  parish  churches  in  his  diocese,  as  in  St. 
Edmund's  Bury,  &c.  to  confer  together  about  the  inter- 
pretation and  sense  of  the  scriptures.  But  the  queen  for- 
bidding it,  upon  some  abuses  thereof,  the  archbishop  sig- 
nified to  him  her  will,  and  he  in  obedience  sent  to  his 
archdeacons  and  commissariesi,  to  have  them  forborn  for 
the  future.''  *'  As  for  his  life  and  conversation,  it  was 
such  as  might  be  counted  a  mirror  of  virtue ;  wherein  ap- 
peared nothing  but' what  was  good  and  godly;  an  example 
to  the  flock  in  righteousness,  in  faith,  in  love,  in  peaces 
in  -wordy  in  purity.  He  preached  diligently,  and  exhorted 
the  people  that  came  to  him.  He  was  a  learned  man,  as 
well  in  respect  of  human  learning/  as  divine,  well  seen  in 
the  sacred  Scriptures;  an  earnest 'pro  test  ant,  and  lover  of 
sincere  religion ;  an  excellent  bishop, .  a  faithful  pastor, 
and  aAvorthy  example  to  all  spiritual  ministers  in  his  dio- 
cese, both  for  doctrine,  life,  and  hospitality."  This  cha- 
racter is  confirmed  by  Bale,  in  the  dedication  to  Parkhurst^ 
of  his  <<  Reliques  of  Rome,"  printed  in  1563. 
.  Dr.  Parkhurst  died  Feb.  2,  1574,  and  was  buried  in  the 
nave  of  the  cathedral  of  Norwich,  on  the  south  side  be- 
tween  the  eighth  and  ninth  pillars.  Against  the  west  part 
of  the  latter  was  a  monument,  now  inuch  mutilated ;  his 
figure  iu  a  gown  and  square  cap,  and  the  inscription,  being 
taken  away  during  the  rebellion,  with  the  epitaph,  which 
is  still  on  record  in  Blomefield's  History  of  Norwich. 

His  works  bave  not  mncb  connexion  with  his  profession, 
ail,  except  his  letters,  being  Latin  poetry  on  sundry  oc*- 
casions.  He  was. indeed  one  x)f  the  translators  of  the  Bi- 
shops' Bible,  of  which  bis  share  was  the  Apocrypha  from 
the  book  of  Wisdom  to  the  end ;  but  he  is  best  known  to 
the  curious  by  his  ^'  Ludicra,  sive  £pigrammata  juvenilia," 
In  1572  he  sent  a  copy  of  thes^to  his  old  and  dear  friend 
Dr.  Wilson,  master  of  St.  Catherine's,  as  a  new-year's  gift, 
and  styled  them  his  ^^  good,  godly,  and  pleasant  epigrams;" 
and  they  were  in  the  following  year  printed  by  Day,  in  u 
small  4to  volume*  Why  Anthony  Wood  should  give  thd 
report  that  these  epigrams  were  as  mdecent  as  Martial's, 

Vol.  XXIV.  K 


1  sa  P  A  B  K  H  U  R  S  T. 

wbeo  he  adds  at  the  same  time  that  *<  be  cannot  perceive 
it»^'  seems  unaccountable ;  but  even  Blomefield  has  adopted 
this  fierlse  accusation.  Many  of  them  appear  to  have  been 
first  printed  at  Zurich  in  15689  whejce  they  were  written^ 
and  republished  now.  Among  the  commenda;iory  verses 
is  a  copy  by  dean  Nowell,  to  whom  two  of  the  epigrams 
are:  addressed,  and -who  was  not  likdy  to  have  comsiended 
indecencies,  if  we  could  sn[^K>se  our  pious  prelate  capable 
of  publishing  such.  ^^  His  epigrams,'^  says  archdeacon 
Churton,  ^'affcM-ding  notices  of  persons  and  things  not 
elsewhere  easily  found,  arie  on  the  Grecian  rather  than  the 
Rotnan  model,  not  sparkling  with  wit,  but  grave  and  di>- 
dactic.V  The  other  works  attributed  to  bishop  Parkhurst 
are,  1.  ^^  £pigrammata  in  mortem  duorom  fratrum  Suffol-- 
oiensium,  Caroli  et  Henrici  Brandon,'*  Lond*  1552,  4to. 
These  were  the  sons  of  Charles  Brandon,  duke  of  Suffolk^ 
and  died  of  the  swearing-sickness.  2.  ^^  Epigrammata 
secia,"  ibid.  1560,  which  seem  to  be  a  part  of  bis  larger 
collection  ;  and  some  of  them  had  been  long  before  pub^ 
liafaed  at  Strasburgb,  alpng  with  Shepreve's  ^*  Summa  et  . 
synopsis  Nov.  Test,  distichis  ducentis  sexagiiita  compre*^* 
bensa^"  3.  ^*  Vita  Christi,  carm.  LaL  in  lib.  precum  pri- 
vat."  ibid.  1578.  He  also  addressed  Henry  VIII.  and 
qjaeen  Catherine  in  some  complimentary  verses,  wbein  they 
were  about  to  Visit  Oxford  in  1 543 ;  and  there  is  ao  epkapb^ 
of  his  on  queen  Catherine  in  the  chiq)el  of  Sudtey-castie» 
Several  of  his  letters  )have  been  published  by  Strype^  and- 
more  in  MS.  are  in  the  British  Miiseum.^ 

PARKHURST  (John),  a  late  learned  divine  and  lexi<- 
cograpber^  was  the  second  son  of  John  Parkhurst,  esq^  of 
Catesby,  in  Nortbampt6nsbire,  by  Ricarda  Dormer,  daugh- 
ter of  judge  Dormer.  He  was  born  in  June  172,9,  was 
educated  ^t  Rugby  school  in  Warwickshire,  and  was  after- 
wards of  Clar^-^ball^  Cambridge^  where  he  took  his  degr^- 
of  B.  A.  in  174S,  that  jof  M.  A.  in  1^512,  and  was  many 
years  fellow,  of  his  college.  Being  a  younger  brother,  he 
waa  intended  for  the  church,  and  entered  into  ovders,  but^ 
becoming  heir  to  a  very  considerable  estate,  he  was  re^  ' 
lieved  from  the 'Usual  anxieties  respecting  preferment,  and 

was,  now  a  patron  himself.     Still  he  continued  to  cultivate 

^         ■         % 

1  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  1,  new  edit. — ^.Tanner  and  Bale.— Strype'fi  AQoals.— Stnrpe's 
Parrkef,  |>,  67.  106,  101.  192.  209.  246—8.  310.  335.  t548.  368.  450.  452.  455. 
460.  480.--JLif(B  ot  Jewell. -^Bloinefleld's  Norwich. ^ Neat's  PiirUa«s<i—Arch»o* 

logia,ro!.  IX.— Churtou's  Life  of  Noweti, — Eeloe's  AneCjdQiet,  Tol.  11. 


P  A  B  K  H  U  R  S  T.  131 

the  fttidie»  becoming  a  clergjrman ;  and  in  the  capacity  o£ 
a  curate,  but  without  any  salary,  he  long  did  the  duty, 
with  exemplary  diligence  and  zeal,  in  bis  own  chapel  at 
Catesby,  which,  after* the  demolition  of  the  church  of  ther 
nunnery  there,  served  as  a  parisb-church,  of  which' also  be 
was  the  patron.  When  several  years  after,  in  1784,  it  fell 
to  bi$  lot  to  exercise  the  right  of  presentation,  he  presented 
to  the  vicarage  of  Epsom  in  Surrey,  the  late  rev.  Jonathan 
Boucher  (see  BouCHBl),  as  one  who  in  his  opinion  had 
given  the  best  proofs  of  his  having  a  due  sense  of  the 
duties  of  his  office.  It  was  by  marriage  be  bad  become 
patron  of  this  living,  having  in  1754  married  Susanna 
Myster,  daughter,  and,  we  believe,  heiress  of  John  Myster, 
esq.  Of  Epsom. 

-  In  17^3  he  began  his  career  of  authorship,^  by  publish- 
ing in  9vo,  ^^  Aisetious  and  friendly  Address  to  the  rev. 
Jdbn  Wesley,  in  relation  to  a  principal  doctrine  advanced 
and  maintained  by  him  and  his  assistants."  This  doctrine 
is  what  is  called  the  faith  of  assurance,  which  Mr.  Park-* 
huri^t  objects  to^  in  the  maooer  stated  by  Wesley,  as  lead<) 
ittg  to  presumption  and  an  uncharitable  spirit.  Mr.  Park* 
burst's  next  publication  was  of  jnote  importance,  ^<  An 
Hebrew  and  English  Lexicon,  without  points;  to  which  is 
added,  a  methodical  Hebrew  grammar,  without  points, 
adapted  to  the  use  of  learners,"  1762,  4to.  To  attempt  a 
vindication  of  all  the  etymological  and  philosophical  dis^ 
quisitions  scattered  through  this  dictionary,  would  be  very 
fruitless;  but  it  is  not  perhaps  too  much  to  say,  tbat  we 
have  nothing  of  the  kind  equal  to  it  in  the  Ekiglish  lan^- 
guage.  *  The  author  continued  to  correct  and  improve  it^ 
trough  various  editions,  the  last  of  which  was  publish^ 
ed  in  1813.  But  his  philological  studies  were  not  .con- 
fined  to  the  Hebrew  language ;  for  be  published  a  *^  Greek 
and  Engliah  Leiicou,*'  with  a  grammar,  17fi9,  4u>,  which 
ba^  Jikewise  gone  t^irongh  many  editions,  tbe  first  of  whiob, 
in  octavo^  the  form  in  which  they  are  now  printed,  was 
ftuperintended  by  his  learned  daughter,  the  wife  of  i^he  rev. 
J^^epb  TlMUnas.  The  continued  demaiKl  for  both  these 
l0smiQ»%  seems  to  be  a  sufficient  proof  of  their  merit;  and 
th^MT  usefulflie&s  to  biblLoal  students  has  indeed  been  gene- 
/aUy  acknowledged. 

.  Mr.' ParkUurst*$  only  remaining  publication  was  eoititled, 
'^  The  Divinity  and  Pne-«xtstenc;e  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour. 
Jeaiks  Christ,  demonstrated  from  Scripture ;  in  answer  to 

K  2 


132  P  A  R  K  H  U  R  S  T. 

the  first  section  of  Dr.  Priestley's  Introduction  to  the  history  * 
of  early  opinions  concerning  Jesus  Christ ;  together  witb 
strictures  on  some  other  parts  of  the  work,  and  a  postscript 
relating  to  a  late  publication  of  Mr.  Gilbert  Wakefield/' 
1787,  8vo.  This  work  was  very  generally  regarded  a»' 
completely  performing  all  that  its  title-page  promised; 
and  accordingly  the  whole  edition  was  soon  sold  off.  A 
very  unsatisfactory  answer  was,  however,  attempted  by 
Dr.  Priestley,  in  "A  Letter  to  Dr.  Home,'*  &c. 

Mr.  Parkburst  died  at  Epsom  in  Surrey,  March  21,  17d7. 
He  was  a  man  of  very  extraordinary  independency  of 
mind  and  firmness  of  principle.  In  early  life,  along  with 
many  other  men  of  distinguished  learning,  it  was  objected 
to  him  that  he  was  a  Hutchinsonian  ;  and  this  has  been 
given  as  a  reason  for  his  want  of  preferment.  Abetter 
reason,  however,  may  be  found  in  the  circumstances  of 
bis  acquisition  of  property,  which  rendered  him  indepen^ 
dent,  and  his  love  of  retirement,  which  was  uniform.  He 
always  gave  less  of  his  time  to  the  ordinary  interruptions 
of  life  than  is  common.  In  an  hospitable,  friendly,  and 
pleasant  neighbourhood,  he  visited  little,  alleging  th^t  such 
a  course  of  life  neither  suited  his  temper,  bis  healthy  or 
brs  studies.  Such  a  man  was  not  likely  to  crowd  the  levee 
of  a  patron.  Yet  he  was  of  sociable  manners;  and  bis 
conversation  always  instructive,  often  deligrhtful  'y  for  has 
stores  of  knowledge  were  so  large,  that  he  has  often  beeti 
called  a  walking  library.  Like  many  other  men  of  infirm 
and  sickly  frames,  he  was  occasionally  irritable  and  quick, 
warm  and  earnest  in  his  resentments,  though  never  unfor- 
giving. Few  men,  upon  the  whole,  have  passed  through 
a  long  life  more  at  peace  with  their  neighbours,  more  re* 
spected  by  men  of  learning,  more  beloved  by  their  friends^ 
or  mere  honoured  by  their  family. 

'  Of  his  strict  sense  of  justice,  the  following  has  been  re- 
'  lated  ^  a  very  striking  instance.  One  of  bi|  tenants  fall^ 
ing  behind-hand  in  the  payment  of  bis  rent,  wluch  was 
SOOL  per  annum,  it  was  repitiserited  to  bis  landlord  that  it 
was  owing  to  bis  being  over*rented.  This  being  believed 
to  be  tbe  case,  a  new  valuation  was  made  ^  and  it  was  then 
agreed,  that,  for  the  future,  the  rent  should  not  be  more 
than  450/.  Many  in  his  situation  would  have  stopped  here, 
iand  considered  the  sacrifice  as  sufficient.  Mr.  Parkburst, 
.  however,  justly  inferring  that  if  the  farm*  was  then  tdo 
dear,   it  must  necessiarily  have  been,  always    too  dear,. 


P  A  R  K  H  U  R  S  T-  13$ 

unasked^  and  of  his  own  accord,  immediately  stracfc  off 
60L  from  the  commencement  of  the  lease,  and  iastantly 
refunded  all  that  he  had  received  more  than  450/. 

Mr.  Parkhurst  was  in  his  person  rather  below  the  middle 
size,  but  remarkably  upright,  and  firm  in  his  gait  He 
was  throughout  life  of  a  sickly  habit ;  and  his  leading  a  life 
8o  remarkably  studious  and  sedentary  (it  having,  for  many 
years,  been  his  constant  practice  to  rise  at  five,  and,  in 
winter  to  light  his  own. fire),  to  the  v^ry  verge  of  David's 
limits  of  the  life  of  man,  is  a  consolatory  proof  to  men  of 
similar  habits,  how  much,  under  many  disadvantages,  may 
still  be  effected  by  strict  temperance  and  a  careful  regimen. 

Mr.  Parkhurst^s  first  wife  died  in  1759,  leaving  him  a 
daughter,  now  the  widow  of  the  rev.  James  Altham,  and 
two  SODS,  both  since  dead.  In  1761  he  married  again 
Milicent  Northey,  .daughter  of  Thomas  Northey,  esq.  by 
whom  he  had  the  daughter,  Mrs.  Thomas,  whom  we  have 
already  mentioned.  This  lady  having  received,  under  the 
immediate  inspection  of  her  learned  and  piou$  father,  an 
.education. of  the  first  order,  acquired  a  degree  of  classical 
knowledge  rarely  to  be  met  with  in  the  female  world. 
She  wrote  a  very  affectionate  memorial  of  her  father!8 
worth,  which  is  e^ngraven  over  his  remains  in  Epsom 
church.  Her  mother,  the  second  Mrs^  Parkhurst,  died  in 
1800.' 

PARKINS  (John),  one  of  our  early  law-writers,  was 
born  of  a  genteel  family,  and  educated  at  Oxford,  but 
left  it  without  a  degree,  and  became  a  student  of  the  Inner 
Temple,  where,  Wood  says,  he  n^ade  wonderful  proficiency 
in  the  common  law.  After  being  called  to  the  bar,  be 
became  eminent  in  his  profession,,  aqd  had  great  practice 
as  a  cbamber-^counsel.  Whether  be  was  ever  a  reader  of 
his  inn,  or  a  bencher,  seems  doubtful.  He  died,  accord- 
ing to.  Pus,  in  1544,  but  according  to  Bale,  in  1545,  and 
is  supposed  to  have  been  buried  in  the  Temple  church. 
He  wrote,  in  Norman  French  (but  Wood  gives  the  title  in 
Latin),  ^*  Perutilis  Tractatus ;  sive  explanatio  quorundam 
capitulorum  vaide  necessaria,*'  Lood.  1530,  a  work,  which 
.must  have  answered  its  character  of  ^^  valde  necesaaria,'^ 
as.it  was  reprinted  in  1532,  1541,  1545,  1567,  1597^  I6OI9 
and  1639.  There  were  also,  two  English  translations,  of 
.  1642  and  1657^  all  in  8vo.* 

>  Gent.  Ma;,  vols.  LXVII.  tXX, — ^^Dr.  Gleig's  Sapplement  to  the  Eocyclojp. 
Brit.  3  Tannery  Bale,  and  Pit>.— Atb.  Ox.  vol.  I. 


184  I»  A  R  K  1  N  S  ON. 

PARKINSON  (JoHN)^  a  celebrated  old  herbaKst;  wa$ 
barn  in  1567,  and  bred  up  as  a  London  apothecary,  ill 
which  profession  he  became  eminent,  and  was  it  length 
appointed  apothecary  to  king  James  I.  King  Charles  I. 
afterwards  conferred  upon  him  the  title  of  Botamcus  R^giks 
Primaritis,  A  great  share  of  bi&  attention^  during. a  long 
life,  was  devoted  to  the  study  of  plants.  He  had  a  garden 
well  stored  with  rarities,  and  he  bestowed  equal  pottee 
upon  the  curiosities  of  ihe  flower-garden,  and  on  thena* 
iiire  productions  of  hit»  own  and  other  countries,  embracing 
their  literary  history^  as  well  as  their  practical  investiga-i 
tion. 

His  first  publication  was  his  *^  Paradisi  in  Sole  Paradi- 
sus  terrestris,  or  a  choice  Garden  of  all  sorts  of  Rarest 
Flo.weri,  &c. ;  to  which  is  annexed  a  Kitchen  Garden,"  &c. 
This  was  primed  at  London,  anno  162d,  in  a  folio  of  612 
pages.  A  second  edition,  **  much  corrected  and  enlarged,'^ 
appeared  in  1656,  after  the  decease  of  the  author.  Both 
editions  are  dedicated  '^  to  the  Qiueen's  most  excellent 
Majesty,' •  which  could  hardly  have  been,  as  Dr.  Pulteney 
supposed,  qiieen  Elizabeth;  but  rather  the  queen  of 
Charles  L ;  and  it  is  to  the  honour  of  tho^e  who  edited  the 
new  impression,  in  1656,  that  this  dedication  was  not  then 
suppressed.  About  a  thousand  plants,  either  species  or 
varieties,  are  described  in  this  book,  of  which  780  are 
figured,  in  wood  cuts,  partly  copied  frd^i  Clusius  and 
Lobel, .  partly  original,  but  all  of  them  eoarse  and  stifF, 
though  sometimes  expressive.  Numerous  remarks  are  in- 
terspersed, respecting  the  botanical  history  or  mediqal  vir- 
tues of  the  plants,  as  well  as  their  culture ;  but  the  latter 
subject  is,  for  the  most  part,  given  in  the  introductory 
chapters,  which  display  no  small  degree  of  intelligence 
and  experience.  This  book  affords  a  very  correct  and 
pleasing  idea  of  the  gardens  of  our  ancestors,  at  the  time 
it  was  written  -,  and  has  been  considered,  by  the  learned 
authors  of  the  f'  Hortus  Kewensis,"  unequivocal  authority 
as  to  the  time  when  any  particular  species  was  introduced 
or  cultivated  among  us.  Though  our  kitchen-gardens  had 
not  arrived  at  such  perfection  as  they  attained  in  king 
William^s  days,  and  have  since  preserved,,  there  is  reason 
to  think. the  science  of  horticulture  declined  considerably 
after  the  time  of  Parkinson,  previous  to  its  restoration  at 
the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century.  It  is  no  small  praise 
to  Parkinson's  work,  that  the  late  Mr.  Curtis  held  it  in  parti-^ 


PARKINSON.  135 

cubir  escalation,  always  citing  it  in  his  Maga2ine  with  pe- 
culiar pleasure  and  respect. 

In  1640  our  author  published  his  principal  work,  the 
^^  Theatrum  Botanicum,  or  Theatre  of  Plants,  or  an  Herbal 
of  large  extent;"  &c.  a  ponderous  folio  of  1746'page8,  with 
innumerable  wooden  cuts.  This  work  and  the  Herbal  of 
Glhrarde  were  t^ie  two  main  pillars  of  botany  in  England 
till  the  time  of.  Ray ;  one  or  other,  or  bod),  being  the  in- 
exbanstibie  resource  of  all  who  had  any  love  for  plants,  or 
any  interest  in  inquiring  into  their  qualities. «  Of  th^se  two 
writers  it  is  justly  obsierved  that  Parkinson  was  by  far  the 
most  original  and  the  most  copious,  but  his  cuts  being  of 
▼astly  inferior  merit  to  those  admirable  ones  prepared  for 
Conrad  Gesner,  with  which  Gerarde  had  the  means  of 
adorning  his  publication,  the  latter  has  greatly  prevailed 
in  popularity,  as  a  book  of  reference.  It  is  indeed  chiefly 
for  the  figures  that  we  ncfw  cit^  these ^vorks.  Nrce.dis- 
tinctiops  of  species,  or  any  discrimination  between  species 
and  Varieties,  are  not  to  be  expected ;  still  less,  any  ideas 
of  classification  or  scientific  arrangement,  -worthy  a  mo- 
inent^s  consideration  or  comparison.  It  is  not  to  be  won- 
dered at  if  these  great  i?i^orks  contain  some  hundreds  of 
repetitions,  when  we  consider  how  obscurely  many  [Hants 
had  been  described,  or  even  figured,  by  previous  authors ; 
insomuch  that  it  was  in  many  tases  next  to  impossible  to 
discover  whether  a  given  plant  had  been  described  before. 
Parkinson,  however,  is  entitled  to  superior  praise  on  this 
head,  having  taken  all  possible  pains  to  avoid  such  mistakes, 
by  his  deep  study  of  synonyms.  Some  papers  of  Lobel 
are  said  to  have  fallen  into  the  hands  of  Parkinson^  after 
the  death  of  the  former,  which  proved  of  use  to  his  under- 
taking ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  implicitly  confided 
in  such,  any  more  than  in  previously  printed  authorities, 
without  a  due  investigation,  and  therefore  they  became  in 
some  measure  his  own. 

The  time  of  Parkinson's  decease  is  not  known,  but  he 
appears  lb  have  been  living  when  his  Herbal  was  published, 
^n  1640,  at  which  period  he  was,  if  Dr.  Pulteney's  date  of 
his  birth  he  correct,  seventy-^three  years  old.  Nothing  is 
-recordi^d  of  his  family.  Some  copies,  of .  his  "  Paradjsus" 
have  an  engraved  portrait  of  the  author,  done  in  his  sixty- 
seconayear;  and  there  is  a  small  oval  one  in  the  title-page 
of  bis  ^'  Herbal,  or  Theatrum  Botanicum.'*  *  . 

1  Pulteney's  Sketches,  voL  I.— R«et'»  Cyctopttdii. 


iSg  PA  RMENIDE3. 

PARMENIDES,  a  philosopher  of  the  Eleatic  sect,  flon*. 
rished  about  the  sixty-ninth  olympiad,  or  504  B.  C.  Some 
have  supposed  he  was  a  pupil  of  Anaximander.  He  was, 
however,  at  first  a. man  of  property  and  Consequence  in 
civil  life,  until  Diocbetas,  a  Pythagorean,  introduced  him 
into  the  recesses  of  philosophy.  Cebes,  in>  bis  allegorical 
table,  speaks  of  Parmenides  as  an  eminent  pattern  of  Virtue. 
He  wrote  the  doctrines  of  his  school  in  verses,  of  which  a 
few  fragments  still  remain  in  the  collection  ^^  Poesis  Pfat« 
losopbica,'*  by  Henry  Stephens,  Paris,  1573,  but  insuffi* 
cient  to  explain  his  system  of  philosophy.  Plato,  in  the 
dialogue  which  bears  the  name  of  Parmenides,  professes 
to  represent  his  tenets,  but  confounds  them  with  his  own. 
From  the  scattered  reports  of  the  ancients,  Brucker  has 
compiled  the  following  Abstract  of  the  philosophy  of  Par* 
menides. 

Philosophy  is  two-fdid,  that  which  follows  the  report  ef 
the  senses,  and  that  which  is  according  to  reason  and  truth. 
The  former  treats  of  the  appearances  of  sensible  objects^ 
the  latter  considers  the  abstract  nature  of  things,  and  in« 
quires  into  the  constitution  of  the  universe.     Abstract  phi- 
losophy teaches  that  from  nothing  nothing  can  proceed. 
The  universe  is  one,   immoveable,    immutable,  eternal, 
and  of  a  spherical  form.    Whatever  is  not  comprehended 
in  the  universe,  has  no  real  existence.    Nothing  in  nature 
is  either  produced  or  destroyed,  but  merely  appears  to  be 
so  to  the  senses.     Physical  philosophy  teaches  that  the 
principles  of  things  are  heat  and  cold,  or  fire  and  earth,  of 
which  the  former  is  the  efficient,  the.  latter  the  material 
cause ;  that  the  earth  is  spherical,  and  placed  in  the  center, 
being  exactly  balanced  by  its  distance  from  the  heavens, 
so  that  there  is  no  cause  why  it  should  move  one  way  ra- 
ther than  another;  that  the  firs)  men  were  produced  from 
mud,  by  the  action  of  heat  upon  cold  ;  that  the  frame  of 
the  world  is  liable  to  decay,  but  the  universe  itself  remains 
the  same ;  and  that  the  chief  seat  of  the  soul  is  the  heart. 
Brucker  adds,  that  there  is  a  near  resemblance  between 
the  metaphysical  doctrine  of  Parmenides  and  Xenophanes, 
but  that  Parmenides  adhered  more  strictly  to  the  Pytha* 
gorean  doctrine.    Telesius  revived  the  doctrine  of  Par-> 
menides  in  the  sixteenth  century.^ 

PARMENTIER  (John),  a   French  author  and  poet,^ 
whose  works  are  now  scarce,  as  well  as  obsolete,  was  orU. 

\  Brucker. — Fabric.  Bibl.  Gr»c.  kc 


P  A  R  M  E  N  T  I  E  R.  137 

ginally  a  merchant  at  Dieppe^  where  he  was  born  in  14d4, 
and  b^caIne  famous  by  means  of  his  voyagesi  and  his  taste 
for  the  sciences.  He  died  in  the  island  of  Sumatra,  A.  D* 
1j5  30,  being  then  only  thirty-six.  The  collection  of  his 
verses  in  4to,  printed  in  1536,  is  entitled  **  Description 
nouvelle^  des .  Dignit^s  de  ce  Monde*  et  de  la  Dignity  de 
'Pfaomme,  compos^e  en  rHhme  Frangoise  et  en  maniere 
d'exhortatiqn,  par  Jean  Parmentier :  avec  plusieur  chantii 
Royaulx,  et  une  Morality  a  I'Honneur  de  la  Vierge,  mise 
par  personaiges ;  plus  la  d^ploration  sur  la  mort  dudit  Par* 
mentier  et  son  frere,.  compos6e  par  Pierre  Crignon.** 
This  book  is  very  rare.  Crignon,  who  published  it,  was 
Parmentier^s  particular  friend,  and  thus  speaks  of  him : 
**  From  the  year  1522,  he  had  applied  to  the  practice  of 
cosmography,  on  the  great  fluctuations  of  the  sea ;  he  be- 
came very  profound  in  astrology ;  he  composed  several 
maps,  spherical  and  plain,  which  have  been  used  with 
-success  in  navigation.  He  was  a  man  worthy  to  be  known 
by  all  the  learned  ;  and  capable,  if  he  had  lived,  of  doing 
honour  to  his  country  by  great  enterprises.  He  was  the 
.first  pilot  who  conducted  vessels  to  the  Brasils,  and  the 
•  first  Frenchnian  who  discovered  the.  Indies,  as  far  as  the 
inland  Samothra  or  Sumatra,  named  Taprobane  by  the  an- 
cients. He  reckoned  also  upon  going  to  the  Moluccas ; 
and  b^  has  toiid  me  several  times,  that  when  he  should  re- 
turn to  Fjfance,  his  intention  was  to  seek  a  passage  to  the 
North,  and  to  make  disc5veries  from  thence,  to  the  South.'* 
Another  work  by  him  i3  entitled  ^'  Moralit^s  tres-excel- 
lens  en  rhonneqr  de  la  benoiste  Vierge  Marie ;  mise  e^ 
rime  Frangoise  et  en  personnaiges,  par  Jehan  Parmentier,'' 
Paris,  1 5 3 1 , 4 to,  black  letter.  This,  also  is  extremely  scarce, 
but  is  reprinted  in  the  **  Description  nouvelle,"  &c.^ 

PARMIGIANO  (II),  whose  family  naoie  was  Francis 
Mazzuoli,  is  more  generally  called  Pakmigiano,  from 
Parma,  where  he  was.  bom  in  1503.  He.studied  under  two 
.uncles,  Micbele  and  Philip,  but  the  chief  model  of  his 
imitation  was  Correggio,  from  whose  works,  compared  with 
those  of  Michael  Angelo,  Raphael,  and  Julio,  he  formed  that 
peculiar,  style  .for  which  he  is  celebrated.  He  displayed 
^is  natural  genius  for  painting  so  very  early,  that  at  six- 
teen be  is  said  to  have  produced  designs  which  would  have 
^one  honour  to  an  experienced  painter.     His  first  public 

1  Diet.  Hist. — Brujiet  M^auel  da  Xibrair^^ 


138  PARMIGIANO. 

\ 

>^orky  the  St.  Eostacfaius,  iv  the  church  of  St^  PetroniOB^ 
SB  Bolog-na,^  wi^s  done  when  be  was  a  boy.  In  1527,  when 
Some  was  sacked  by  the  emperor  Charles  V.  Parmigiano 
was  found,  like  Protogenes  at  Rhodes,  so  intent  updh  his 
work  as  not  to  notice  the  confiisioo  of  the  day.  The  e^ent 
is  variously  reUited  ;  some  say  that  he  escaped,  like  the  an- 
cient artist,  from  all  violence,  by  the  admiration  of  the 
soldiers*;  others,  that  he  was  plundered  by  them  of  kb 
pictures,  though  his  person  was  safe ;  the  first  party  who 
came'  taking  only  a  few,  while  those  who  followed  swept 
away  the  rest.  His  turn  for  music,  and  particularly  Ids 
talent  for  playing  on  the  lute,  in  some  degree  seduced  him 
from  his  principal  pursuit ;  and  Vasari  says  hi^  was  much 
diverted  from  bis  art  by  the  quackery  of  the  alchymists ; 
but  this  fact  has  by  some  writers  been  questioned.  He 
died  of  a  violent  fever,  in  1 540,  at  the  early  age  of  36.  - 
'  The  ruling  features,  says  Mr.  Fuseli,  of  Parmigiano's 
style,  are  elegance  of  form,  grace  of  countenance,  con- 
trast in  attitude,  enchanting  qhiaro-scuro,  and  blandish- 
ments of  colou'r.  When  these  are  pure,  be  is  ininskable ; 
bat  his  elegance  is  often  stretched  to  excessive  slenderness^ 
hi^  grace  deformed  by  affectation,  contrast  driven  to  esc- 
Iravagance,  and  from  the  attempt  to  anticipate  the  beauties 
which  time  alone  can  give,  his  shade  presents  often  nothing 
but  a  pitchy  m^ss,  and  his  lights  a  faded  bloom.  The 
taste  of  Parmigiano  was  exquisite,  but  it  led  him  iliol^e'to 
imitate  the  effects  than  the  principles  of  his  .ttiasters ;  with 
less  comprehension  than  ardour,  he  adopted  the  grace  of 
Raphael,  the  contrasts  of  Michael  Angelo^  ti[ie  harmony  of 
Correggio,  without  adverting  that  they  were  fouiided  oti 
propriety,  energy,  and  grandeur  of  conception,  and  the 
permanent  principles  of  chiaro-scuro  ;  hence  the  cautious 
precept  of  Agostino  Caracci,  which  confines  his  pupil  to  a 
little  of  Parmigiano^s  grace. 

Parmigiano  was  a  learned  designer;  to  his  depth  in  de- 
sign we  mu^t  ascribe  that  freedom  of  execution,  those  de- 
cided strokes  of  his  pencil,  which  Albano  calls  divine,  and 
which  add  grace  to  the  finish  of  his  pictures ;  they  have 
not,  indeed,  all  equal  **  impasto^*  of  colour^  nor  equftl 
effect,  though  soilde,  for  the  amOre  with  Whitib  ib^  are 

'*  It  is  said  that  at  this  dangerous  quis  of  Aberoorn  .purchased  in  Italjr 
time  he  was  employed  on  the  famous  for  1500/.  and  sold  to  Mr.  Davis,  of 
picture  of  the  Vision^  which  the  mar-     Bristol,  in  1809,  for  3000  guineas. 


P  A  It  M  I  G  r  A  N  O.  139 

inducted,  haFe  been  ascribed  to  €onreggio ;  such  is  the 
Cupid  scooping  his  bovr,  with  the  two  infants  at  his  feet^ 
one  laughing,  the  other  crying,  of  which  thiere  are  scTeral 
repetitions.  We  see  indeed,  some  of  the  pictures  of  Par« 
migiano  so  often  repeated,  that  though  we  may  grant  them 
the  respect  due  to  age,  we  can  scarcely  allow  them  all  the 
praise  of  originality.  Such  is,  among  his  lesser  works, 
the  picture  of  the  Madonna  with  the  Infant,  St,  John  and 
St*  Catherine,  and  the  bead  of  St.  Zaocbaria,  or  some 
other  sainted  elder,  in  the  fore-ground ;  its  duplicates  are 
nearly  spread  over  every  gallery  of  Italy.  His  altar-pieces 
are  not  numerous,  and  the  most  valued  of  them  is  perhaps 
that  of  St.  Marguerita,  in  Bologna,  a  composition  rich  in 
figures,  contemplated  with  admiration,  and  studied  by  the 
Csu^cci;  Guido  even  preferred  it  to  the 'St.  Cecilia  of 
Raphael.  The  last  of  his  works  is  the  '^  Moses  breaking 
the  Tables,"  at  Parma,  in  which,  says  sir  Joshua  Reynolds, 
we  are. at  a  loss  which  to  admire  most,  the  correctness  of 
drawing,  or  the  grandeur  of  the  conception.  The  etchings 
of  Parmigiano,  models  of  freedom,  taste,  and  delicacy,  are 
universally  known. 

Parmigiano  had  u  cousin  and  pupil,  G.  Maz^uoli;  who 
JB  little  known  beyond  Parma  and  its  districts,  though  for 
f^  impasto,"  and  the  whole  mystery  of  colour,  he  has  few 
equals.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  several  pictures 
ascribed  to  Francis,  especially  those  of  a  stronger  atid 
gayer  tone,  have  been  painted  by  this  artist.  He  was 
inore  attacjbed  to  the  style  of  Correggio  than  Francis^  and 
seized  its  character  with  great  felicity  in  the  Nuptials  of 
St.  Catherine,  in  the  church  del  Carmine.  He  excelled 
in  pel'spective,  and  in  the  Last  Supper,  in  the  refectory  of 
8.  Giovanni,  placed  and  painted  a  colonnade  with  all  the 
illusion  of  Pozzo.  To  the  most  harmonious  chiaro-scuro, 
he  added  grandeur,  variety,  vivacity,  in  fresco.  None  of 
his  fellow  artists  equalled  him  in  copiousness,  fertility,  and 
execution;  and  tb  these  perhaps  we  may  ascribe  the  in-* 
equality  perceptible  in  his  works.  He  flourished  about 
1580,  and  had  a  son  Alexander,  who  painted  in  the  dome 
of  Parma,  in  1571.  He  was  a  feeble  imitator  of  the  fa-* 
mily  style.^  . 

PARNELL  (Thomas),  a  very  pleasing  English  poet, 
was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  settled  for  some 

•  •' 

1  Argenville,  vol.  II,— Fiikin^n,  by  Fuseli. — Reynolds's  Works,  fol  II.  p.  194» 


140  P  A  R  N  E  L  L. 

centuries  at  Congleton,  in  Cheshire.  His  fatbier,  of  tfa^ 
same  name,  was  attached  to  the  republican  party  in  tb^ 
reign  of  Charles  I. ;  and  on  the  restoration  found  it  conve- 
nient to  go  over  to  Ireland,  carrying  with  him  a  large  per- 
sonal fortune,  with  which  he  purchased  estates  in  that 
kingdom.  These,  with  the  lands  he  had  in  Cheshire,  de- 
scended to  the  poet,  who  was  born  in  1679,  in  Dublin. 
In  this  city  he  was  educated,  and  entered  of  Trinity-col- 
lege, Dublin,  at  the  age  of  thirteen.  He  becaaie  M.  A« 
in  1700,  and  in  the  same  year  was  ordained  deacon,  al- 
though under  the  canonical  age,  by  a  dispensation  from 
the  primate.  Three  years  after  he  was  admitted  into 
priest's  orders,  and  in  1705,  Dr.  Ashe,  bishop  of  Clogher^ 
conferred  upon  him  the  archdeaconry  of  Clogber.  About 
the  same  time,  he  married  miss  Anne  Minchin,  an  amiable 
lady,  by  wbom  be  had  two  sons,  who  died  young,,  and  a 
daughter  who  long  survived  him. 

He  had  by  this  time  given  some  occasional  specimens 
of  his  poetical  talent,  but  his  ruling  passion  led  him  to  the 
enjoyments  of  social  life,  and  the  company  of  men  of  wit 
and  learning ;  and  as  thiis  was  a  taste  he  could  gratify  at 
home  but  in  a  very  small  degree,  he  contrived  many  e:c«* 
cursions  to  London,  where  he  became  a  favourite.  From 
some  letters  published  by  his  biographer.  Dr.  Goldsmith, 
we  learn  that  he  was  admired  for  his  talents  as  a  cdmpanioii, 
and  his  good  nature  as  a  man  ;  but  with  all  this,  it  is  ac- 
knowledged, that  his  temper  was  unequal,  and  that  he  wns 
always  too  much  elevated,  or  too  much  depressed*  It  is  added^ 
indeed,  that  he  was  sensible  of  this ;  but  bis  attempts  to 
remove  his  spleen  were  rather  singular.  Goldsmith  tells 
us,  that,  when  under  its  influence,  he  would  fly  with  all 
expedition  to  the  remote  parts  of  Ireland,  and  there  make 
out  a  gloomy  kind  of  satisfaction  in  giving  hideous  descrip- 
tions of  the  solitude  to  which  he  retired.  Having  tried 
this  imaginary  remedy  for  some  time,  he  used  to  collect 
his  revepues,  and  set  out  again  for  England  to  enjoy  the 
conversation  of  his  friends,  lord  Oxford,^  Swift,  Pope,  Ar- 
buthnot,  and  Gay.  With  Pope  he  had  a  more  than  usual 
share  of  intimacy.  Pope  highly  respected  biQ^j)  dn<l  they 
exchanged  opinions  on  each  other's  productions  with  free*^ 
dom  and  candour.  He  afforded  Pope  sonfie  assistance  in 
his  translation  of  Homer,  and  wrote  the  life  prefixed  to  it  | 
but  Parnell  was  a  very  bad  prose- writer,  and  Pope  had 
more  trouble  in  correcting  this  Ufe  than  it  would  have  cost 


P  A  R  N  E  L  L*  l;ll 

him  to  write  it  Being  intiniate  with  all  the  Scriblerus* 
tjribe,'  ^be  contributed  the  *^  Origin  of  the  Sciences  :**  and 
alao  wrote  the  ^  Life  of  Zoiius,''  as  a  satire  on  Dennis 
and  Theobald,  with  whom  the  club  had  long  been  at  va- 
riance. To  the  Spectator  and  Guardian  he  contributed  a 
few  papers  of  very  considerable  merit,  in  the  form  of 
**  Visions." 

.  It  seems  probable  that  he  bad  an  ambition  to  rise  by 
political  interest.  When  the  Whigs  were  ejected,  in  the 
end  of  queen  Anne's  reign,  he  was  persuaded  to  change 
his  party,  not  without  much  censure  from  those  whom  he 
forsook,  and  was  received  'by  the  earl  of  Oxford  and  the 
new. ministry  as  a  valuable  reinforcement  When  Oxford 
was  told  that  Dr.  Parnell  waited  among  the  crowd  in  the 
outer.room,  he  went,  by  the  persuasion  of  Swift,  with  bis 
treasurer's  staff  in  his  hand,  to  inquire  for  him,  and  to  bid 
him  welcome ;  and,  as  may  be  inferred  from  Pope's  dedi- 
cation, admitted  him  as  a  favourite  companion  to  his  con- 
vivial hours;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  all  this  was  fol- 
lowed by  preferment  Parnell  also,  conceiving  himself 
qnaltfied  to  become  a  popular  preacher,  displayed  his  elo- 
cution with  great  success  in  the  pulpits  of  London  ;  but 
tbe*  queen's  death  putting  an  end  to  his  expectations, 
abated  his  diligence,  and  from  that  time  he  fell  into  a  ha- 
bit of  intemperance,  which  greatly  injured  his  health.  The 
death  of  his  wife  is  said  to  have  first  driven  him  to  this 
miserable  resource. 

Having  been  warmly  recommended  by  Swift  to  arch- 
bishop King,  this  prelate  gave  him  a  prebend  in  1713,  and 
in  May  1716,  presented  him  to  the  vicarage  of  Finglass, 
in  the  diocese  of  Dublin,  worth  400/.  ayear.  <<  Such  no- 
tice," says  Dr;  Johnson,  *^  from  such  a  man,  inclines  me 
to  believe,  that  the  vice  of  which  he  has  been  accused  was 
not  gross,  or  not  notorious."  But  h^  enjoyed  these  pre- 
ferments little  more  than  a  year,  for  in  July  1717  he  died 
at  Chester,  on  his  way  to  Ireland,  in  his  tbirty*eigbth  yean 
Dying  without  male,  issue,  his  estate,  but  considerably  em-' 
barrassed  by  his  imprudence,  devolved  to  his  nephew,  sir 
John  Parnell,  bart.  one  of  the  justices  of  the  King's-bench 
^  in  Ireland,  and  father  to  the  Irish  chancellor  of  the  Exche- 
quer, sir  John  Parnell,.  who  died  in  1801. 

A  collection  of  his  poems  was  published  in  1 72 1  by  Pope, 
with  an  elegant  epistle  to  the  earl  of  Oxford.  The  best  of 
ibis  collection,  aod  on  which  ParnelPs  fame  as  a  poet  is 


142  P  A  R  N  E  L  L. 

juatly  founded,  are,  his  ^^Rise  of  Womas;**  the  ^^Faoy 
Tale;"  the  "Hymn  to  Contentment;"  "Health;"  the: 
"Vigil  of  Venus;"  the  "  Night-piece  on  Death ;"  the 
<f  Allegory  on  Man,"  and  "  The.  Hermit.^'  These  have 
been  respectively  criticised  by  his  biographers  Goldsmithf 
and  Johnson,  and  hare  stood  the  test  of  nearly  a  century. 
"  His  praise,"  says  Dr.  Johnson,  "  must  be  derived  fironi 
the  easy  sweetness  of  his  diction ;  in  his  verses  there  is 
more  happiness  than  pains :  he  is  sprightly  without  effort, 
and  always  delights,  though  he  never  ravishes:  every 
thing  is  proper,  yet  every  thing  seems  caaual.'' 

In  17.589  a  volume  was  pubUshed,  it  is  not  known  by 
whom,  entitled  ".  The  Posthumous  Works  of  Dr.  Thomas 
Parnell."  This,  although  it  exceeded  the  volume  published 
by  Pope  in  bulk,  appeared  so  far  inferior  in  merit,  tha^ 
the  admirers  of  Parneil  questioned  the  authenticity  of  mosi; 
of  the  pieces;  and  there  are  but  a  few  of  them. indeed 
which  can  be  ascribed  to  him  without  some  injury  toM» 
character.  Goldsmith  refused  to.  incorporate  them  wtth 
the  collection  he  published  in  1770;  but  they  'were  after-" 
wards  added  to  the  edition  in  Johnson's  Poets,  and  iappm-» 
lently  without,  his  consent.  He  says  of  them*.  <^Irkoo«P 
not  whence  they  came,  nor  have  ever  inquired  whithertfaey 
are  going."  * 

PARR,  Catherine.     See  CATHERINE. 

PARR,  (Richard),  an  English  divine,  was  the  son  of 
Richard  Parr,  likewise  a  divine,  and  was  born  at  Fermoy^ 
in  the  county  of  Cork,  where,  we  presume,  his  fal;her  was 
beneiiced,  in  1617  ;  and  this  singularity  is  secorded  of  hii 
birth,  that  bis  mother  was  then  fifty^five  years  of  age.  H« 
wai  educated  in  granmiar  at  a  country  school,  under  the 
care  of  some  popish  priests,  who  w^e  at  that  time  the  orAj 
schoolmasters  for  the  Latin-tongue^  In  16S5,  hfi  was  seat 
to  England,  and  entered  as  a  servitor  of  Exeter  college, 
Oxford,  where  his  merit  procured  him  the  patronage  of 
Dr.  Prideaux,  the  rec4{or,  by  whose  interest,  as  soon  as 
he  bad  taken  his  baohelor^s  degree  in  arts,  in  1641,  he  w^ 
chosen  chaplaio*feUow  of  the  college.  •  He  found  here 
another  liberal  patron  and  instiHustor .  in  the  celebra/ted 
archbishop  Usher,  who,  in  1643,- retired  to  this  coUege 
from  the  tumult  then  prevailing  through  the  nation;  and 

*  Life  by  Goldsmith,  prefixed  to  his  Poenfis.— Johnson's  Life. — Swiftjs  lua^ 
Pope's  Works;  (Bowles's  edition)  see  Indexes.— Nichols's  Poems^  to).  III.  &c, 


P  A  R  ».  14$ 

obsertiiig  the  talents  of  Mr.  Parr  a»  a  preacher,  roadeiiiia 
bis  cbaptaki ;  and,  about  the  end  of  that  year,  took  him 
with  him  to  Glamorganshire.  On  his  return  with  this  pre* 
lat^,  he  obtained  the  vicarage  of  Ryegate  in  Surrey,  on  the 
presentation  of  Mr*  Roger  James,  gent,  son  of  sir  Roger 
James,  knight,  whose  sister  he  married,  a  widow  lady  of 
considerable  property.  In  doctrinal  points  he  appears  to 
have  concurred  with  the  assembly  of  divines,  who  were 
mostly  Calvinists ;  but  it  seems  doubtful  whether  he  ever 
took  the  Covenant.  In  1649,  he  resigned  his  fellowship 
of  Exeter  college,  and  continued  chaplain  to  archbishop 
Usher,  while  that  prelate  lived.  In  1653,  he  was  instituted 
U>  the  living  of  C^mberwell  in  Surrey,  and  appears  to  have 
been  some  time  rector  of  Bermondsey,  where  his  signa- 
ture occurs  in  the  register  of  1676,  and  he  is  thought  to 
have  resigned  it  in  1682.  •  At  the  Restoration  he  was  cre-« 
atdd  D.  J5.  and  bad  the  deanery  of  Armagh,  and  an  Irish 
bishopric^  offered  to  him,  bo<;h  which  he  refused;  but 
accepted  a  canonry  of  Armagh.  He  remained  vicar  of 
Camberwell  alfnost  thirty-eight  years,  and  was  greatly  be- 
loved and  followed.  Wood,  in  his  quaint  way  says,  <<  He 
was  so  constant  $ind  ready  a  preacher  at  Camberwell,  that 
his  preaching  beipg  generally  approved,  he  broke  two  coU'- 
venticles  thereby  in  his  neigbh.ourbood  ;  that  is  to  say,  that 
by  his  out-vying  the  Presbyterians  and  Independents  ia 
bis  extempormian  preaching,  their  auditors  would  leave 
them,  and  flock  to  Mr.  Parr."  All  who  speak  of  him*  in- 
deed concur  in  what  is  inscribed  on  his  monument,  that 
'^  be  w^s  in  preaching,  constant :  in  life,  exemplary  :  in 
piety  and  charity,  most  eminent :  a  lover  of  peace  and 
hospitality  :  atid,  in  fine,  a  true  disciple  of  Jesus  Christ.'' 
He  died  at  Can^erwdl  November  2,  1691,  and  was  bu- 
ried in  the  church-yard,  where  the  abotve  monument  was 
erected  to  his  memory.  His  wife  died  before  him.  Dn . 
Parr  wrote  ^^  Christian  Reformation :  being  an  earnest 
p^suas)on  to  the  fiipeedy  practice  of  it :  proposed  to  all,' . 
but  .especially  designed  tor  the  serious  consideration  of  his . 
dear  kindred  and  coui^trymen  of  the  county  of  Cork  in 
Ireland,  and  the  people  of  Ryegate  and  Camberwell  in 
Sarrey,"  Lond.  1660,  8vo.  He  published  also  three  oc- 
casional sermons;,  but  the  most  valuable  present  he  made 
to  the  publick  was  his  "Life  of  Archbishop  tFsher,'*  pre- 
fixed to  that  prelate's  Letters,  printed  in  folio,  1  ^^6.  It  is  the 
most  ample  account  we  have  of  Usher ;  and  fevrtnen  could 


144  1>  A  R  R 

have  enjoyed  better  opportunities  of  knowing  his  real  cba-* 
racter.  Wood,  mentions  Dr.  Thomas  Marsbairs  intetitiofi 
of  enlarging  this,  as  noticed  in  our  account  of  him. ' 

PARRHASIUS)  a  celebrated  painter  of  Epbesns,  or, 
according  to  others,  of  Athens,  flourished  in  the  time  of 
Socrates,  as  we  learn  from  Xenophon,  who  has  introduced 
him  iq  a  dialogue,  discoursing  with  that  philosopher.  He 
was  one  of  the  most  excellent  painters  of  his  time.  Pliny 
tells  us,  that  it  was  be  who  first  gave  symmetry  and  just 
proportions  in  the  art ;  that  he  also  was  the  first  wbo  knew 
how  to  express  the  truth  of  character,  and  the  different 
airs  of  the  face ;  that  he  found  out  a  beautiful  disposition 
of  the  hair,  and  heightened  the  grace  of  the  visage.  It  was 
allowed  even  by  the  masters  in  the  art,  that  he  bore  away 
firom  all  others  the  glory  of  succeeding  in  the  outline,  in 
which  consists  the  grand  secret  of  painting.  Bat  the  same 
author  observes,  that  Parrhasius  became  insupportable  by 
his  pride ;  and  affected  to  wear  a  crown  of  gold  upon  his 
head,  and  to  carry  in  his  hand  a  baton,  studded  with  nails 
of  the  same  metal.  It  is  said  that,  though  Parrhasius  was 
excelled  by  Timanthes,  yet  he  excelled  Zeuxis.  Among 
bis  pictures  was  a  celebrated  one  of  Theseus ;  and  another 
representing  Meleager,  Hercules,  and  Perseus,  in  agroupe 
together ;  as  also  £neas,  with  Castor  and  Pollux  in  a  third. 
But  of  him,  or  bis  pictures,  the  accounts  handed  down  to 
us  are  extremely  imperfect,  and  little  to  be  relied  on  in 
forming  a  just  estimate  of  his  merit* 

PARRHASIUS  (AuLUS  Jakus))  an  eminent  grammarian 
in  Italy,  was  born  at  Codenzain  the  kingdom  of  Naples, 
in  1470.  He  was  designed  for  the  law,  the  profession  of 
bis  ancestors  ;  but  bis  inclination  was  to  study  classical  li* 
terature.  His  family  name  was  Giovanni  Paulo  Parisio ; 
^et,  according  to  the  humour  of  the  grammarians  of  that 
age,  he  adopted  that  under  which  we  have  classed  him. 
He  taught  at  Milan  with  great  reputation,  being  particu* 
larly  admired  for  a  graceful  delivery,  which  attracted  many 
auditors  to  his  lectures.  He'  went  to  Rome  during  the 
pontificate  of  Alexander  VI.  and  was  like  to  have  been  in- 
volved in  the  misfortunes  of  the  cardinals  Bernatdint  Ca->^ 
jetan,  and  Silius  Savello,  whose  estates  were  confiscated^ 

a 

1  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  11^— Lysoiu'8  Environs,  vol.  I«— Manning  and  Bfay'«  Surrey^ 
▼ol.  I. 

*  Pliny,  lib.  xxXT.^Qainlilian,  lib.  xii.— Diodorns,  lib.  zxT.^^Atbenseas,  lib. 
sMi.— fVasari«--*Felibien. — Junius  de  pictura  veterua. 


PARR  HA  St  us.  141 

«nil  thMiselvet  Wished  for  ooiMpiriig  lo  d^poit  the  pope* 
A»  it  wa$  well  known  that  he  b»d  corresponded  with  thest 
Bien,  lie  took  the  atlvioeof  a  friend,  in  retiring  frooi  Rome. 
N<^t  leiig  after,  be  was  appointed  public  professor  of  rbe^ 
toric  at  Milan,  where  his  superior  merit  drew  upon  him.thft 
eiiTjr  of  his  contemporary  teachers,  who,  by  f»lse  aecusa<» 
lions,  tendiered  his  situation  so  uneasy,  that  he  was  obliged 
IQ  taave  Milan,  and  retire  to  Vicejiza,.  where  he  (diiained 
the  professorship  of  eloquence,  with  a  larger  salary ;  and 
^  held  tbisptofessorship,  till  the  states  of  the  Venetians 
awre  laid  waste  by  the  troops  of  the  league  of  Cambray. 
Hejiow  withdrew  to  his  native  .country^  having  made  hia 
•aeape  through  the  amy  of  the  enemies.  He  was  after«» 
war«ds  sent  for  by  Lee  X.  who  was  before  favourably  tn^ 
dined  to  him;  and  on  bit  arrival  at  Rome,  appointed  him 
piro&ssor  of  polite  liieratuce.  He  had  been  aow  some 
time  married  tia  a  daughter  of  Demetrius  Cfaalcondylas; 
and  he  took  with  him  to  Rome  Basil .  Chalcondyla^,  has 
wife's  brother,  and  brother  ai  DeoAetrius  Chalcondylaa, 
pcofesaor.^  Greek  at  IMao*  He  did  not  long  enjoy  fthi^ 
em(rioyment  eooferned  upon  him  by  tiie  pope :  for,  beinjj; 
worn  out  by  his  st-udies  and  labocMrs,  be  became  so  cruelly 
•fl^ed  with  the  gout^  m»  to  lose  the  use  of  bis  limbs. 
Poverty  was  added  to  his  other  suibrings ;  and  in  this  un^ 
happy  state  lie  left  Rome,  and  returned  into  Calabria^  hia 
nalive  country,  where  he  died  of  a  fever  in  ISS$. 
.  His  wosks  were  published,  collectively,  by  Henry  8te» 
piietm,  itt'  15^7,  of  which  -the  principal  is  entitled  *^  Lfbec 
de  rebus  per  Epistoiam  dusesitis.**  This  consists  of  a 
Bumbec;  of  leUers  written  to  different  learned  men,  con* 
Inining  explanations  of  passages  in  the  ancient  writers,  and 
elucidations  of  paints  of  antiquity,  which  display  mucherii* 
dition.  There  are  also  iildstratioua  of  Ovid's  Heroical 
Epistles;  of  Horace's  Art  of  Poetry;  of  Cicero^s  Oratioa 
for  Milo,  and  various  other  tracts  on  classical  subjects.  Thie 
whole  collection  was  reprinted  in  the  £rst  volume  of  6ra« 
ler^s  *>  Thesaurus  Critkus."  A  new  edition  of  the  book 
^>DeQ,ttflBsitis,'*  with  .additions  from  the  author's  manvi* 
aonpt,  was  given  at  Naples  in  1771.^ 
•  PARR¥  (BiCHAmD),  D.  O.  rector  of  Wioharapton  ia 
Dorsetshire,  and  preacher  at  Market«Harborough  in  Lei* 

eestershire,  for  which  latter  county  he  was  in  the  commia* 

.  >• 


iiob  of  tbe  pMcOy  9Vfts  born  in  Bary street,  St  Jtaoen'u^ 
in  1722.  He  was  admitted  a  soholar  of  Westminster  in^ 
1736,  whence,  in  1 740,  be  was  elected  i^  student  of  Christ-^ 
church,  Oxford,  and  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  March  31, 
1747  ;  B.  p.  May  25,  1734;  and  D.  D.  July  8,  1757,  He 
was  a  very  learned  divine;  and  an  able,  active,  magis<* 
trate.  He  was  appointed  chaplain  in  1750;  preacher  ai 
Market* Harborough  in  Leicestershire  in  1754;  and  in  1756 
.was  presented  by  Richard  Fleming,  esq.  to  the  rectory  of 
Wichamptoo.  He  died  at.  Market •Harborough,.  April  9^ 
1780.  His  publications  were,  1.  *<The  Christian  Sabbatk 
as  old  as  the  Creation,''  1753,  4to.  2.  **The  Scripture  Ac^ 
count  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  The  Substance  of  Thre# 
Sermons  preached  at  Market-Harborough,  in  1755,  1756," 
6vo.  3.  '*  The  Fig-tree  dried  up ;  or  the  Story  of  that  re* 
markable  Transaction  as  it  is  related  by  St.  Mark  consi* 
dered  in  a  new  light ;  explained  and  vindicated ;  in  a  Let*. 

ter  to  .  .  • esq."  1758,  4to.     4.  **  A  De-» 

ieuce  of  the  Lord  Bishop  of  London's  [Sherlock]  Inter*, 
pretation  of  the  famous  text  in  the  book  of  Job,  *  I  know 
that  my  Redeemer  liveth,'  against  the  Exceptions  of  the 
Bishop  of  Gloucester  [Warburton],  the  Examiner  of  the 
jbishbp  of  London's  Principles;  with  occasional  Remarks, 
on '  the  arjgument  of  the  Divine  Legation,  so  far  as  this/ 
point  is  concerned  with  it,"  1760,  3vo,  5.  ^*  Dissertation 
on  Daniel's  Prophecy  ot.  the  Seventy  Weeks,''  1762,  8vo. 

6.  <<  Remarks  on  Dr.  Kennicott's  Letter,"  &c.  1763^.8yo. 

7.  ''The  Case  between  Gerizim  and  EbaV*^&c.  1764| 
8vo«  8^  ''  An  Harmony  of  the  Four -Gospels^  so  far  as  re- 
lates to  the  History  of  our  Saviour's  Resurrection,  with  a^ 
Commentary^and  Nojtes,"  1765,  4to.  9.  '' The  Genealogy 
olJesus  Christ,  in  .Matthew  and  Luke,  explained  ;  aud  the 
Jewish  Objections  removed,'*  1771,  8vo.  10.  Dr.  Parry 
wrote  one  of  the  amovers  to.  Dr.  Heathcote's  pamphlet  on 
^ibe.  Leicestershire  election  in  1 775. ' 

PARSONS  (James),  an  excellent  physician  and  polite 
«sbolar,  was  born  at  Barnstaple,  in  Devoo;ihire,  in  Marpl^ 
005.  His  father,  who  was  the  youngest  of  nine  sons  of 
colonel  Parsons,  and  nearly  related  to  the  baronet  of  that 
name,  being  appointed  baitack-m^ster  at  Bolton,  in. Ire* 
litod,  reinoved  with  his  familjr  into  that,  kingdom  *  sood 

•       •         •  .  •  .      "  '  • 

1  NichoIf'sBoiryer. 
*  In  the  Preface  ta  ihe  "  Memoiri     ye«n  pf  my  life  in  Irelattd^  wad  tlMre 
•f  Japhet,"  be  leyf,  ••  I  s|ieat  tersrsl     attained  to  a  tokral^Js  KBP«i*!d$0  Ifi.tba  . 


PAR«0>Ja  Ut 

tffier  the  birth  of  hit  ihen  only  son,  James,'  who  TeceiTed 

9X  Dublin  the  early  part  of  bis  education,  and,  by  the  as^ 

•istahce  of  prufier  Inasterd,  laid  a  considerable  founda^ 

lion  of  classical  and  other  useful  learning,  which  enabled 

bim  to  become  tutor  to  lord  Kingston.     Turning  bis  at<^ 

.tentioti   to  the  study  of  medicine,   be  went  afterwardi 

to  Paris,  where  (to  use  his  own  words)  **  be  followed  th^ 

most  eminent  professors  in  the  several  schools,  as  Astruc^ 

Dubois,  Lemery,   and' others;    attended  the  anatomical 

l^tures  of  the  most  famous  (Hunaud  and  Le  Cat) ;  an4 

chemicals  at  the  king^s  garden  at  St.  Come.     He  followed 

the  physicians  in.  both  hospitals  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  and  Li 

Cfaariti,  and  the  chemical  lectures  and  demonstrations  of 

Lemery  and  Bdulduc ;  and  in  botany,  Jussieu.     Having 

finished  these  studies,  his  professors  gave  hitfi  honourable 

attestations  of  brs  having  followed  them  with  diligence  and 

industry,  which  entitled  him  to  take  the  degrees  of  doctor 

and  professor  of  the  art  of  medicine,  in  any  university  in 

the  domiaions  of  France.    Intending  to  return  to  England^ 

he  judged  it  unnecessary  to  take  degree's  in  Paris,  unlesa- 

he  had  resolved  ta  reside  there ;  and  as  it  was  more  ex-* 

pensive,  be  therefor  went  to  the  nniversity  of  Rheims,  in 

Champaign,  where,  by  virtue  of  his  attt^stalions,  be  wae 

immediately  admitted  to  three  examinations,  as  if  he  bad 

fibished  his  studies  in  that  academy;'  and*  there  was-  ho-^ 

Ronred  with  his  degrees  June  11,  1736.     In  the  July  foU 

lowing  be  came  to  London,  and  was* first  employed  by  Dr« 

James  Douglas  to  assist  him  in  bis  anatomical  works,  but: 

after  some  time  began  to  practise.  He  was  elected  a  meOK^ 

ber  of  tbe  royal  society  in  1740 ;  and,  after  due  examina-^ 

tion,  was  admitted  a  licentiate:^f  the  college  of  pbysiciansy 

April  1,  1751. 

On  his  arrival  in  London,  by  the  recommendation  of  hit 

^ery  ancient  tongue  of  that  Ofrantry,  nnd  inrfiriae,  ivticn,  tiM  more  I  iik 

nliicli  enablnl  me  to  oontull  lome  of  qaired.  the  more  nearly  relat^td  thai 

tbeW  aairatcript#9  and    become    io^  Irish  and  Welsh  taafvagei  appeared, 

atmcted.  in,  their  rranmattcal  insti*  When  1  was  tent  abrofd  to  ttvdy  the. 

tntea.   Afterwards  I  became  acqyaint*  medicinal  art»  I  frequently  conversed  . 

cd  with  several  gentlemen  from  Wafea^  with  young  gentlemen  fronl  moat  parts 

wen  versed  in  their  own  hiatory  and  of  BorOpe,  who  caaw  to  ?laris,.  and? 

^Bgnage  ^  men  of  sfiiso  and  liberal  IbHowed  the  ^^aoie  maslersy  in  evefy 

learning;  who,  in  many  oonversationa  branch  of  the  profttsioo,  with  lAe;  and 

upon  tttch  tobjeett,  gave  me  such  sa-  my  snrprixe  was  agreeably  increased' 

ti»iaoiien  and  light»  in  matters  of  high  in  finding  that,  in  every  one,  of  their 

•ntiquityy  at  to  occasioo  my  applica-  naiive  tongoet,  I  cq«M,  discover  tbe 

tioir  to' the  study  of  the  Welsh  toi^e  roots  ^f 'moat  of  their  espreasioia  iai' 

1^^ ittt mhieti  thod-eqanl  pieMre  . theliiilrotWeMu*' 


t4t  n  R  9  O  M  K 

P«rts  frieadv  h^  w^  ioUroduced  to  the  ^tciqwainfiDce  of  Ok 
Meadv  sir  Hans  Sloanc,  and  Dr.  James  Douglas.  TUa 
gf^at  difiatofnist  inade  use  of  his  assisiftnce^  not  only  in  his 
^n^tomical  preparations,  but  also  in  his  repfesentations  of 
inorbtd  and  other  appearances^  a  list  of  several  of  which 
i^as  in  the  hands  of  his  friend  Dr.  Maty;  who  bad  prefKirod 
Hn  eioge  on  Dr.  Parsons^  which  was  never  used,  but  wluolii 
\>y  the  favour  of  Mns.  Pacsons»  Mr.  Nichols  has  preserved 
M  Wge.  Though  Dr.  Parsons  cultivated  the  » several 
branches  t>f  the  profession  of  physic,  he  was  j^rincipalljt 
tmpl^y^d  in  midwifery.  In  1738,  by  the  interest  of  hiS 
ifrfend  Dri.  Doughs^  be  was  appointed  physician  to  iIm 
)>ublic  infirnaafry  in  St.  Giles's.  In  1739  be  carried  luisi 
Elizabeth  Reynolds,  by  whodi  he  bad  two  sons  and  ft 
dMigbter^  who  all  died  youngw  I)i^.  Parsons  raided  fof 
teany  yeai^  in  Red  Lion-squaf«|  where  he  freqaentlj^ 
^n^oyed  the  company  and  conversation  of  Dr.  I^tukeley^ 
Vishoip  Lytiieloii^  Mr.  Henry  Baker,  Dr.  Knight,  apd  mftaj^ 
iAber  of  tbe  most  distinguished  members  of  the  rOyal  and 
Antiquarian  socteues,  and  that  :of  arts,  manufactures,  and 
ceasmerce ;  giving  weekly  an  elegant  dinner  to  a  ki^  but 
f rieot  (MM*tjr.  He  enjoyed  also  the  Uterary  correspoudence 
id  D'Ai'geQviMe,  Bufibiif  Le  Cat,  Beccaria,  AnU>  Bertraod^ 
VaiisaSrers,  Aseaoius,  Tarb^ville  Needhaipn,  Dr.  GardcA, 
ami  others  of  the  most  distingubhed  rank  in  science*  Ai 
a  jiracfiitioner  he  was  judicious,  careful,  hooest,  abd  re* 
mftirka9bl||r  buasane  to  the  poor ;  as  a  friend,  obligk>g  and 
-todiiliialiiioalive ;  cheerful  and  decent  isn  conversation  ;  ae* 
ireie  and  alrictin  bis  morala,  and  attentive  to  ftll  with  pco^. 
pm^  aH  tbe  various  duties  of  life.  In  1769,  fVodiiig  -hia 
Jl^ealtk  i|9ipatired,  he  proposed  to  retire  from  business  and 
from  London,  and  with  that  view  disposed  of  a  conssidefaUA 
Buoiber  of  lua  jbodis  aad  fossils,  and  went  to  BmM,  Sut 
he  returned  soon  after  to  his  old  house,  and  died  in  it  after 
^  W^ek^s  iHneSs,  'on  tbe  4th  of  April,  1770,  much  lamented 
by  his  iamly  and  frienda.  By  bis  4ast  will,  dated  in  Oc|x>« 
ber  17^6,  be  gave  bia  whole  property  to  M<rs.  Parsons; 
^ndy  in  (base  61  he):  death  before  him,  t6  miss  Mary  ft^* 
Holda^  ^r  only  sister,  '<  in  t«co«peffioe'  £or>l>er  aftectionate 
siMehtion  to  him  htfd  to  his  lirife,  foi"  a  long  cout^edf  ye^rs,  itt 
sickness  and  io  health.^'*  It  was  bis  parrticujac  requ^t  tbit 
he  Bbeuid  ttotbe  %«rried  tnli  some  change  shonkl  bopetfr  in 
his  corpse;,  anofoest  which  occasioned  bim  td  be  l^t  un- 
buried  17  day«,  Mftd^^vaiD  ^d  soaice4lp««li^te8t  aikopa^ 


P  A  K  S  Q  K  &  ««# 

H^n  wM  pereemUe.  He  irts  burred  ml  Hfiiddn^  ih  ft  vault 
ivhick  be  brnd  etaiosed  ta  be  btiili  on  the  grbaiid  fmrcbMed 
on  the  death  ef  bis  aen  James,  where  hit  tomb  had  a  nerf 
commendatory  inscription.  .  A  portrait  of  Dh  Parsont,  bjr 
Mr.  Wilson,  is  now  in  tjhe  British  Mbseum ;  aaotbeiv  by 
Wells^  .lisft  in  the  hands  of  bit  widovr,  who  died  ia  17M; 
^t£h  a  third  udfini^hed  ;  and  one  of  hifi  son  Jainei;  also  « 
fainity  piece,  in  which  the  same  son  is  iairpdtt€ed>  with 
the  doctor  and  bis  lady,  aoeompanied  by  bcr  aistf  r.  Amooy 
vaey  40ther  portrait,  Mnau  Parsons  had  acme  that  were 
Miy  fine  of  the  illastrious  H&rvey,  of  bishop  Burnet,  atid 
of  Dr.  John  Freind ;  a  beautiful  miniature  of  Dr.  Stakeleyt 
wattib  good  paintings,  by  .her  hpsband's  own  band^  pata^ 
etilariy  the  rhinoceros  which  ha  described  in  the  **  Pbih)4 
•ephical  Transactions."  She  posaessed  alio  hfe  Md^*  and 
tome  capital  printed  book's -)  a  large  £aUe  yoliiaie  eniiikid 
^  Figorss  quasdam  Mis^eUaneidB  :qisflB  ad  rem  ^matomiosiii 
HistorisfiiiqQe  Natutalem  speotant;  quas  proprii  adam^ 
bravifc  ttano  Jabobqs  Pavsons,  M.  D.  S.  S.  &•  Ant;''  &ei 
another,  called  ^^  Drawings  of  curious  Fossils,  Shells,".  &ce\ 
in  Dr.  Parsons^s  CoUectioti^  dr^wn  by  himself;''  &c.  &c; 
Mrs.  Parsons  professed  herself  ready  tq  give,  on  proper 
applicsition,  either  to  the  royal  or  abtiquarian  society^  m 
ponrait  of  her  husband,  and  a  sum  of  oioney  to  fomd  It 
lecture  to  perpetuate  hisinei^iory,  simiiar  to  thai;  estebtished 
by  his  fitend  Mr.  Henry  Baker. 

Of.  Parsons  left  the  following  worlds  :  1«  ^^  A  flie<dianical 
end  cri()ieal  Enquiry  into  the  nature  ef  I}jef>niapbfedite9^'^ 
1741,  8vo,  wfaieh'  was  principally  a  cooipikitioa.  9.  ^  A 
description  of  the  Urinary  Hiiflian  Bladder,  and  the  parti 
betonging  to  it,  with  figures,'^  1742^  which  was  intended 
to  disprore  the  reported  utility  of  Mrs.  fitepheas-s  oaedisifief. 
for  thestone*  6.  ^  Philosof^ical  Obseryiitions  .on  the  ana* 
logy  between  the  Propagation  of  Animals  and  that  of  Ve» 
getables,'*  1752,  8vo.  As  an  antiquary^  Di^  Par^on<^  disir 
tingttlshed  bimself  by  an  elaborate  publication,,  eniide4 
^^'^eihaiiis  of  iapfaet;  being  historical  inquiries  into  the 
affinity  and  origin  of  the  £]uropean  languages,^*  1767,  4to* 
Thia  is  a  pierforniairc^  of  great  erudition  »nd  raseaffciL 
Besides  these  separaite  publioatijDos,  Dr.  Parsons  was  the 
4«tfaor  of  sererwl  papers,  prisited  in  the  Pbilosophaaal  Trans* 
fctions;  v\%.  ^*  €rooni»n:  Lectunes  oo  Muscular*  Motion,^^ 
l74JS(f  m  whieh  be  considers  the  enmcwlai  fibres  as  tubes  | 
^Hunien  Phji^siogeomy  eapiained^'^  io  the  iAppe&di|^  ^ 


tS6 


LARSONS. 


the  Philbs.  Trant.  for  1746;  and  several  otlie^  papert  eit 
^nlktdmical  and  physiological  sobjects,  especially  >an  ac* 
tiountof  the  dissection  of  a  rhinoceros,*  which  is  yaluable, 
Ifnd  illustrated  by  ^ood  figures.  . 

We  sbali  close  this  article  with:  an  extract  from  Df« 
Maty*s  eulogium:  ^  The  surprising  variety  of  branches 
iifhich  Dr.  Parsons  embracedi  and  the  several  living  as  well 
as  dead  languages,  be  had  a  knowledge  of,  qualified  him 
abundantly  for  the  place  of  assistant  secretary  for  foreign 
correspondences,  which  the  eouncil  of  the  royal  society 
jbestowed  upon  him  about  1750.  He  acquitted  himself  to 
the  utmost  of  bis  poiver  of  the  functions  of  this  plac^/till  a 
few  years  before  his  death,  when  be  resigned  in  favour  of  bia 
friend,  who  now  gratefully  pays  this  Ijast  tribute  to  hia 
memory.  Dr.  Parsons  joined  to  his  academical  faondura 
those -which  the  royal  ^soUege  of  physicians  of  London 
bestowed  upon  him,  by  admitting  him,  after  due  exami- 
nation, licentiate,  on  the  first  day  of  April,  1751.  The 
lUffusive  spirit  of  our  friend  was  only  equalled  by  his  desire 
cftf  information.  To  both  these  principles  he  owed  tire 
intimacies  which  he  formed  with  som^  6f  the  greatest  men 
of  his  time.  The^names  of  Fotkes,  Hales,  Mead,  Stukeley, 
Needham,  Baker,  Collinson,  and  Garden,  may  be  meri^ 
tioned  on  this  occasion ;  and.  many  more  might  be  added^ 
Weekly  meetings  were  formed,  where  the  earliest  intellt'* 
gence  was  received  and  communicated  of  any  discovery 
both  here  and  abroad ;  and  new  trials  were  made,  to  bring 
to  the  test  of  experience  the  reality  or  usefulness  of  these 
discoveries.  Here  it  was  that  the  microscopic;al  animals 
found  in  several  infusions  were  first  produced ;  the  propa* 
gation  of  seieral  inse<its  by  section  ascertained;  the  con** 
•tancy  of  nature  amidst  these  wonderful  changes  esta-< 
hiished.  His  <  Remains  of  Japhet,  being  historical  in^ 
quiries  into  the  affinity  and  origin  of  the  European  Lan«t 
guages,*  is  a  most  laboriotis  performfaoce,  tending  to 
jprove  the  antiquity  of  the  first  inhabitants  of  these  islands^ 
as  being  originally  descended  from  Gotner  and  Mi^g, 
abovQ  lOOO'years  before  Christ,  their '4)rimitive  and  still 
subsisting  language,  and  its  affinity  with  some  others.  It 
cannot  be  denied  that  there  is  much  ingenuity  as  ivell 
true  learning  in  this  work,  which  helps  conviction,  and 
often  supplies  the  want  of  iu  But  we  cannot  help  thinking 
that  our.  friend^s  warm  feelings  now  and  then  mislead  his- 
jiidgment,^  and  tkataome  at  least  of  bia  coajeciures^  rtsti^ 


^  A  R  8  O  N  S.  m 

|pg  vpOQ  partinl  tradUions,  and  poettctl  ipmps  of  IriA 
fiiids  and  Wel«b  bards,  are  less  satisfactory  than  bis  table$ 
Qif  affinity  between  tbe  several  northern  languages,  as  de- 
duced from  one  common  stock.  Literature,  bowever,  i^ 
ipneb  obliged  to  him  for  having  in  this,  as  well  as  iii  many 
Qf  bi^  other  works,  opened  a  new  field  of  observations  and 
discoveries.  In  enumerating  our  learned  friend's  disserta- 
tions,  we  find  ourselves  at  a  loss  whether  we  should  foilovr 
tbe  order  of  subjects,  or  of  time ;  peitber  is  it  easy  to  ac- 
count for  their  surprising  variety  and  quick  succession. 
The  truth  is,  that  bis  eagerness  after  knowledge  was  suctr, 
as  to  embrace  almost  with  equal  facility  ail  its  branches,- 
and  with  equal  zeal  to  ascertain  tbe  merit  of  inventions, 
sod  ascribe  to  their  respective,  and  sometimes  unknown, 
authors,  the  glory  of  tbe  discovery.  Many  operations 
which  tbe  ancients  have  transmitted  to  us,  have  been 
thought  fabulous,  merely  from  our  ignorance  of  the  art  by 
which  they  were  performed.  Thus  the  burning  of  the 
abips  of  tbe  Romans  at  a  considerable  distance,  during  the 
j^ege  of  Syracuse,  by  Archimedes,  would,  perhaps,  still 
continue  to  be  exploded,  had  not  the  celebrated  Mji  BufTon 
ill  France  shewn  the  possibility  of  it,  by  presenting  and 
describing  a  model  of  a  speculum,  or  rather  assemblage 
of  mirrors,  by  which  he  could  set  fire  at  the  distance  of 
several  hundred  fee^*  In  the  contriving,  indeed,  though 
ijqt  in  tbe  executing  of  such  an  apparatus,  be  had  in  some 
measure  been  forestalled  by  a  writer  now  very  little  known 
or  read.  This  Dr.  Parsons  proved  in  a  very  satisfactory 
manner;  and  be  had  the  pleasure  to  find  fhe  French  phi-  - 
losopher  did  not  refuse  to  the  Jesuit  his  share  in  tbe  inven- 
tionj  and  was  not  at  all  oiFended  by  the  liberty  he  had 
V^ken.  Another  French  discovery,  .1  mean  a  new  kind  of 
painting  fathered  upon  the  ancients,  was  reduced  to  its 
Ileal  value,  in  a  paper  which  shewed  our  author  was  pos- 
sessed of  a  good  taste  for  the  fine  arts :  and  I  am  informed 
^ai  his  skill  in  music  was  by  no  means  inferior,  and  that 
bis  favourite  amusement  was  tbe  flute.  Richly,  it  appeairs 
from  these  performances,  did  our  author  merit  the  honour  • 
of  being  a  member  of  the  antiquarian  society,  which  long 
ago  bad  associated  him  to  its  labours.  To  another  society,^ 
£Dunded  upon  the  great  principles  of  bumanity,  patriotism, 
s^tid  uatural  emulation,  be  undoubtedly  wsus  greatly  Useful  *•- 

*  The  society  for  the  encoitragt'     the  Oeconomicsl    toewty  at 
■i^til  of, ant,  manufactures,  and  com-;    QaOi  S^iil^d*     . 
folarde.    Ue  likewisi^  *m  associi^i^d  t«^ 


U^  P  AK80N  & 


He  iwiitaJ  9t  moit  of  tbeir  gcwnl  mced^  aad 
littaff ;  ^mi  was  finr  mw^f  years  chainMB  ta  that  of 
cnitoic ;  ahfmjs  cqaaily  mady  to  porat  oot  and  to  pioaftot^' 
vsefol  loipgoreaKatSy  and  io  oppoce  the  inteieitcA 
of  fraed  and  q^noranccy  so  inseparabie  froai  very  ei 
aawciatioiia.  No  soooer  was  iUs  society^  fbffMed»  thaa* 
Dr*  Panoos  becaoie  a  member  ctf  k.  Indnately  eoovioeed 
of  the  oobleocss  of  its  Tiean^  iboogh  froai  his  statioii  m 
life  little  cooceroed  io  its  saceesSy  he  gmdged  neither  at«» 
teodanee  nor  expenoe.  Neither  ambitioiis  of  ukingtho' 
lead,  nor  fond  of  oppositioD,  he- joined  in  any  aseasnre  he 
thot^ght  right ;  and  submitted  ehcerfaUy  to  the  seotimeBts 
of  the  majority,  though  against  his  own  private  opinioB. 
The  just  ideas  he  had  of  the  dignity  of  onr  piofcssioa,  atf 
well  as  of  the  common  links  which  ought  to  unite  all  its- 
memben,  notwithstanding  the  differences  of  coontry,  re« 
ligion,  or  places  of  education,  made  him  bear  impatiently 
the  shackles  hud  upon  a  great  number  of  respectable  prac^ 
tiiiooers ;  he  wished,  fondly  wished,  to  see  these  broken  ;• 
not  with  a  view  of  emp^  h<mour  and  dangerous  power,* 
but  as  the  only  means  of  serving  mankind  more  effectually,* 
checking  the  progress  of  designing  men  and  illiterate  prtc* 
titioners,  and  diffusiDg  through  the  whole  body  a  spirit  of 
emulation*  Thongh  by  frequent  disappointments  he  fore-* 
saw,  as  well  as  we,  the  little  chance  of  a  speedy  redress, 
be  nobly  persisted  in  the  attempt ;  and,  bad  be  lived  te* 
the  final  event,  would  undoubtedly,  like  Cato,  still  have 
preferred  the  conquered  cause  to  that  supported  by  the 
gods.  After  having  tried  to  retire  from  business  and  from 
London,  for  the  sake  of  bis  health,  and  having  disposed  of 
most  of  his  books  with  that  view,  be  found  it  inconsistent 
with  his  happiness  to  forsake  all  the  advantages  which  a 
long  residence  in  the  capital,  and  the  many  connexions 
be  bad  formed,  bad  rendered  habitual  to  him.  He  tfaere*- 
fore  returned  to  his  old  bouse,  and  died  in  it,  after  a  short 
iHness,  April  4,  1770»  The  style  of  our  friend's  compo«> 
sitions  was  sufficiently  clear  in  description^  though  in  ar- 
gument not  so  close  as  coutd  have  been  wished.  Full  of 
his  ideas,  he  did  not  always  so  dispose  and  connect  them, 
together  as  to  produce  in  the  minds  of  bis  readers  that 
conviction  which  was  in  his  own^  He  too  much  despised 
those  additional  graces  which   command  attention  when 

•  *  K  meMcu}  9oe^y  mitituti^d  by'  Dr.  their  privile^e^:  where,'  it  should  seem, 
7o(bergiU,  and  other  reipectable  phy*  this  eulogy  WM  intended  to  ba  pr6- 
tictaniy  Ucentiatesy  in  ^ikidieation  of    flOuDCtd. 


I 

PARSON  S.  15% 


JYiloed  to  teaming',  obienratton,  and  sound  rea9i>ning>  Let 
IIS  Jiope  that  bis  exampAe  and  spirit  will  animate  all  his 
o^lea^es^;  and  that  those  practitioners  who  are  in  the 
same  cirenanstances  will  be  indaced  to  join  their  brethren,^, 
atte  to  find  amongst  tbem  those  great  blessings  of  life^ 
fi^edoBD)  eqaalicy,  information,  and  friendship.  As  long* 
as  these  gveat  principles  shall  subsist  in  this  society,  and  [ 
trost  they  will  outlast  the  longest  lirer,  there  is  no  doubt 
hot  the  members  will  meet  with  the  reward  honest  men 
2ste  ambitiouB  of,  the  approbation  of  their  conscience,  ther 
esteem  of  the  trirtuous,  the  remembrance  of  posterity.*' ' 

PARSONS  (JoBN),  another  learned  and  amiable  phy-* 
sieian,  thdngh  less  known  as  an  author,  the  son  of  major 
Parsdtis,  of  the  dragoons,  was  bom  in  Yorkshire,  in  1742. 
He  was  educated  at  WestminMer  school,  whence  in  1759 
he  was  eleeted  to  a  studentship  in  Christ  Church,  Oxford. 
Having  made  ehoioe  of  medicine  as  a  profession,  he  pro-^ 
secated  the  study  of  it  with  uncomknon  assiduity, ,  not  oniy^ 
at  Oscfiird,  but  also  at  London  and  Edinburgh.  But  while 
he  bestowed  much  attention  on  every  branch  of  medicat 
knowledge,  he  at  first  showed  a  particular  predilection  for 
natsral  history  and  botany,  and  in  the  latter  branch  made 
a  vety  distinguished  figure  during-  his  stay  at  Edinburgh^ 
In  1766  he  had  the  honour  of  obtaining  the  prize  medal 
givon  by  Dr.  Hope  for  the  most  extensive  and  elegant 
hmrtus  siccus,  and  the  same  year  took  his  degree  of  M.  A^ 
ThiSi  however,  was  only  a  prelude  to  more  distinguished 
honours.  In  1769#  when  he  took  his  degree  of  M.  B.  he 
was  appointed  to  the  anatomy  lecture  at  O^^ford,  and  was 
also  the  first  reader  in  anatomy  at  Christ  Church,  on  the 
institution  of  John  Freind  and  Matthew  Lee,  M.  D.  and 
students  of  that  hous^.  In  consequence  of  this  appoint-^ 
ment,  his  attention,  it  may  natur^iUy  be  supposed,  was 
more  particularly  directed  to  anatomy,  and  under  his  di-i 
rection  a  very  commodious  anatomical  theatre  was  built ; 
and  for  the  instruction  of  'his  pupils  he  provided  a  set  of 
anatomical  preparations,  which  for  neatness  and  elegance 
have  seldom  be^n  surpassed.  From  the  time  of  his  ap« 
pointment  he  read  two  courses  of  anatomical  lectures  every 
yeal*;  and  although  they  were  calculated  rather  for  the 
general  philosopbei*  than  the  medicat  practitioner,  yet  they 
were  not  only  highfy  instructive  to  alt  his  audience,  but 
afforded  incoutestable  evidence  of  his  genius  and  abilities. 

f  Ni«hoI»'s  Bowyer. 


15*  PARSONS; 

be  was  soon  after  elected  one  of  the  pb jsici«ii9  to  the  Hb6^ 
clifFe  in6rrnary,  and  in  J«nel772  proceeded  M«  D.  Ha 
bad  a  considerable  share  also  of  private  practice^  and  from 
bis  attention  and  success  bis  reputation  with  the  pubtiii 
kept  pace  with  the  esteem  in  wbicb  be  was  held  by  the 
nnivertiity.  In  1780  he  was  elected  the  first  clinical  pro* 
fessor  on  the  fonndation  instituted  in  1772  by  Gforg^. 
ilenry,  earl  of  Lichfield,  late  chancellor  of  the  university. 
In  this  departnient  also  he  read  lectures  daring  the  winter 
Hionths  with  much  credit  to  himself.  But  it  is  not  impro* 
bable.  that  the  various  active  employments  in  which  he  waa 
engaged,  and  which  necessarily  exposed  him  to  fatigtie  and 
danger,  bad  some  share  in  overthrowing  a  constitution  na* 
turatly  «trong.  He  was  not,  however,  cut  off  by  any  te- 
dious or  painful  ailment,  but  died  of  a  fever  April  3,  178^4, 
in  the  forty* fourth  year  of  bis  age,  and  was  buried  in  tbd 
north  transept  of  the  cathedral,  where  four  of  bis  cbildreii 
were  buried  before  him. ' 

•   PARSONS  (Phi UP),  ah   English  divine,  and  iiiiscellft<»- 
neous  writer,  was  born  at  Dedham,  in  Essex^  in  1729.   Hisfa* 
mily  was  ancient,  and  aettled  at  Hadleigb^  in  Suffolk,  as 
early   as  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.  whbre  some  of  their 
descendants  •  still  reside^     He  lost  his  father  when- veryi 
young,  and  owed  the  care  of  his  education  to  bis  materjial 
uncle,  the  rev.  Thomas  Smythies,  master  of  the  grammar 
school  at  Lavetiham,  in  Suffolk,  with  whom  be  continwd 
till  he  went  to  Cambridge,  where  be  was  entered  of  Sidney 
Sussex  college,  and  took  bis  degrees  there  of  B;  A.  in  1752» 
and  M«  A.  in  1776.    After  be  bad  taken , orders  be  vf^ 
appointed  to  the  free  school  of  Oakham,  in  Rutlaadshirciy- 
and  remained  there  till  17f}l, -when  he  was  presetited  to 
the   school  and  curacy  of  Wye  by  Daniel  earl  of  Win*- 
Chelsea  and  Nottingbami     In  the  sedulous  discharge  of  tliii. 
twofold  duties  of  this  preferment  he  was  engaged  upwards 
of  half  a  century,  and  was  distinguished  by  his  iirbanity^ 
diligence,  and  classical  talents,  nor  was  be  less  esteeoied' 
in  bis  clerical  character.     He  was^  also  presented  to  tb» 
rectory  of  Eastwell,  in  1767,  by  the  same  patron,  ajid  to 
the  small  rect^ory  of  Snave  in  1776,  by  archbishop  Corn« 
wallii^,  who  enhanced  the  value  of  this  preferment  by  a- 
very  kind  letter,  in  which  his  grace  testified  his  high  respect 
for  the  character  and  talents  of  the  new  inoumbent. 

1  Life  in'  the  Edinburgh  Medical   Commentaries,  ▼ol.  X.  and  publitked  tai*^ 
parULaly  at  fidiuburi^h,  1786.— CoDlinttauoo  of  ^ood'i  Aimaia  by  Qutcb. 


PARSONS;  I5i 

^Iff.  l^arsODS  wfts  the  author  of  «iereral  publications,  among 
^hicb  were,  The  nine  first  papers  in*  the  second  volume  of 
the  '<  dtudent/*  publkbed  in  1750^;  *<  On  advertising  for 
Carates;**  a  paper  in  The  World;  "The  inefficacy  of 
Satire,  a  poem,*'*  17€6)  4to;  ^*  Newmarket,  or  an  Essay  on 
the  Turf,*'  1774,  2  vols.;  ^<  Astronomic  Doubts,  a  pamphlet,** 
r774  ;  ^  A  volume  of  Essays,**  1775 ;  ^^  Dialogues  of  the 
Dead  with  the  living^**  1782;  <<  Simplicity,'*  a  poem, 
1784 ;  and  **  Monuments  and  Painted  Glass  in  upwards  of 
loo  churches,  chiefly  in  the  eastern  part  of  Kent/*  1794^ 
lto«  This  work,  which  is  interspersed  with  judicious  re« 
marks  and  interesting  anecdotes  by  the  compiler,  is  become 
scarce,  owing  to  the  6re  in  Mr.  Nichols's  premises^  but  \i 
highly  valuable  to.  the  antiquary  and  lorer  of  such  researches* 
Mr.  Parsons  also  established  a  Sunday  school  at  Wye ;  and 
recommended  and  contributed  much  to  their  establishment 
in  the  county  of  Kent  by  a  sermon  and  some  letters  which 
be  published  on  this  occasion.  The  last  years  of  his  life 
^ere passed  in  great  retirement;  alternately  engaged  iii 
the  discharge  of  his  ministerial  functions,  and  in  literary 
pursuits  and  correspondence,  which,  boweyer,  were  tnter<^ 
Yupted  by  the  loss  of  his  sight  about  a  year  before  his  deathj 
and  at  the  same  time  by  a  very  painful  disorder.  He  bore 
these  trials  with  exemplary  patience  and  resignation,  ft 
was  his  frequent  practice,  when  on  his  bed,  and  free  froni 
the  more  excruciating  pains  of  bis  disorder,  to  compose 
moral,  lively,  and  religious  pieces^  which  be  afterwardi 
dictated  to  a  faithful  amanuensis,  who  wrote  them  dowhj 
He  died  at  Wye,  June  12,  1812,  in  the  eighty-third  year 
of  his  age. '  . 

PARSONS,  or  PERSONS  (Robert),  in  both  which 
Ways  he  wrote  his  name,  a  celebrated  English  Jesuit,  was 
the  son  of  a.  blacksmith,  at  Nether  Stowey,  near  Bridge- 
Water  in  Somersetshire,  where  he  was  horn  in  1546;  and, 
j^ppearing  to  be  a  boy  of  extraordinary  parts,  was  taught 
Latin  by  ihe  vicar  of  the  parish,  who  conceived  a  great 
affection  for  him  f,  and  contributed  to  his  support  at  Ox« 
ford,  where  he  was  admitted  of  fialiol  college  in  1563.     In 

«  *  This  it  not  accurate.    He  may         f  He  wai  sii(j>6cte<l  to  b<*  hit  real 

.liave  been  a  contribuior  to  the  **  Stu-  fattier !  an«l  ir  is  «aid  that  Baiiol  college. 

dent,'*  bcri  could  not  have  written  either  had  a  cenificaie  that  he  was  a  bastard. 

XhfSTOHgJini,  or  the  Jirsi  nine  papers  of  Poulis's  Life  of  Parsons  tn  bis  '*  H'i$^ 

^  lecond  Tolume.  tory  of  Ronii>h  TreaiODi." 

^  »  Gcot.  Mag«  Tol.  LXXXII* 


IM  1^  A  H  S  O  N.  $1 

the  university  he  becaise  96  reoaiirkiLbh^  M  nn  aetft^  dist- 

Julant  io  jscholasuc  exereisesi  then  mocb  in  rogu^)  tbiit^ 
eving  tfiken  his  first  degree  in  arts  in  1568»  he  was  iJbe 
same  year  made  j^robationer  fellow  of  his  coliege.  Ht 
Upon  after  became  the  most  famous  tutor  in  the  society^ 
and  when  be  entered  into  orders,  was  made  socips  saeerdoSi 
or  chaplain  fellow.  In  1^572  he  proceeded  M.  A,  was  bur- 
9ar4batyear,  and  the  ne^t  dean  of  the  college;  but  it  if 
laid  that  being  cbarg^  by  the  society  with  incontinency^ 
^nd  en^beezling  thie  college-money,  to  avoid. the  shame  of 
a  format  expulsion,  be  was  permitted,  out  of  respect  t^ 
bis  leairuing,  to  resign,  which  be  did  in  Feb.  1574^  obr<t 
laioifig  leave  to  keep  his  chsmber  apd  pupils  as  long  as  b« 
pleased,  and  to  have  his  commons  also  till  the  ensuing 
Caster.  These  last  circumstances  have  induced  some  wk'iters 
%o  tbink  that  it  was  merely  a  change  of  rtsligious  prineiples 
ivhicb  occasioned  his  resignatioik 

He  had  till  this  time  opi^nly  professed  himself  a  protests 
it^t,  and  was  very  zealous  in  introducing  books  of  that  re^ 
Iigion  into  the  college  library  :  but  soon  after  bis  resigna-* 
tidQ,  he  quitted  Oxford  for  London,  and  went  tbence^ 
^une  1374,  to  Louvain  :  where,  meeting  with  fether  Wih 
iiam  Good,  his  countryman,  a  Jesuit,  he  spent  a  week  in 
the  spiritual  exercises  at  the*  collie  of  that  order,  and 
began  to  entertain  an  affection  for  it.  He  proceeded^ 
however,  to  Padua,  in  consequence  of  a  determination  bo 
bad  formed  before  be  left  England,  which  was  to  study 
physic  as  a  profession  ;  but  he  had  not  been  long  at  Padua, 
beforto  the  unsettled  state, of  bis. mind  and  fortune  excited 
in  him  a  curiosity  to  visit  Rome,  where  meeting  with  some 
£riglish  Jesuits,  he  gavfa  up  all  thoughts  of  the  mediical 
profession  foir  that  of  the  church.  He  now  went  back  to 
Padcia,  settled  bis  afiairs  there,  and  at  Rome  in  May  1515^ 
W%B  chosen  a  member  of  the  society  of  Jesusi,  and  admitted 
into  the  English  college. 

He  was  indeed  in  all  respects  qualified  to  make  a'figure 
in  this  society,  being,  according  to  Camden,  fierce,  tur» 
bolent,  and  bold ;  and  he  soon  answered  every  expectation 
his  new  friends  could  entertain.  Having  completed  the 
eoarse  of  his  studies,  he  became  one  of  the  principal  pe» 
nitentiaries ;  and  was  in  such  credit  with  the  pope  iii  l&79p 
that  he  obtained  a  grant  fronil  his  holiness  to  change  ati 
hospital  at  Rome,  founded  in  queen  Mary's  titne,  into  4 
college  or  seminary  for  the  English^  by  the  name  of  "  CoU 


JP  A  R  8  Q  N  S.  iSf 

jium  de  urbe^'*  dedicated  to  the  Holy  Tritiiiy  and  St. 
Thomas  (k  Becket),  where  the  students  were  obliged  to 
take  the  following  oath:  ^^I.  N.  N.  consideriag  with  ho^ 
great  benefits  God  kath  biessed  me,  ^c.  do  promise,  by 
God^s  assistat>ce,  to  enter  into  holy  orders  as  soon  as  I 
shall  be  fit,  and  to  return  to  England  to  conirert  my  coun- 
trymen there,  whenever  it  shall  please  the  superior  of  this 
faonse  to  cominand  me/'  He  had  no  sooner  seen  thia  cot-* 
lege  established,  and  bis  friend  father  Allen  chosen,  by 
his  recommendation,  rector  of  it,  than  he  was  appointed' 
to  go  as  superior  missionary  to  England,  in  order  to  pro* 
mote  the  Romish  religion  in  that  kingdom,  being  tlie  firA 
e^er  appointed  on  stich  a  business.  Edmund  Campian  wai 
joined  with  him,  and  other  assistants,  in  this  arduous  pro« 
yince;  and  they  managed  matters  ao  artfully,  that,  not<r 
withstanding  the  time  of  their  departure  from  Rome,  and 
the  whole  route  of  their  journey,  and  even  their  portrait 
bad  been  setit  to  England  before  them,  yet  they  found 
means  by  disguise  to  escape  the  strictest  aearcb  that  wai 
made,  and  arrived  safe  in  London. 

Here  they  bired  a  large  house,  in  the  name  6f  lord 
Paget ;  and,  meeting  the  heads  of  their  party,  communi** 
eated  to  them  a  £aouHy  they  brou^t  from  the  pope^  Gre« 
gory  XIIL  dispensing  with  the  Romanists  for  obeying 
que^i  Etizab^th  ;  notwithstanding  the  bull  which  had  been 
published  by  bis  predecessor  Pius  V.  absolving  tbe  ^ueen'i 
aiftbjects  from  their  oath  of  allegiance,  and  pronouncing  an 
anaitbema  against  all  that  should  obey  hen  They  then 
dispersed  tbemselves  into  different  parts  of  the  kingdom^ 
the  mid4atid  coandea  being  chosen  by  Parsons,  that  he 
mi^bt  be  near  etiongh  to  London,  to  be  ready  upon  atl 
emergencies,  Campian  went  into  the  North,  where  th^ 
bad  tbe  least  success.  Tbe  harvest  was  greatest  in  Wales. 
Parsons  tra^^l  ted  about  the  tamstry  to  gentlemen' if  houses, 
disguised  either  in  the  habit  of  a  soldier,  age^leman,  a 
mifytstef,  or  an  iapf»arhoT;  and  appKed  himself  to  the  work 
iMk  so  much  dihgence,  that,  by  ^hevhelp  of  bis  associates, 
be  entirely  psit  an  end  to  the  cnstom^  that  had  till  then 
pKfrailed  among  the  ^wipists,  -of  frequenting  the  protestant 
ofaorthes,  and  joining  4a  the  servioe.  And  notwithstand- 
itig  the  opposition  made  by  a  more  moilerate  class  of 
paptstft,  who  denied  the  pope's  deposing  power,  and  some 
of  %bo«  even  took  the  oath  of  lallegiance,  yet,  if  we  may 
believe  himself,  be  bad^pai^the  way  for  a  general  insure 
rection  before'  Christmas, 


ISS  P  A  R  S  O  N  & 

But  all  bis  desperate  designs  were  defeated  by  the  Tlgil 
lance  of  lord  fiurleigb ;  and  CampiaQ  being  discovered, 
ioipiisoiiedy  and  afterwards  executed,  Parsons,,  wbo  was 
then  in  Kent,  found  it  necessary  to  revisit  the  continent^ 
and  went  to  Koaen  in  Nornandy.  He  had  contrived  pri^^ 
vately  to  print  several  books  for  the  promotion  of  his  cause^ 
while  he  vvas  in  England  :  and  now  being  more  at  ease,  be 
coa»po8ed  others^  which  he  likewise  procured  to  be  dis- 
persed very:  liberally.  In  1583,- he  returned  to  Rome, 
being  succeeded  in  his  office  of  superior  to  the  English 
mission  by  a  person  named  Hey  ward.  The  management 
of  that  mission,  however,  was  left  to  him  by  Aqua▼iw^  tb^ 
general  of  the  order;  and  be  was  appointed  prefect  of  it 
in  1592.  In  the  interim,  having  procured  for  the  EngHsh 
sen[iinary  before  mentioned,  at  Rome,  a  power  of  choosing 
an  i^nglish  xector  in  i586,  be  was  himself  elected  into 
that  office  the  following  year. 

Whrn  Spain  bad  prepared  her  'Mnvincible  armada'Vto 
invade  England,  Parsons  was  dispatched  thither^  to  avail 
himself  of  the  present  temper  of  the  Spanish  monarch,  and 
reconcile  him  a  little  to  the  order  of.  the  Jesuits,  whose 
etiormtties  h^d  nearly  brought  them  under  the  eensure  of 
the  inquisition.  Parsons  found  means  not  only  to  elude  the^ 
severity  of  that  tribunal,  but  obtained  of  the  king,  that: 
bis  majesty  should  ap|)oint  one  of  the  judges^  and  hiiaself 
another,  for  this  inquififition;  atid  then  ^undertook  the  prtn*' 
cipal  business  of  the  voyage.  While  he  was.  iu  England,: 
be  bad  laboured  to  promote  the  popish  recusancy,  and  tot 
bring  the  English  papists  under  the  government  of  the 
Jesuits.,  In  the  same  spirit,  after  he  was  obliged  to  quit: 
this  icountry,  he  employed  all  his  arts  and  interest  for  the 
erection  of  seminaries  to  supply  England  from  time  to  time- 
with  priests  to  keep  up  that  .recusancy,  and  to  prepare  the^ 
papists  there,  to  join  with  any  invasion  which  those  abroad; 
should  procure*  /  > 

Thus,  for  instance,  as  Mr.  Gee  remarks  in  his^introduc**^ 
tion  to  the  Jesuit's  memorial.  Parsons  treated  witb  Abe- 
duke  of  Guise  to  erect  a  seminary:  for  such  a  •purpoae  in: 
Kormandy ;  and  he  now  prevailed  with  Philip  U.  to  ex** 
tend  these  foundations  in  Spain :  so  that  in  a  short  time* 
they  could  boast  not  only,  of  their  seminaries  at  Rome  and  ^ 
Rbeims,  but  of  those  at  Valladolid,  Seville*  and  St..  Lucarr 
in  Spain,  at  Lisbon  in  Pc^rtogal,  and  at  Douay  atid  St»> 
Omers  in  Flanders,    Xn  all  these,  their  youth  wem  eduf-^ 


.  I 


^ted  with  the  strongest  prejudices  agftinst' their  cbuntrjr^ 
and  their  minds  formed  to  all  the  purposes  that  Parsiont 
had  in  his  head.  AmOog  other  favourite  objects,  he  obliged 
them  to  subscribe  to  the  rig^t-of  the  Infanta  of  Spain  to 
the  crown  of  England,  and  defended  this  position  in  hit 
*^  Conference*  about  the  next*  succession  to  that  crown/^ 
which  went  so  far  as  to  ^sert  the  lawfulness  of  deposing 
queen  Elizabeth.  The  secular  priests  likewise  inform  us^ 
that,  after  the  defeat  of  his  designs  to  dethrone  that  queen^ 
while  he  stayed  in  England,  he  consulted  with  the  duke  of 
Guise  in  France  upon  the. same  subject;  and  endeavoured 
to  make  a  list  of  catholics,  who,  under  the  conduct  of  the 
duke,  were  to,  change  the  state  of  England,  upon  pretenc^ei 
0f  sopporting  the  title  of  Mary  queen  of  Scots. 

After  the  defeat  of  the  armada  in  J5S8,  he  used  every 
IDQeans  in  his  power  to  persuade  the  Spanish  monarch  to  a 
second  invasion;  and  when  he  failed  in  this,  be  endea* 
▼oured  to  raise  a  rebellion  iq  England,  urging  the  earl  of 
Derby  to  appear  at  the  head  of  it,  who  is  said  to  have  been 
poisoned,  at  his  instigation,  for  refusing  to  acquiesce.  Nor 
did  he  stop  here.  We  find  sir  Kalph  Winwood  informing 
secretary  Cecil  from  Paris,  in  1602,  of  an  attempt  to 
assassinate  the  queen  that  year  by  another  English  Je^uit^' 
at  the  instigation  of  father  Parsons ;  and  when,  all  these 
plans  proved  abortive,  he  endeavoured  to  prevent  the  suc-> 
cession  of  king  James  by  several  means.;  one  of  v\hich  was,' 
exciting  the  peopleao  set;up  a  democratic  form  of  govern^ 
mentf  tor  which  be  had  furnished  them  with  principltfs  ia 
seveial  of  bis  books*  Another  was,  to  persuad^^  ttie  pope 
to.make<his  kinsman  the  duke  of  Parma  king  of  England, 
by  joining  with  the  lady  Arabella,  and  marrying  her  to  the 
duke^s  brother,  cardinal  farnese*  Cardinal  d'Ossat  gives 
the  king  of  France  a  large  account  of  both  these  projects  ia 
eiie  of  bis  letters;  aad  in  another  mentions  a  third  contriv-. 
ance  which  Parsons  had  communicated  to  him,  and  whose 
object  was,  that  the  pope,  the  king  of  France,  and  the  king 
of  Spaiui  should  first  appoint  by  common  consent  a  successor 
for  England,  who  should  be  a>  catholic ;  and  then  should 
form  an  armed  confederacy  to  establish  him  on  the  throne. 

The  death  of  his  friend  cardinal  Allen,  hpwever,}iH.  1594, 
diverted  bis  attention  for  a  while  from  these  weighty  public 
affairs,  to  the  objects  of  bis  private  a(nbitj,on;  As.itwa#. 
chiefly  .by-  bis  interest,  that  the  cardinal  liaii  obtained  the 
littrple.(sM.  AtAii.  or  A|iL££(,  WudMU),   be  conceived^ 


tee  PAIS  ON  ft. 

great  hop^  of  succeeding  bim  in  it    The  dignity  vi« 
worth  his  utmost  endeayoursy  and  b^  spared  ho  p»tns  to 
compass  it.    Among  other  eiforts  be  employed  sofoe  Je- 
suits to  obtaiti  in  Flanders  a  petition  to  the  king  of  Spaiin^ 
in  his  favour,  subscribed  by  great  numbers  of  the  lowest 
Df  the  pisople,  as  well  as  those  of  superior  rank.     He  ap** 
f>lied  also  to  that  monarch  by  John  Pir^ueS;  one  of  bia 
prime  coiifideRts,  but  received  no  ai^wer.;  and  then  went 
bimseif  to  RoEOse  in  UBS,  under  pretenee  of  settling  some 
dis-putesy  that  bad  arisen  in  the  English  college  there  duiy 
ing  his  absence.     He  bad  the^year  before  been  compU*- 
inented,  in  a  letter  from  some  of  the  principal  persans  oi 
his  order  there,  on  the  assured  prospect  of  success ;  and 
upon  his  arrival  was  visited,  among  others  of  the  higheat 
rank,  by  cardinal  Bellarmin,  who  encouraged  bim  to  wait 
upon  the  pope.    At  tfai^  interview  he  entertained  the  pomt 
ttff  with  an  artful  account  of  tiie  reports  tkat  w^efie  spi^eiMl 
all  over  Flanders,  and  even  at  Rome,  of  bis  boUaess'a  de<* 
sign  to  confer  tbe  purple  «pon  ham^  and  that  the  king  of 
Bpain  had  written  to^kia  boltnesa  iifMU  tbe  «>ceasion'.     Father 
More,  w^ho   furnishes  tbese  particulars,  lells  us  further^ 
that  Parsons  made  a  modest  speedb,  as  usual  an  -^uob  oo<» 
casions,  intimating  that  he  &ared  he  was  unworthy  of  se 
high  an   honour:  but  he  wsis  mncb  mortified  when  the 
pope,  Clement  VII  I.  wbo  was  moire  in  tbe  secret  than  h# 
supi>osed,  assured  him,  thait  be  bad  beard  toothing  from  tbufk 
Spaniards  upon  any  suich  subject;  that  idle  reports  were  iKOt 
to  be  minded  ;  that  he  was  very  well  satisfied  with  his  aer* 
vices,  and  exhorted  him  to  continue  in  tbe  same  ctmrae* 
The  truth  appeared  to  be,  that  the  pope  having  received 
many  complaints  of  him  from  the  secular  clergy.,  instead  of 
bringing  bim  into  tbe  sacred . college,  had  some  thoughta 
of  stripping  bim  of  tbe  posts  be  already  possessed.     Dis^ 
appointed  in  this  attempt,  and  threatened  with  such  dis^ 
grace,  Parsons  withdrew  on  pretence  of  health. to  Naples^ 
ai)d  did  »ot  return  to  .Rome  till  after  the  death' of  dlesaeot 
in  1606. 

But  this  check  did  not  hinder  him  from  exercisiog  bia 
j^uriedictfou  over  the  Romanists  in  England,  as  prefect  of 
the  English  mission  ;  and,  after  his  return  to  Rome»  tvi. . 
find  him  removuig  tbe  arch-presbyter  of  England,  Blaki* 
well,  for  taking  tbe  oath  «if  suptemaoy  to  James  I^  Hm 
likewise  obtained  a  brief  from  Paul  V.  to  deprive  all  such 
priesta  as  should  take  that  oatb ;  and  thus-fiontiuttad  aealoua 


PARSONS.  161 

ia  tbe  discharge  of  this  office  lo  the  last.  Father  Mdre 
bas.  given  copies  of  three  letters,  one  to  the  mission  in 
England,  another  to  the  rector  of  St.  Omer's,  and  the 
tibird  to  the  arcb^-presbyter  Berkit,  successor  to  Blakwell ; 
aU  dictated  by  him,  while  he  Jay  past  recovery  in  the 
opinioD  of  his  physicians.  The  last  was  Bhisbed  the.  13th 
of  April ;  and  the  fever^  which  bad  seized  him  on  the  lOtb^ 
pnt  a  period  to  his  life  on  the  18th,  1610..  Pope  Paul,  as 
sflfoti '  as  be  .  heard  of  his  illness,  indulged  him  in  all  the 
ceremonies  usually  granted. to  cardinals  at  the  point  of 
deathi-  His  body  was  afterwards  embalmed  and  interred^ 
pursuant  to  his  owa  request,  in  the  chapel,  of  his  college 
^  Rome^  close  to  that  of .  cardinal  AHen.  A  monument 
was.  soon  after  erected  to  his  memory,  with  an  inscription ; 
a-eopy.  of  which  may  be  seen  in  Ribadineira's  Bibl.  Soc, 
Jes.  under  the  letter  P.  . 

The  character  of  father  Parsons  was  variously  reprei- 
aented  by  proteatants  and  catholics,  but  even  the  latter 
are  not  agreed.  More  recent  writers  seem'  litde  disposed 
to  eieyate  it,  although  belonging  to  the  same  communiofi. 
B«rringtoii»  who  has  draWn  a  very  impartial  character^ 
begins  with  asserting  that  *^  intrigue,  device,  stratagem, 
and  all  the  crooked  policy  of  the  Miachiavelian  school,"  aria 
associated  with  the  sound  of  his  name.  Dodd,  the  getie^al 
biographer  of  the  popish  writers,  is  not  without  a  consider-* 
able  degree  of  impartiality  in  characterizing  Parsohs,.hut 
yet  appears  more  zealous  to  defend  him  than  strict  impar- 
tiality admits.  Parsons,  however,  was  certainly  a  man  of 
talents,  and  beyond  comparison  th^  best  wiiter  of  his  party. 

His  works  are,  1.  *^  A  brief  Discourse,  containing  the 
ReasMs  why  Catholics  refuse  to  go  to  Church,"  with  a  De- 
dication to  Queen  Elizabeth,  under  the  fictitious  name  of 
John  .Howlet,  dated  Dep.  i5,  .1580.  2.  ^<  Reasoos  for 
his  coming  into  the  Mission  of  England,  &c."  by  sonrie 
ascribed  to  Campian.  3.  "  A  brief  Censure  upon  two 
Books,  written  against  the  Reasons  aud  Proofs."  4.  "  A 
Discovery,  of  John  Nichols,  misreported  a  Jesuit;"  all 
written  and  printed  while  the  author  was  in  England.  5. 
**  A  Defence  of  the  Censure  given  upon  his  two  Books; 
&.C."  15&3.  6.  "  De  persecutione  Anglicana  epistola,'* 
Rome  and  Ingolstadt,  1582.  7.  "  A  Christian  Directory," 
1583.  8.  "  A  Second  Part  of  a  Christian  Directory,  &c.*' 
i591.  l^bese  tvvo  parts  being  printed  erroneously  at  Lon^- 
doB,  Parsons  published  an  edition  of  them  under  this  title: 

Vol.  XXIV.  M 


162 


PARSONS. 


^<  A'  Christian  Directorj,  guidiog  miein  to  their  Salvatioiri; 
&c.  with  many  corrections  and  additions  by  the  Author, 
himself."  This  book  is  really  an  excellent  one,  and  wa» 
afterwards  put  into  modern  English  by  Dr.  Stanhope,  dean 
of  Canterbury ;  in  which  form  it  has  gone  through  eight  or 
ten  editions.  9.  ^*  Responsio  ad  Eliz.  Reginse  edkctum 
contra  Catholicos,"  Romse,  1593,  under  the  name  of  And. 
Philopater.  10.  '^  A  Conference  about  the  next  Succes* 
sion  to  the  Crown  of  England,  &c."  1594,  under  the 
feigned  name  of  Doleman.  This  piece  was  the  production 
of  cardinal  AHen,  Inglefield,  and  others,  who  furnished 
the  materials,  which  Parsons,  who  had  a  happy  talent  thi» 
way,  put  into  a  proper  methods  Parsons's  style  is  among 
the  best  of  the  Klizabethan  period*.  11.  ^^  A  temperate 
Ward  word  to  the  turbulent  and  seditious  Watchword  of  sir 
t^r.  Hastings,  knight,"  &c.  1599,  under  the  same  name.. 
12.  "  A  Copy  of  a  Letter  written  by  a  Master  of  Arts  at 
Cambridge,  &c."  published  in  1583.  This  piece  was  com- 
siionly  called  "  Father  Parsons's  Green  Coat,"  being  sent 
from  abroad  with  the  binding  and  leaves  in ,  that  livery, 
but  there  seems  reason  to  doubt  whether  this  was  his  (see 
4Ath.  Ox.  vol.  XL  new  edit,  note,  p.  74).  13.  "  Apologe- 
tical  Epistle  to  the  Lords  of  her  Majesty's  Privy  Council,. 
&c."  1601.  14.  "  Brief  Apology,  or  Defence  of  the  Ca-. 
*  tholic  Ecclesiastical  Hierarchy  erected  by  pope  Clement 
VIIL  &c."  St.  Omers,  1601.  15.  "A  Manifestation  o£ 
the  Folly  and  bad  Spirit  of  secular  Priests,'*  1 602.  1 6.  "  A 
Becachordon  often  Quodlibetical  Questions,"  1602.  17.* 
"  De  Peregrinatione."  18.  **  An  Answer  to  O.  E.  whether 
Papists  or  Protestants  be  true  Catholics," .  1 603.  1 9.  "  A 
Treatise  of  the  three  Conversions  of  Paganism  to  the 
Christian  Religion,"  published  (as  are  also  the  two  folk>'w-^ 
fng)  under  the  name  of  N.  D.  (Nicholas  Doleman),  in  3. 


*  The  intention  of  this  book  was  to 
•up|V)rt  the- title  of  the  Infanta  against 
that  of  king  James,  after  the  death  of 
^ueen' Elizabeth,  and  to  prove  that 
there  are  better  titles  than  lineal  de- 
scent It  is^reoiarkable  that  this  wea- 
pon, which  was  obliquely  aimed  at 
Elizabeth,  should  afterwards  be  em- 
ployed against  Charles  1.  Ibbotson's 
pamphlet  concerning  the  power  of  par- 
Laments,  &c.  which  was  published  pre- 
paratory^ to  the  destruction  of  that 
prince,  was  no  more  than  a  republica- 
lioa  of  X^Qleraan  (or  PurtODs),  with 


very  few  alterations.  Bradshaw's  lonf 
speech  at  the  king's  condemn ati0O|,' 
and  a  considerable  part  of  MiltonTs 
*'  Defensio  pro  Populo  Angl."  are 
chiefly  borrowed  from  the  same  per- 
formance ;  and  it  was  even  reprinted 
in  1681,  when  the  parliament  were  de- 
bating the  subject  of  the  exclnaioii  of 
the  duke  of  York;  but  in  1683  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxfonl  ordered  it  to  b« 
burnt  by  the  hands  of  the  hangman. 
Podd  labours  hard  to  prove  that  Par- 
touf  was  not  the  aathor  of  it. 


V. 


PARSONS.  161 

Tbis.  1 2mo, ,  1 603,  1 604.  20.  "  A  Relation  of  a  Trial  made, 
before  the  king  of  France  in  1600,  between  the  bishop. of 
Ei^reux  ancl  the  lord  Plessis  Mornay,"  1604.  21.  "A. De- 
fence of  the  preciedent  Relation,  &c."  22.  "A  Review, 
of  ten  public  Disputations,  &c.  concerning  the  Sacrifices 
and  Sacranjent  of  the  Altar,"  leo*.  23.  '<  The  Forerun- 
ner of  Bell's  Downfall  of  Popery,"  1605.  24.  "An  An- 
swer to  the  fifth  Part  of  the  Reports  of  Sir  Edward  Coke, 
&c."  1606,  4to,  published  under  the  name  of  a  Catholic; 
Divine.  25.^^  De  sacris  alienis  ndn  adeundis,-  queatipnes 
duae,"  1607.  26.  "  A  Treatise  tending  to  Mitigation  to-* 
wards  Catholic  subjects  in  England,  against  Thomas  Mor- 
ton (afterwards  bishop  of  Durham),"  1607.  27.  ."  The 
Judgment  of  a  Cathplic  Gentleman  concerning  king  James's 
Apology,  &c."  1608.  28.  "  Sober  Reckoning  with  Thomas 
Mortoo,"  1609.  29.  "A  Discussion  of  Mr.  Barlow's 
Answer^  to  the  Judgment  of  a  Catholic  Englishman  con- 
cealing the  Gath  of  Allegiance,"  1612.  This  book  being 
left  not  quite  finished  at  the  author's  death,  was  afterwards 
completed  and  published  by  Thomas  Fitzherbert.  .The 
following  are  also  posthiicftous  pieces  :  30.  <^  The  Liturgy^ 
of  the  Sacrament  of  the  Mass,"  1620.  31.  "A  Memorial 
for.  Reformation,  &c.  ;"  thought  to  be  the  same  with' 
"The  High  Court  and  Council  of  the  Reformation,'** 
finished  after  twenty  years'  labour  in  1596,  but  not  pub- 
lished till  after  Parsons's  death ;  and  republished  from  a 
copy  presented  to  James  II.  with  an  introduction  and  some 
animadversions  by  Edward  Gee,  under  the  title  of,  "  The 
Jesuits  Memorial  for .  the  intended  Reformation  of  the 
Church  of  England  under  tbieir  first  Popish  Prince,"  1690, 
Svo.  32.  There  is  also  ascribed  to  him,  "  A  Declaratioa 
of  the  true  Causes  of  the  great  Troubles  pre-supposed  to 
be  intended  against  the  Realm  of  England,  &c..  Seen 
and  allowed,  anno  1581."  33.  Parsons  also  translated 
from  the  English  into  Spanish,  ^^  A  Relation  of  certain 
Martyrs  Jn  England^"  printed  at  Madrid  1590,  Svo.  Seve- 
ral of  bis  MSS.  are  preserved  in  Baliol  college  library,  pac- 
ticularly  a  curious  one  entitled  ^^  Epitome  controversiarum 
hujus  temporis."  ^  « 

PARUTA   (Paul),   a  noble  Venetian,  born   in    1540, 
was  made  historiographer  of  the  republic  in  1579,  and 

*  Ath.  Ox.  ?ol.  I.  new  edit. — Biog.  Brit.  art.  Parsons.— Dodd's  Ch.  Hist. — 
Berrin^on's  Panzani,  Iniroduction^  p.  24. — Gent.  Mag.  LXIV.-  wher«  is  a  fine 
portrait  of  Panons . 

M  2 


U^  P  A  R  U  T  A. 

afterwards  was  employed  in  aereral  embassies,  was  xnida 
goirernor  of  Brescia,  and  finally  elected  a  procurator  ot 
St.  Mark.  Sucb  was  his  character  for  wisdom,  integrity, 
and  aeal  for  the  public  welfare,  that  be  was  called  the 
Cato  of  Venice.  He  died  in  1598,  at  the  age  of  58.  He 
culti^ed  the  sciences  and  general  literature,  and  was  tfao 
author  of  several  works  of  merit.  Among  these  are : 
*i  DeUa  Perfczioue  della  vita  Political'*  "  Dbcorsi  PoU^r 
tici,'*  published  by  his  sons  in  1599 ;  "  A  HistcNry  of  Ve-* 
nioe,  from  i5l3  to  1551,  with  the  Addition  of  an  Aceouni 
of  the  War  of  Cyprus  :''  written  silso  in  Italian,  but  he  had 
begun  to  write  it  in  Latin,  in.  imitation  of  the  style  o£ 
Sallust,  and  had  finished  foiiir  books  in  that  language.  A 
new  edition  of  this  history  was  given  by  Apostolo  Zeno  in 
1T03.* 

i  PARUTA  (Philip)^  a  learned  antiquary,  was  a  t^oble  of 
Palermo,  and  secretary  to  the  senate  of  that  city,  where 
1^  died  in  1629.  He  was  author  of  several  works,  but  is 
principally  known  by  his  ^*  SiciliadescrittaconMedaglie,'* 
Palermo,  1612,  fol.  This  wovk  waa  afterwards  enlarged 
by  LeoBardo  Agostini,  and  printed  at  Roiae  in  1649,  and 
at  Lyons  in  1697.  Havercan^  published  a  Latin  edition 
of  it  in  three  volumes  folio,  1 72^3,.  which  makes  part  of  the 
Italian  Antiquities  of  Gra&vius  and  Barman*  * 
♦  PAS.     See  FEUQUIERJES. 

'  PASCAL  (Blaisk),  a  French  matbemfatician  and  philo«« 
aopber,  and  one  of  the  greatest  geniuses  and  best  writers 
that  country  has  produced^  was  horn  at  Clermont  in  Au« 
vergne,  June  19,  1623.  His  father,  Stephen  Pascal,  was 
president  of  the  Court  of  Aids  in  his  province,  and  was 
aleo  a  very  learned  man,  an  able  naathematiciai^  and  a 
friend  of  Des  Cartes.  Having  an  extraordinary  tenderuess 
for  this  child,  his  only  son,  he  quitted  bis  office  and 
settled  at  Paris  in  1631,  that  he  might  be  quite  at  leisure 
|o  attend  to  bis  son's  education,  of  which  he  was  the  sole 
superintendant,  yoiing  Pascal  never  having  had  any  other 
master.  From  his  infancy  Blaise  gave  proofs  of  a  very 
extraordinary  capacity.  He  was  extremely  inquisitive ; 
desiring  to  know  .the  reason  of  every  thing;  and  when 
ffiood  reasons  were  not  given  him,  he  would  seek  for  better; 
nor  would  he  ever  yield  his  assent  but  upon  aucb  as  'ap<» 
peared  to  him  well  grounded.     What  is  told  9f  his  manner 

1  Chaufepic-^Nicerod,  rol.  XI.       «  Laiidi  Hist.  I<it.  d»ltaUe.--Pict  mst. 


PASCAL.  166 

of  learning  the  matbemattcsy  as  well  as  the  progress  h^ 
qui ckiy  made  in  tliat  Bcienct^,  neems  almost  ttiiractilou^. 
His  fatfaier,  perceiving  in  him  an  extraordinary  inclination 
to  reasoning,  was  aiVaid  lest  the  knowledge  of  x)k6  madie« 
nutics  mig^ht  hinder  bis  learning  th«  languages,  so  n^eces^ 
sary  att  a  foundation  to  all  sotind  leaming.  He  therefore 
kept  hitti  as  much  a«  he  eo^ld  fnom  all  notion's  of  geometry^ 
locked  ap  alt  hn  books  of  ttuae  kind,  and  refrained  even 
from  speaking  of  it  in  his  presence.  He  eonld  not  h<^^ 
ever  pmvetit  his  son  from  mmitig  oti  that  -seiefice ;  and 
one  day  io  pani«(^Ut  he  «ar(kised  him  at  work  with  ehat*^ 
t^at  upon  his  isfaamber  ftdor,  and  i«i  the  mid^  of  figu^ea; 
The  father  asked  Idm  what  he  was  doing  r  'M  am  search^ 
mg/^  says  ^Alcai)  <<fe>r  sueh  athing;^'  whitsh  was  jtist  the 
sanve  as  the  3!2d  proposition  of  the  1  lU  book  of  Euclid.  Ht 
asked  hiai  then  how  he  came  to  think  of  this :  *^  It  was/' 
^ys  Blaise,  *'  because  I  fonnd  o«i t soch  another  thing ;'^  and 
•o,  going  backw«ird,  and  ysing  th^  names  of  bdl^  aAd  roiuid, 
be  came  at  length  to  tbe  definitions  and  axioms  he  had 
foimed  to  himself.  Of  this  singalar  progress  we  are 
assured  by  his  sifter,  madame  Perier,  and  several  other 
pnrsons,  the  credit  of  whos^  testimony  cannot  reasonably 
be  questiotied. 

From  this  time  he  had  full  liberty  to  indnlge  his  genius 
in  mathematical  pursuits.  He  understood  £uclid^s  Ele« 
fnents  as  soon  as  he  cast  his  eyi^s  npon  them.  At  sixteen 
years  of  age  he  wrote  a  treatise  on  Conic  Actions,  which 
wasaccotmted  a  great  effoft  of  genius;  so  mnch  so,  that 
Des  Cattes,  who  had  been  in  Holland  a  long  time,  upon 
i?eading  it,  fancied  that  M.  Pascal  ikte  father  was  tbe  reiA 
author  of  it.  At  nineteen  he  cofrtrived  an  admirable  arith-* 
tnetioal  machine,  whit^hwoald  have  done  credk  as  an  'm^^ 
rention  to  any  man  vei'led  in  tetence,  and  much  more  to 
tittch  a  yoath. 

AboHt  this  time  his  health  became  so  impaired^  that  he 
was  obliged  to  suspend  his  labours  for  the'  space  of  fbur 
years.  After  this,  having  seen  Tbrricelli^s  experiment  re* 
apf^cting  a  Tacanm  and  the  Weight  of  the  air,  he  turned 
his  thoaghts  towards  these  objects,  and  nndertook  several 
new  experiments,  one  of  which  was  as  follows:  having 
provided  a  glass  tube,  46  feet  in  length,  open  at  oiie  end^ 
and  hermetically  sealed  at  the  other,  he  fiiied  it  with  red 
wine,  that  be  might  distinguish  tbe  liquor  from  the  tube, 
(Mid  stopped  up  the  orifice  j  then  having  inverted  it,  ^and 


I66r  PASCAL. 

placed  it  in  a  .vertical  position^  with  the  lower' end. itB.<« 
mersed  into  a  vessel  of  water  one  fqot  deep,  he  opened  the 
lower  end,  and  the  wine  descended  xo  the  distance  of 
about  32  feet  from' the  surface  of  the  vessel,  leaving  a  eon« 
siderable  vacuum  at  the  upper  part  of  the  tube.  He  next 
inclined  the  tube  gradually,  till  the  upper  end.  becanie 
only  of  32  feet  perpendicular  height  above  the  bottom,  and 
be  observed  the  liquor  proportionally  ascend  up  to  the 
top  of  the  tube.  He  made  also  a  great  many  experiments 
with  siphons,  syringes,  bellows,  and  all  kinds  of  tubes, 
making  use  of  different  liquors,  »uch  as  quicksilver,  water, 
wine,  oil,  &c. ;  and  having  published  them  in  1647,  he 
dispersed  his  work  through  all  countries. 
•  All  these  experiments,  however,  only  ascertained  effects, 
.without  demonstrating  the  causes.  Pascal  knew  that  Tor- 
xicelli  conjectured  that  those  phenomena  which  :he  had 
observed  were  occasioned  by  the  weight  of  the  air,  though 
they  had  formerly  been  attributed  to  Nature's  abhorrence 
of  a  vacuum :  but  if  Torricelii's  theory  were  true,  he  rei^* 
soned  that  the  liquor  in  the  barometer  tube  ought  to  stand 
higher  at  the  bottom  of  ^  hill,  than  at  the  top  of  Jt*.  An 
order  therefore  to  discover  the  truth  of  this  theory,  h^ 
made  an  experiment  at  the  top  apd  bottom  of  a  mountain 
in  Auvergne,  called  le  Puy  de  DomCy  the  result  of  which 
gave  him  reason  to  conclude  that  the  ait  was  indeed  heavy. 
Of  this  experiment  he  published  an  account,  and  sent 
copies  of  it  to  most  of  the  learned  men  in  Europe.  He 
also  renewed  it  at  the  top  and  bottom  pf  several  high 
towers,  as  those  of  Notre  Dame  at  Paris,  St.  Jaques  de  la 
Boucherie,  &c.;  and  always  remarked  rthe  same  difference 
in  the  weight  of  the  air,  at  different  elevations.  This  fully- 
convinced  him  of  the  general  pressure  of  the  atmosphere  ; 
smd  from  this  discovery  he  drew  many  useful  and  iolporr 
tant  inferences.  He  composed  also  a  large  treatise,  in 
which  he  fully  explained  this  subject,  and  replied  to  .all 
the  objections  that  had  been  started  against  it.  As  be 
jtifterwards  thought  this  work  rather  too  prolix,  and  being 
fond  of  brevity  and  precision,  he  divided  it  into  two  small 
treatises,  one  of  which  he  entitled  "A  Dissertation  on  the 
Equilibrium  of  Fluids ;''  and  the  other,  ^^  An  Essay  on  the 
Weight  of  the  Atmosphere."  These  labours,  procured 
Pascal  so  much  reputation,  that  the  greatest  mathemati*^ 
cians  and  philosophers  of  the  age  proposed  various  que^-* 
tiods  to  him,  and  consulted  hioi  respecting  such  di(&cultie4 


PASCAL.  Ul 

T«s  they  could  not  resolve*  Upon  one  of  these  oceasioiii? 
'he  discovered  the  solution  of  a  problem* proposed  by  Me^- 
seone,  which  had  baf&ed  the  penetration  of  all  that  had 
attempted  it«  This  problem  was  to  determine  the  curve 
.described  in  the  air  by  the  nail  of  a  coaqh-wheel^  while 
the  machine  is  in  motion ;  which  curve  was  thence  called 
a  FoulIette>  but  now  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  cy« 
eloid.  Pascal  offered  a  reward  of  40  pistoles  to  any  one 
who  should  give  9  satisfactory  answer  to  it.  No  person 
having  succeeded,  he  published  his  own  at  Paris ;  but,  as 
lie  ,begaji  now  to  be  disgusted  with  the  sciences,  he  would 
.not  set  bis  real  ntame  to  it,  but  i^eot  it  abroad  under  that 
«f  A.  d'Ettooville.  This  wasthe  last  work  which  he  pub** 
lished  in  the  mathematics;  his  infirmities,  from  a  delicate 
jconstitutiop,  though  still  young,  now  increasing  so  much, 
.that  he  was  under  the  necessity  of  renouncing  severestudy, 
iiuid  of  living  so  repluse,  that  be  scarcely  admitted  any 
person  to  se^  him.  Another  subject  on  which  P^sc^l  wrota 
•very  ingeniously,  and  in  which  he  has  been  spoken  of  af 
jBLU  inventor,  was;  what  has  been  called  his  Arithtnetical 
Triangle,  being  a  set  of  figurate  numbers  disposed  in  that 
jTorm.  But  such  a  table  of  numbers,  and  many  properties 
of  them,  had  been  treated  of.  more  than  a  century  before^ 
py.  Cardan,  Stifelius,  and  other  arithmetical  writers. 

After  having  thus  laboured  abundantly  in  ipathematical 
wd  philosophical  disquisitions,  he  forsook  those  studies 
and  all  human  learning  at  onc^  to  devote  himself  to  acts 
4of  devotion  and  penance^  He  was  not  tweaty^four  years 
of  age,  when  the  reading  some  pious  books  had  put  him 
ppon  taking  this  resolution ;  and  he  became  as  great  a  de- 
votee as  any  age  has  produced.  He  now  gave  himself  up 
entirely  to  a  state  of  prayer  and  mortification  ;  and  he  had 
|tlwa3&s  in  his  thoughts  these  great  maxims  pf  renouncing 
all  pleasure  wd  aU  superfluity  ;  and  this  he  practised  with 
ligour  even  in  his  illnesses,  to  which  he  was  frequently 
,^bject,  being  of  a  very  invalid  habit  of  body. 

.Though  P^tscal  bad  thus  abstracted  himself  from  the 
.  W^orld^  yet  he  could  not  forbear  paying  some  attention  to 
what  was  doing  in  it;  and  he  even  interested  himself  in 
the  contest,  between  the  Jesuits  and  the  Jansenists.  Tak- 
ing the  side  of  the  latter,  he  wrote  his  celebrated  "  Let- 
tees  Provinciales,^',  published  in  1656,  under  the  name  of 
jCouis  de  MimtaltCf  making  the  former  the  subject  of  ridii- 
..  i^e.    **  TTl^ese  letters,"  says  Voltaire,  "  may  be  consider^ 


m  i^  A  S  C  A  t. 

tti  k  mod^l  of  i^loqu^TXits  mA  huifioiir.  Ttae  btfMTcOff^^i^ 
of  Moli^re  have  dot  ntbr^  vrit  thtfn  the  first  part  of  tb^b 
letters ;' and  the  sublimity  6f  the  iauet  part  of  tb^tfi  i^ 
equal  to  aify  thing  in  Bossu^t*  It  is  true  indeed  that  tb« 
whole  book  was  bdiUupon  a  fftlsfe  fouhdatioh  \  for  the  4ixi. 
travagAnt  notions  of  a  f^w'Spariish  and  Fl^ttil^h  Jesuits  were 
artfully  ascribed  i\S  the  whole  sociexy.  Mdny  absurdtti^ 
ttiight  Hk6wise  have  been  discovered  affk)D«f  the  Dominican 
and  Franciscan  tasuisis;  bii!  this  would*  rfOt  hav^  answered 
the  purpose ;  for  tftfe  whole  raillei^y  was  to  be  ieved^  only 
at  the  Jesuits.  Thdse  letters  were  int€'nded  to  pi'o^e,  that 
the  Jesuits  had  formed  d  d^sigti  td  corrupt  mankind ;  -h 
design  which  no  sect  oi*  sociefjr  evtr  had,  or  can  hftre.'* 
Here,  however,  Voltaire  is  not  altogether  cori'ect ;  for  th^ 
Jesuits  cited  by  Pascal,  were  considered,  as  oracles  by 
theii*  order ;  and  the  ^hole  society  always  acted  so  system 
Ihatically  as  a  body,  that  th^  ddcirines  of*onG  may  beimw 
puted  to  the  rest,  ttiore  fairly  than  in  any  othef  class  <rf 
tneh\ '  Voltaire  calls  Pascal  the  first  of  their  satirists;  fot 
toespr^aux,  saj's  be,  nlu&t  be  considered  ai  only  thfe  ie^' 
cond.  In  another  placd,  Speaking  df  this  work  <rf  Pascal^ 
he  says,  that  "exarfiples  of  all  thd  various  spades  of  elp** 
quence  are  to  be  fburtd  in  it.  Thoiigh  it  has  now  beeA 
written  almost  100  years,  yet  riot  a  single  word  occurs  irt 
It,  savouring  of  that  vicissitude  t6  which  living  languages 
^re  so  subject.  Here  then-  we  are  to  fix  the  epoch  wheti 
6ur  language  may  be  sdid  to  have  sujsunried  A  settled  fofm; 
The  bishop  of  Lucori,  k)ti  of  the  celebrated  Biissy,  told 
itie,  that  asking  one  day  the  bi^hdp  of  Meaair  What  Work 
he  would  covet  mbst  to  be  the  author  of,  sU)>posing  hi^ 
6wn  performances  set  iiside,  Bossu  replied,  •  The  Proviil^ 
6ial  Letters*."  These  letters  were  first  published  in  1^59, 
l2mo,  an  edition  highly  valued,  and  were  aJFfcerwards  trans« 
lated  into  all  languages,  and  printed  over  and  bver  agaio; 
Some  have  said  that  there  were  decrees  of  fdrmfal  cohdeld-^ 
nation  against  them ;  and  also  that  Pascal  himself  ill  his 
last  illness,  detested  them,  and  repented  bf  tlaVrng  been  a 
Jansehist :  but  both  these  particulars  are  without  foi:inda<>; 
tion.  It  was  supposed  that  father  Daniel  was  the  inony* 
mous  author  of  a  piece  against  tlieih,  entitled  **  The  Dia-« 
logues  of  Oleander  and  Eudoxusi" 

Pascal  was  but  about  thirty  years  oJF  age  when  these  li?t* 
ters  were  published ;  yet  he  was  extremely  infirm,  and  his 
disorders  increasing  soon  after  so  much,  that  he  conceived- 


PASCAL.  169 

bk  ttid  fiu^  ftpptoaching^  he  gtiTe  tip  all  farther  thoughts 
d€  literary  composition.  He  resolved  to  spend  the  remain^, 
der  of  his  days  in  retirement  and  pious  meditation ;  and 
i^tb  this  view  be  broke  off  all  his  former  connections, 
changed  bis  habitation^  and  spoke  to  no  one,  not  even  to 
Us  own  servants,  and  hardly  ever  even  admitted  them  into 
his  room.  He  made  his  own  bed,  brought  his  dinner  from 
the  kitchen^  and  (tarried  back  the  plates  and  dishes  in  the 
evening;  so  that  he  employed  his  servants  only  to  cook 
for  bim>  to  go  to  town,  and  to  do  such  other  things  as  he 
could  not  absolutely  do  bimsejf.  In  his  chamber  nothing 
was  to  be  seen  but  two  or  three  chairs,  a  table,  a  bed,  and 
a  few  books.  It  had  ho  kind  of  ornament  whatever ;  he 
had  neither  a  carpet  on  the  floor,  nor  curtains  to  his  bed. 
But  this  did  not  prevent  him  from  sometimes  receiving 
visits ;  and  when  his  friends  appeared  surprised  to  see  him 
thfis  without  furnitdre,  he  replied,  that  he  had  what  was 
necessary,  and  that  any  thing  else  would  be  a  superfluity, 
unworthy  of  a  wise  man.  He  employed  his  time  in  prayer, 
and  in  treading  the  Scriptures  ;  writing  down  such  thoughts 
as  this  exercise  inspired.  Though  his  continual  infirmities 
obliged  him  to  use  very  delicate  food,  and  though  his  ser- 
vatlts  employed  the  utmost  cave  to  provide  only  what  was 
^iccelient,  he  never  relished  what  he  ate,  and  seemed 
quite  indifierent  whether  they  brought  him  good  or  bad. 
ii is  indifference  in  this  respect  was  so  great,  that  though 
his  ^aste  was  not  vitiated,  he  forbad  any  sauce  or  ragout  to 
be  made  fat  him  which  might  excite  his  appetite. 

Though  Pascal  had  now  given  up  intense  study,  and 
though  be  lived  in  the  most  temperate  manner,  his  health 
continued  to  decline  rapidly;  and  his  disorders  had  so  en*- 
feebled  his  organs,  that  his  reason  became  in  some  mea- 
Mte  affected.  H6  always  imagined  that  he  saw  a  deep 
abyss  on  one  side  of  him,  and  he  never  would  sit  down  till 
a  chair  was  placed  there,  to  secure  him  from  the  dangler 
Which  he  apprehended.  At  another  time  he  pretended 
that  he  had  a  kind  of  vision  or  ecstasy ;  a  memorandum  of 
ithith  he  preserved  during  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  a 
Mt  of  paper,  put  between  the  cloth  and  the  lining  of  his 
coat,  and  which  he  always  carried  about  him.  Some  of  the 
JesuitSTeproached  him  with  insanity ;  but  his  disorder  had 
nothing  more  in  it  than  a  fever,  or  a  vertigo.  During  the 
last  years  of  his  life,  indeed,  he  became  very  superstitious, 
and  exhibited  a  melancholy  example  of  human  infirmity 
in  that  respect. 


IW  t  A  S  C  A  !• 

'  In  company  Pascal  was  distinguished  by  his  amiable  be* 
haviour,  by  bis  easy,  agreeable,  and  instructive  conversa- 
tion, and  by  great  modesty.  He  possessed  a  natural  kind 
of  eloquence,  which  was  in  a  manner  irresistible.  The  ar- 
guments he  employed,  for  the .  most  part  produced  the  ef- 
fect which  he  proposed  ;  and  though  his. abilities  entitled 
Jiim  to  assume  an  air  of  superiority,  he  never  displayed 
that  haughty  and  imperious  tone,  which  ipay  often  be  pb« 
served  in  men  of  shining  talents.  Toward  the  close  of  bis 
life,  he  employed  himself  whoHy  in  pipus  and ,  moral  re- 
flections, writing  down  those  which  he  judged  worthy  <^ 
being  preserved.  The  first  piece  of  paper  he  could  find 
was  employed  for  this  purpose ;  and  be  commonly  put 
down  only  a  few  words  of  each  sentence^  as  be  wrote 
them  merely  for  his  own  use.  The  bits  of  paper  uppu 
liirhich'he  had  written  these  thoughts,  were  found,  after  his' 
death,  filed  upon  different  pieces  of  string,  witho.ut  .any 
order  or  connection;  and  being  copied  exactly  as  they 
were  written,  they  were  afterwards  arranged  and  publisbed* 

Pascal  died  at  Paris,  August  19,  1662,  aged  thirty^-iiioef 
He  had  been  some  time  about  a  work  against  atheists  and 
infidels ;  but  he  did  not  live  long  enough  to  digest  the  ma-r 
terials  he  had  collected.  What  was  found  among,  his  papers 
was  published  under  the  title  ^*  Pens^es,''  or  Thougbts 
upon  Religion,  and  other  subjects;  and  has  been  much 
admired.  After  bis  deiath  appeared  also  two  other. little 
tracts ;  one  of  which  is  entitled  ^'  The  Equilibrium  of 
Fluids;"  and  the  other  ^^  The  Weight  of  the  mass  qf 
Air." 

The  celebrated  Menage,  in  that  collection  called  **  Me* 
nagiana,"  selects  the  two  following  passages  in  the  wri- 
tings of  M.  Pascal,  for  the  acute  observations  theycour 
tain :  "  Those  minds  which  are  capable  of  invention  are 
;very  scarce.  Those  to  whom  this  power  is  denied,  being 
much  the  greater  number,  are  of  course  the  prevailing 
party  ;  insomuch,  that  when  works  of  invention  come  for^ 
ward,  to  claim  the  praise  due  to  their  authors,  the  public 
opinion  treats  them  as  visionaries."  And  again,  ^'It  seems 
jptber  a  fortunate  circumstance,  that  some  conamon  error 
should  fix  the  wanderings  of  the  human  mind.  For  instancpi 
tb^  moon  is  supposed  to  influence  the  disorders  of  the  buf 
man  body,  and  to  cause  a  change  in  human  affairs,  &c. 
which  notion,  though  it  be  false,  is  not  without  its  advan*^ 
tage ;  as  men  are  thereby  restrained  from  an  inquiry  'i0tj| 


PASCAL.  171 

things  to^rhich  the  fafumai>  understanding  is  incompetent, 
•and  from  a  kind  of  curiosity  which  is  a  malady  of  the 
imind.'* 

The  works  of  Pascal  were  collected  in  five  volumes  oc* 
.tavo,  and  published  at  Paris  in  1779.  This  edition  of  Pas- 
cal's works  may  be  considered  as  the  first  published ;  at 
fleast  the  greater  part  of  them  were  not  before  collected  into 
«one  body ;  and  some  of  them  had  remained  only  in  manu- 
script. For  this  collection  the  public  were  indebted  tp 
the  abbot  Bossut,  and  Pascal  deserved  to  have  such  an 
editor.  "  This  extraordinary  man^"  says  he,  "  inherited 
,from  nature  all  the  powers  of  genius.  He  was  a  geome«- 
.trician  of  the  first  rank,  a  profound  reasoner,  and  a  sub- 
lime and  elegant  writer.  If  we  reflect^  that  in  a  very  short 
.life,  oppressed  by  continual  infirmities,  be  invented  a  cu- 
rious arithmetical  machine,  the  elements  of  the  calculation 
xjtf  chances,  and  a  method  of  resolving  various  .problems 
.respecting  the  cycloid ;  that  he  fixed  in  an  irrevocable 
manner  the  wavering- opinions  of  the  learned  respecting  * 
the  weight  of  the  air ;  that  he  wrote  one  of  the  completes^t 
:Works  which  exist  in  the  French  language;  and  that  in 
^Bis  thoughts  there  are  passages,  the  depth  and  beauty  of 
which  are  incomparable? — we  shall  be  induced  to  believe^ 
'that  a  greater  genius  never  existed  in  any  age  or  nation. 
AH  those  who .  had  occasion  to  frequent  his  company  in 
the  ordinary  commerce  of  the  world,  acknowledged  his  su- 
periority ;  but  it  excited  no  envy  against  him,  as  he  was 
never  fond  of  shewing  it.  His  conversation*  instructed^ 
without  making  those  who  heard  him  sensible  of  their  own 
{inferiority  ;  and.  he  was  remarkably  indulgent  towards  the 
faultsnof  others.  It  may  be  easily  seen  by  his  Provincial 
Xetters,  and  by  some  of  his  other  works,  that  he  was  born 
jRrith  a  great  fund  of  humour,  which  his  infirmities  could 
^ever  entirely  destroy.  In  company,  he  readily  indulged 
in  that-harmless  and  delicate  raillery  which  never  gives  of«- 
fence,  and  which  greatly  tends  to  enliven  conversation*; 
Jbut  its  principal  object .  generally  was  of  a  moral  nature. 
JPoT  example,  ridiculing  those  authors  who  say,  *^  my  book, 
my  commentary,  my  history;  they  would  do  better,''  added 
J>e,  **  to  say  o^r  book,  aur  commentary,  ot^r  history ;  mibt 
^here  are  in  them  much  more  of  other  people's  tbaa  their 


A  Life  by  Bossat  and  by  madsune  Perler.—Hutton's  Dictionary.— Tbomion's 
Hist,  of  the  Royal  Society,  &c. 


172  P  A  S  C  H  A  S  I  U  S. 

PASCHASruS  tlATB£RT^  a  celebrated  llenedictiii^ 
of  the  dinth  century,  was  born  at  Soissonsy  and  carefully 
educated  by  the  monks  of  Notre  Dame  jn  his  native 
-city,  in  the  exterior  part  of  their  abbey.  He  afterwards 
took  the  religious  habit  under  St.  Adelard  in  the  abbey  of 
Corbey^  and  during  the  exile  of  his  abbot  Wala,  who  suc^ 
eeeded  Adelard,  wrote,  about  the  year  831,  a  treatise 
"  On  the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ;*'  for  the  instnictioti 
of  the  young  monks  at  New  Corbey  in  Saxony,  where  he 
teaches,  that  the  same  body  of  Christ  which  was  born  df 
the  Virgin,  which  was  crucified,  rose  again,  and  ascended 
iikto  heaven,  is  really  present  in  the  Eucharist.  This  trea- 
ti^  made  a  great  noise  in  the  reign  of  Charles  the  BaU. 
Bertram  (otherwise  Ratram),  John  Scotus  Erigena,  and 
-some  others,  wrote  against  Paschasius,  who  was  then 
Abbot  of  Corbey ;  and  Frudegard,  abbot  of  New  Corbey, 
Wrote  to  him  on  the  subject  about  the  year  8^64,  in*- 
forming  him  that  many  persons  understood  in  a  figu^ 
yative  sense  the  words  "  this  is  my  Body ;  this  is  my 
Blood,*'  in  the  institution  of  the  Eucharist,  and  supported 
theinselves  on  the  authority  of  St.  Augustine.  Paschasiua 
on  the  other  side  maintained  that  be  taught  nothing  in  hia 
treatise  different  from  the  faith  of  the  church,  nor  from 
what  had  been  tiniversaliy  believed  from  the  time  of  thO 
apostles;  but  these  disputes^  together  with  some  dis* 
turbances  raised  against  htm,  induced  htm  to  resign  hia 
«ibbey,  and  he  died  soon  after,  April  26,  in  theyea^  8€5. 
lie  was  only  a  deacou,  having  declined  taking  piiest*a 
orders  from  a  principle  of  humility.  Claude,  and  several 
other  protestant  writers,  have  asserted  that  Paschasius  waa 
the  fifst  who  taught  the  doctrine  of  thi  real  presence;  but 
the  popish  writers  maintain  that  this  doctrine  has  been  al^ 
ways  believed  and  taught  in  the  Romish  church.  Hift  ye*- 
ttiaining  works  are,  "  Commentaries"  on  St.  Matthew^  oft 
l^alm  xliv.  and  on  the  Lamentations  of  Jeremiah;  *<Tbe 
Life  of  St.  Adelard,'*  and  other  works  in  the  Library  of  the 
Fathers,  which  Father  Sirmond  printed  separatoly  at  Parla^ 
1€18,  folio.  Father  d'Acheti,  in  tom.XlL  of  his  "  Spi- 
Oiteglum,  has  published  Paschasius  Ratbert*a  treatiao  *^  Bt 
Partu  Virginis  ;'*  another  question  itiudi  agitated  in  iho 
.  iiimh  century.  His  treatise  "  De  Corpore  Chriatl**  baa 
been  inserted  by  Martenne  in  his  collection,  where  it  ia 
'    more  accurate  than  in  P.  Sinnond*s  edition.  V 

>  Care,  toI.  U.— Dupin.— Diet,  HHrt.  de  L'Avoeat 


P  A  S  O  R..  ^79 

PASOR  (Matthias),  the  son  of  George  Pasw,  a  learned 
professor  of  divinity  and  Hebrew  in  the  academy  of  Her«> 
borne^  by  ApoUonia  bia  wife,  daughter  of  Peter  HepdschiiiSt , 
fliensttot  of  that  •  place,  was  bom  there  April  12,  I  $99. 
Discovering  a  very  docile  dispositipn,  he  was  carefully 
educated  in  the  elements  of  Greek  and  Latin  iu  his  native 
place,  until  the  appearance  of  the  plague  obliged  him  lo 
be  removed  toMarpurgia  1614;  but  the  following  year 
i^e  returned  toHerborne,  and  again  applied  hi^9e^lf  plosely 
to  bis  studies.  In  1616,  he  was  sent  to  Heidelberg;  and> 
meeting  there  with  skilful  professors,  he  i&ade  such  im** 
provement,  that  he  wuis  employed  as  a  tutor,  and  tavxght 
in  private,  both  mathematics  and  Hebrew^  He  was  ho** 
noured  also  with  the  degree  of  M.  A.  by  the  university  ixk 
Feb.  1617,  and  then  studied  divinity  under  David ^Pareus^ 
Abraham  Scultetus,  and  Henry  Alting. :  In  April  1620,  ha 
was  appointed  mathematical  professor ;  which  ofBoe  be  re* 
tained  until  Heidelberg  was  invested  by  the  duke  of  Bava«« 
ria^s  troops,  in  September  1622,  when  he  lojst  bis  books 
and  MSS.  and  narrowly  escaped  with  his  life  to  Herbprite» 
where  he  found  a  comfortable  employment  in  the  aci^ 
demy  till  1623.  .Proceeding  thence  to  Leydeo,  he  con- 
stantly attended  the  lectures  of  the  most  eminent  Dutch 
divines,  particularly  those  of  Erpenius  upon  Om.  Arabia 
Ji^ngue,  and  of  Snellius  upon  divinity. 

After  a  few  weeks  stay  at  this  university,  be  arrived  in 
{England;  and^  bringing  proper  testimonials  with  him  to 
Oxford,  was  incorporated  M.  A.  there,  in  June  1634..  Here 
be  began  to  teach  Hebrew  and  the  mathematics  privately^ 
but  at  the  end  of  the  year  took  a  tour  into  France  with 
some  gentlemen  of  Germany  ;  and  spending  the  winter  at 
Paris,  attended  the  lectures  of  Gabriel  Sionita,  regius  pro^ 
fessor  of  Syrtac  and  Arabic  :  who,  having  left  off  reading; 
ip  public  some  years  for  want  of  auditors,  wajs  prevailed 
upon  by  Pasor  to  resume  those  exercises  in  his  own  houses 
Having  much  improved  himself  under  this  excellent  mastety 
he  returned  to  Oxford  in  1625,  and  bad  chambers  in 
Exeter  college,  in  v^hieh  he  preferred  residing,  notwith* 
sounding  the  plague  had  ^dispersed  the  studeuis,.  rather 
than  go  to  Ireland  with  archbishop  Usher,  who  offered 
him  bis  table  and  a  handsome  pension.  As  soon  as  the  in* 
fection  ceased,  he  had  some  pupils,  either  in  divinity  or 
the  oriental  tongues;  and  in  tlie  latter  he  was  tutor  to  the 
celebrated  Pococke.  Afterwards,  upon  bis  petition,  he  was 


114  PASO  R. 

appointed  to  read  public  lectures  in  Arabic,  Cbaldee,  and 
Syriac,  twice  a  week  in  term  time,  in  the  divinit/-scbooI^* 
for  whicb  he  was  handsomely  rewarded.      He  held  this 
temporary  professorship  for  about  three  years  from  Oct.* 
1626,  during  which  time  he  also  delivered  a  Hebrew  lee— 
ture-in  New  college.     In  1629  he  accepted  an  invitation  to* 
be  professor  of  moral  philosophy  at  Groningen  ;  and,  upon' 
the  death  of  Muller,  the  mathematical  professor,  six  years- : 
itfiter,  Pasor  succeeded  to  that  chair;  but  when,  in  1645,'  < 
he  was  raised  to  that  of  divinity,  oJF  which  faculty  he  W3»- 
then  created  doctor,  be  resigned  his  mathematical  profes- 
sorship, retaining  that  of  moral  philosophy.     AH  these  fa*-   • 
vours  induced  him  to  remain  at  Groningen,  where  he  died- 
Jan.  28,  1658. 

He  published  few  books,  for  which  be  is  said  to  have' 
given  two  reasons:   first,    '*  Because  be  was  not  willing    ^ 
that  youth  should  be  diverted  from  reading  the  good  books' 
already  published  ;'*  arid  secondly,  **  Because  he  did  not' 
care  that  the  booksellers  should  risk  their  money."     Hes 
published,   however,    while  at   Oxford,    an   **  Oratio  pro- 
lingusB  Arabicas  professio^le,  publice  ad  academicos  babita 
in  Scbola  Tbeologica  universitatis  Oxon.  25  Oct,  1626,'* 
Oxon.  1627,  4to.     He   was   also   editor   of  those   useful- 
works    which   his    father   (who' died   in    1637)   compiled' 
for  the  use   of  Greek  scholars,  and  whicb  were  at  one* 
time  very   popular;    viz.   his   "  Manuale  GraeGorum  vo- 
cum    Novi    Testamenti,    deque   Graecis   N,  Testamenti; 
accentibus.''  Leyden,    1634,    12mo,    often    reprinted    BlV 
Herbom,  Amsterdam,   and   other  places ;  ^*  Syllabus  sive 
idea   omnium  Novi   Test,  dictionutn,    seu    diaiectorun^,'* 
] 2mo,  Amsterdam,  Franeker,  Francfort,  &c.  &c. ;  "Lex- 
icon Grseco-Latiuum  in  N.  Testanfientum,**  8vo.     There 
are  editions  of  this  printed  at  London,  Amsterdam,  Ge- 
i^eva,  &c.  and  two  at  least  with  Leusden's  ijfnprovementSy 
Amsterdam,  1675*,    and   Leipsic,   1695*.     George  Pasor 
was  nineteen  years  professor  at  Herbprn,  and  eleven  yeari^ 
at  Franeker,  where  he  was  buried  with  a  monumental  in- 
scription.    It  remains  to  be  mentioned,  that  a  Latin  life  of 
Matthew   Pasor    was  published,    containing   his  journal, 

^  Tn  the  Bodleian  catalogue  we  find  litia  Christiana  ;*'  "  Oratio  in  obitunif 

the  following  works  attributed  to  hioi :  J.  Piscatoris,"  ibid.  1624»  4to ;  '*  Am- . 

**£tymonpropriorumnominuminNov.  lysis  difBciliorum  vocum  in  openbaa 

Test."  Herborn,! 680, 8T03"Ptedagogu8  •  Hesiodi/' Amst.  162),  8vo,  often  re* 

Cbristianus  de  quiuque  religiunis  ca-  printed;  and  "  Index  ad  Hesiodani>*, 

^itibu8»\'  ibid.  1 624,  Syo; "  Oratio  de  mi-  Amst.  1701;  8ro. 


P  A  S  O  R.      .  175 

mttny  trifling  particulars  in  which,  Bayle  says,  ought  to 
have  been  left  out.  But  what  would  have  become  of 
Bayle^s  own  wotks,  particularly  his  Dictionary,  had  his* 
editors  left  out  what  was  trifling,  obscene,  and  impious  ?  ^ 

PASQUIER,  or  PAQUIER  (Stephen),  a  learned 
Fr^nchiqan,  was  born  in,  1528  at  Paris;  of  which  city  he* 
was  an  advocate  in  parliament,  afterwards  a*  counsellor,- 
and  at  last  advocate-general  in  the  chamber  of  accounts!. 
He  pleaded  many  years  with  very  great  success  before  the 
parliament,  where  be  was  almost  constantly  retained  in  the. 
most  difficult  causes,  and  every  day  consulted  as  an  oracle. 
He  did  not,  however,  confine  his  studies  to  the  law ;  but 
was  esteemed  a  general  scholar.  Henry  IH.  gave  hiin  the 
posb  of  advocate  of  the  chamber  of  accounts,  which  he  filled 
with  his  usual  reputation,  and  resigned  it  some  tim^  after 
to  Theodore  P^uier,  bis  eldest  son.  He  was  naturally' 
beneficent  and  generous ;  agreeable  and  easy  in  conversa* 
tion  ;  his  manner  sweet,  and  his  temper  pleasant.  >  He  died 
at  Paris,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-seven,  Aug. -31, 
1615,  and  was  interred  in  the  church  of  St.  Severin. 

His  works  show  considerable  knowledge  of  ancient  bis-r 
tory,  especially  that  of  France;  and  he  raised  no  little  re- 
putation by  his  attacks  on  the  Jesuits  in  his  <^  Les  Re- 
cherches,"  which  war  answered  by  father  Garasse.  His 
animosity  to  that  order  laid  him  in  some  measure  open  to 
(his  antagonist,  for  he  very  readily  adopted  any  story,  ever 
so  improbable,  which  he  heard  of  them  from  their  bitterest 
enemies.  All  his  works,  however,  are  written  with  de* 
gance  and  humour,  and  he  appears  to  have  been  formed! 
by  nature  equally  for  a  poet  and  a  lawyer.  His  works  were 
first  printed  together  atTrevoux,  and  passed  through  many 
editiousj  the  last  in  1665.  They  were  afterwards  printed 
along  with  those  of  his  son  Nicholas,  at  Amsterdam,  in  1 723, 
2  vols.  fol.  Of  his  ^^  Letters,"  the  best  edition  is  that  at 
Paris,  in  1619,  in  5  vols.  8vo.  His  "Poems"  consist  of 
one  book  "  Of  Portraits ;"  six  books  of  "  Epigrams  ;•■  and 
a  bo^k  of  "  Epitaphs."  But  in  this  collection  is  wanting 
his  "  Catechism  of  the  Jesuits ;"  instead  of  which  are  in-» 
iertied  the  letters  of  his  son  Nicolas.  Among  his  pieces  in 
verse,  "La  Puce"  had  atone  time  a  fashionable  reputa* 
tion.  It  is  entitled  "  La  Puce  des  grands  tours  de  Poitiers  ;'* 

I  •     •  » 

»  Effigies  et  Vit»  Prof.  Acad.  Groninga,"  1654,  fol— Gen,  Dicf.--Ath.  Ox. 
vol.  11.— Foppen  Bibl.  Belg,  toK  I.-^Saxii  Oaomatf. 


\is  P  A  S  Q  U  I  £  R. 

and  cotitaina  several  poems  upon  a  6ea  which  P&qnier 
spied  on  the  breast  of  tbe  learned  Catharine  de  Roches^  m 
a  visit  to  her  on  tbe  extraordinary  sessions  at  Poitiers  in 
1569.  Such  are  the  trifles  by  which  a  nation  is  sometimea 
aroused.  He  left  three  sons,  of  whom  the  eldest,  Tbao- 
dore,  was  advocate»generaI  in  the  chamber  of  accounts  i 
Nicolas,  master  of  requests,  whose  ^^  Letters'*  were  printed 
in  1623,  at  Paris,  containing  several  discourses  upon  the 
occurrences  in  France  in  tbe  time  of  Henry  IV.  and  Loaia 
XUL  ;  and  Guy,  who  was  auditcur  of  tbe  accounts.  ^ 
.  PASSE,  or  PAS  (Crispin),  tbe  chief  of  a  family  of  en*, 
gravers,  and  likewise  a  man  of  letters,  was  a  native  of 
Utrecht,  but  we  have  no  account  of  bis  education,  or  dates 
either  of  birth  or  death.  It  appears  that  he  applied  him- 
self very  early  in  life  to  tbe  study  of  the  arts,  and  particu** 
larly  delighted  in  drawing  and  designing  from  tbe  works  of 
the  most  eminent  artists  his  contemporaries.  He  was  sent 
by  prince  Maurice  to  teach  drawing  in  an  academy  at  Paris. 
At  what  time  he  came  to  England  is  not  very  clear  ;  none 
of  his  works  done  here  are  dated,  says  Vertue,  later  than 
1635.  From  tbe  paucity  of  English  beads  engraved  by 
Crispin,  and  other  circumstances,  lord  Orford  seems  in* 
dined  to  doubt  whether  he  ever  was  in  England,  and 
thinks  it  not  improbable  that  drawings  were  senttohioi 
from  this  country,  as  we  know  was  the  case  afterwards 
with  Houbraken,  when  he  was  employed  on  the  ^^  lUus-^ 
trious  Heads." 

How  long  he  lived  is  not  known*  His  fame  was  at  itt 
highest  from  1610  or  sooner  to  1643.  In  this  last  year^ 
when  probably  very  old,  he  published  at  Amsterdam  bia 
famous  drawing  book  in  Italian,  French,  High  aiid  Low 
Dutch,  a  foiioy  with  forty-eight  plates.  His  next  work, 
according  to  lord  Orford,  was  entitled  ^^  Instruction  du  roy 
en  Pexercise  de  mohter  a  cheval,  par  Messire  Antoine  de 
Pluvinel,"  a  work  in  dialogues,  French  and  Dutch,  foolisb 
enough  in  itself,  but  adorned  with  many  cats  admirably 
designed  and  engraved,  and  with  many  portraits*  Hoi* 
land's  ^^  Heroologia^*  was  executed  at  bis  expence,  for 
which  he  employed  the  best  Flemish  engravers,  but  does 
not  mention  any  share  he  had  himself  in  that  cotlectioaof 
j^ortraits.  Crispin  Passers  works  are  so  numerous  tbaa  it 
would  be  difficult  to  obtain  a  complete  catalogue*    Lord 

■  ^  Moreri.««X)ict.  Hietii 


PASSE.  177 

Oxford  and  Mr.  Strutt  have  mentioned  the  principal^  as 
connected  with  the  English  series ;  but  they  have  omitted 
his  Virgil,  Hoiner^  and  Ovid,  and  his  *^  Eiortus  Flohdus/* 
the  latter  a  folio,  and  the  other  in  4to,  which  are  much 
valued  abroad,  but  very  scarce.  There  is,  or  was,  a  com* 
plete  collection  of  bis  illustrated  books,  and  single  plates, 
in  the  royal  library  at  Paris,  and  many  of  them  are  in 
every  English  collector's  portfolio  or  library. 
.  Passe -worked  entirely  with  the  graver,  in  a  neat,  clear 
style,  which  has  much  originality  in  it;  and,  excepting 
S|Ome  little  stiffness  which  frequently  appears,  and  the  want 
of  harmony,  with  respect  to  the  distribution  of  the  light 
aiid  shadow,  a  fault  which  prevailed  at  the  time  in  which 
he  lived,  his  best  worka  possess  a  very  considerable  share 
of  merit,  especially  his  portraits,  many  of  which  he  drew 
from  the  life ;  and  the  far  greater  part  of  his  historical  and 
emblematical  subjects  are  engraved  from  his  own  compo- 
sitions. He  drew  the  human  figure  very  correctly,  and 
marked  th^  extremities  with  a  degree  of  ei^actness,  not 
usually  found  in  the  works  of  those  masters  who  employed 
themselves  upon  small  subjects ;  when  he  attempted  large 
ones  he  was  not  equally  successful. 

His  family  consisted  of  three  sons,  Crispin,  William, 
and  Simon,  and  a  daughter  Magdalen,  all  of  whom,  except 
perhaps  the  first,  attained  considerable  fame  in  their 
fjBither's  art.  William  and  Simpn  resided  some  time  in 
England,  and  executed  many  portraits  in  the  English 
series,  but  particulars  of  their  lives  are  unknown.  V 

PASSEMANT  (Clau0E  Simeon),  an  able  French  opti-. 
eian,  was  born  in  1702,  and  at  first  brought  up  to  trade, 
which  he  partly  relinquished  for  the  study  of  natural  philo-^ 
aophy  and  astronomy,  and  being  already  known  to  his  ad*« 
vantage  by  several  members  of  the  academy  of  sciences,  he 
published  a  volume  in  1738,  12mo,  on  the  construction  of 
a  reflecting  telescope  from  sixeeen  inches  to  six  feet  and 
a  half,  the  latter  producing  the  effect  of  a  telescope  15a 
£eet  long;  and  some  time  after,  he  wrote  *^The  Descrip-* 
tion  and  use  of  Telescopes,  Microscopes,"  &c.  of  his  own 
invention.  He  also  constructed  an  astronomical  pendulum^ 
orowued  with  a  moving  sphere,  which  was  made  to  repre*" 
sent  the  revolutions  of  the  planets,  in  a  manner  that  exactly 
Corresponded  with  the  astronomical  tables.     He  presented 

i  WftI|>Qle  and  SUutt. 

Vol.  XXIV.  N 


174  P  A  S  S  E  M  A  N  r. 

this  machine  to  Lewis  XV.  and  it  was  formerly  to  be  seeirf 
id  the  royal  apartments  at  Versailles.  He  made  a  similar 
instrument  for  the  Turkish  emperor,  which  shewed  th« 
rising  and  setting  of  the  sun  and  moon.  He  furnished  the 
king  and  other  great  men  in  France  with  sets  of  instruments 
for  making  experiments  in  optics,  and  other  branches  of 
science.  In  1765  he  gave  some  plans  for  making  canals^ 
by  means  of  which  ships  might  come  up  to  Paris ;  and  bi» 
proposal  is  inserted  in  M.  de  la  Lande'^s  work  on  '^Navi* 
gable  Canals,''  published  1778;  but  be  had  not  the  satis* 
faction  of  seeing  it  accomplished,  being  carried  off  in 
twenty-four  hours,  by  a  lethargy,  November  6,  1769.* 

PASS£RAT  (John),  a  celebrated  professor  of  eloquence 
in  the  royal  college  at  Paris,  and  one  of  the  politest  writers 
of  his  time,  was  born  Oct.  18,  1534,  atTroyes  in  Cham-^ 
pagne.  His  uncle,  who  undertook  to  educate  him,  placed^ 
him  at  the  college  of  his  native  city,  where  som^  harsh 
condpct  of  his  master  induced  him  to  run  away;  Arriving 
at  Bourges,  he  entered  first  into  the  service  of  a  farrier,  and 
afterwards  waited  upon  a  monk ;  but,  growing  in  time  sa-' 
gacious  enough  to  see  his  folly,  he  returned  to  his  uncle, 
who  pardoned  him,  and  maintained  him  for  three  years  at 
college,  where  he  proceeded  in  his  studies  with  so  much 
diligence,  that  he  became  in  a  short  time  able  to  teach  in' 
public.  In  that  capacity  his  first  post  was  master  of  the- 
second  class  in  the  college  of  Du  Plessis,  from  which  he 
jremoved  to  that  of  cardinal  Le  Moine  ;  but  being  obliged 
to  retire  for  some  time  from  Paris  on  account  of  the  plague, 
oh  his  return  he  engaged  in  the  business  of  teaching  Latin. 
At  length  he  took  up  a  resolution  to  study  the  law ;  for 
which  purpose  he  went  to  Bourges,  apd  spent  three  years' 
tinder  Cujacius ;  but  at  last  became  professor  of  elo-' 
queuce,  having  obtained  that  chair  in  1572,  on  the  va- 
cancy which  happened  by  the  assassination  of  Ramus.  In 
the  discharge  of  this  post  he  grew  so  eminent,  that  the^ 
most  learned  men  of  the  time,  and  the  counsellors  of  the' 
aupreme  courts  at  Paris,  went  to  hear  his  lectures..  He 
was  an  indefatigable  student,  passing  frequently  whole  days' 
without  taking  any  food  ;  yet  to  an  extraordinary  erudition 
he  joined  an  uncommon  politeness  of  manners,  having^^ 
nothing  of  the  mere  scholar,  except  the  gown  and  hood.' 
These  accomplishments  brought  him  acquainted  with  all 

4 

.»PictHist 


PA  S  S  E  R  A  T.  It? 

'  the  people  of  quality ;  but  he  contracted  an  intims^cy  only 
with  M .  de  Mesmes^  in  whose  house  he  lived  for  thirty 
years,  till  his  deaths  which  was  occasioned  by  a  palsy,  Sept* 
14,  1602. 

He  was  highly  esteemed  by  Ronsard,  Belleau,  and  Baif ; 
and  was  much  admired  as  a  Latin  poet ;  he  was  indeed 
chiefly  partial  to  the  Latin  authors,  and  formed  a  dictionary 
of  that  language,  which  some  say  was  incorporated  in  an 
improved  edition  of  Calepin.  His  chief  works  are,  1. 
^*  Chant  d'altegresse  pour  Pentrle  de  Charles  IX.  en  sa 
▼ille  de  Troyes,**  Troyes,  1564,  8vo.  2.  *^  Complainte  sur 
la  mort  d'Adrien  Tumebe,''  Paris,  1565,  8vo.  3.  <<  Son* 
nets  sur  le  tombeau  du  Seigneur  de  la  Ch&tre,  1569,  8vo, 
4.  *^- Hymne  de  la  paix,  Paris,  1563,  8vo.  5.  '^  Recueil 
des  poesies,  Francoises  et  Latines,**  Paris,  1606,  8vo.  6. 
**  Orationes  et  prsefationes.*'     7.  "  Conjecturarum  liber.'* 

8.  ^^  De  literarum  inter  se  cognatione  et  permutatione/* 

9.  **  Commentarii  in  Catullum,  TibuUum,  et  Propertium.'* 

10.  ^*  Kalends  Januariee."  11.^*  Oratio.de  Csscitate."  12. 
**  Not»  in  Petronii  Arbitri  satyricon*"  13.  ^^  Encomium 
Asini."  Besides  which,  Grievius  tells  us  that  be  had  met 
with  academical  questions  by  Passerat  in  manuscript  upon 
some  of  Cipero^s  orations,  out  of  which  he  took  what  was 
for  his  purpose  in  illustrating  that  author;  and  Pithou  said 
that  Passerat  knew  nothing  else  but  Cicero.  ^. 

PASSE RI  (John  Baptist),  a  painter  and  a  poet,  of  no 
great  merit  in  either  lide,  died  at  Rome  in  1679,  at  the 
age  of  about  seventy.  The  work  which  is  most  likely  to 
preserve  bis  name  is  his  **  Lives  of  the  Painters,  Sculptors, 
ftnd  Architects,  who  flourished  at  Rome  in  his  own  time.'' 
This  book  is  full  of  curious  and  interesting  anecdotes,  and 
was  published  in  Italian  at  Rome  in  1772.  Fuseli  speaks 
of  him  as  celebrated  for  his  impartiality  and  acumen  in 
this  work.  Though  no  great  painter,  he  was  a  disciple  of 
the  famous  Dominichino;  and  though  his  sonnets  were  bad, 
one  of  them  is  said  very  materially  to  have  promoted  his 
fortune.  • 

PASSERI  (Joseph),  nephew  of  the  former,  was  born  at 
Rome  in  1654,  and  was  at  first  a  pupil  of  his  uncle,  but, 
soon  discovering  the  inability  of  that  teacher,  became  the 
disciple  of  Carlo  Maratti.     Under  such  a  master  he  made 

1  Life  by  Le  Clerc  in  Bibl.  Anc.  et  Moderae,  yol.  VII.— >Niceron,  toI.  U,*^ 
BttUurt'«  Acadeniie  des  Scieoce«i— Blount's  Ceosura.  '  Pilkini^on. 

V  a 


tSO  PASSER  I. 

great  progress^  and  became  famous.  His  style  of  bisto^-f  • 
cal  composition,  was  grand,  bis  colouriDg  like  tbal  of  bU 
master  Mamitr,  bis  invention  fruitful,  aad  bis  expre»sioi» 
natural  and  agreeable.  One  of  bis  best  works  is  bis  ^  Stv 
Jerome  meditating  on  the  last  Judgmenty''  at  Pesaro^  He 
died  in  1714. ' 

PASSERI  (John  Baptist),  a  learned  Italian  antkyijh^ry 
and  philologer,  was  born  at  Gubioin  the  duchy  of  Urbino, 
in  Nov.  1694^  His  father,  who  was  a  pbrysician  atTo^i, 
desigiied  him  fov  the  study  of  the  law,  wbicb  aocordingly  * 
be  followed,  but  pursued  with  it  that  of  antiquities,  fo^r 
which  he  had  a  strong  genius.  After  residing  four  yeaKI 
at  Rome  he  returned  to  Todi,  and  began  to  coil^ct  th^ 
antiquities  of  that  city  and  its  environs.  In  1 72^.  he  turned 
his  attention  chiefly  to  the  Etruscan  antiquities,  and  cot^ 
lected  a  vast  number  of.  lamps,  which  he  arraAged  ia 
classes.  Having  lost  his  wife  in  1733,  after  twelve  yeaf« 
of  happy  uniony  he  became  asi  ecclesiastic,  and  was  apos-^ 
tolic  prothonotary,  and  vicar'-general  of  Pesaro.  In'  Fe^ 
bruary  1780;  hd  was  overturned  in  bis  cairiage,  an-d  died 
in  consequence  of  the  falk  His  works  are,  1.  ^  Lucernae 
ftetiles  Musei  Passerii,"  a  splendid  book  in  3  voia.  folio^ 
He-  hadi  drawn  up  a  fourth,  on  the  lampa  of  the  Christians^ 
but  this  h^  not  been  publisbed.  These  came  ouli  in  1739^ 
1743,  and  1751.  2,  **  LettereRoncagliesi ;"  Letters  from 
bis  villa  at  Roiicaglia,  on  Etruscan  aiitiquities,  173^.  There 
were  seventeen  letters,  and  a  continuation  was  after ward«( 
published;  S.^^  In  Tbonise'  Dempsteri  Libros  d^  Etmria 
cegaii  Paralipomena,,  quibus  taboke.  eidem  operi  additdB 
illustrantnr.  Aocednnt  dissertatio  de  re  numaria  Etrusco^ 
rum  }  de  nominibus  Etruscorum ;  et  notas  in  tdbulas  Eogar 
binaa,  auctore  I.  Baptistei  Passecio,"  Lucsb,  1767,  folio.  4» 
*^  Picturaei  Etruscorum  in  vaseulis,  nunc  primum  in  unum 
'collectse,  explibataonxbus  et  dissevtationibus  iUustmtac,'? 
Romae,  1767,  3  vols,  folio.  5.  Many  leavned.  disaertation$ 
published  in  several  collections ;  as^  for  example,  five  in 
the  third  volume  of  Gori's  Museum  Etruscum  ;  De  Geni^ 
domestico,  de  Ara  sepulehrali,  de  funeribu^  Etruscorum^ 
de  Velciorum  familia,  de  Architectura  Etrusca.  Theae'are 
^i  full  of  the  most  recondite  leambng.  * 

PASSEROTI  (Bartholomew),  an  artist  of  Bdogna,  was 
one  of  the  pupils  and  assistants  of  Zuccari,  and  the  first  of 

}  PllkiDgtQ]i««»ArgeDTille,  vol.  !•'  f  Pict.  Bi8t.-ii»Saxu  Ofiovittt. 


P  A  S  S  £  R  O  T  L  ISl 

Bologne$6  paknters  who  introduced  naked  torsoes  in  sacred 
suiojecte.  The^most  eminent  ^  bis  ahar-pieces  are  ti>e 
Decoilatioo  of  St.  Paul  alte  Tre  Fontane,  at  Rome»  and  at 
S.  Giacoiao,  of  Boiogua^  our  Lady  with  various  Saifrts, 
painted  in  tompetition  with  the  Caracci,  and  honoured  bj 
tbeir  praise.  His  Tityus,  \vb«n  exhibited  to  the  public  at 
Bologna,  was  by  the  Dilettanti  mistaken  for  a  work  of 
Michael  Angelo.  But  ko  did  not  always  husband  his  powers 
with  equal  diligence  and  refinemeiit^  hurried  away  by  that 
frankness  and  facility  of  execution  which  debauched  Cesari', 
whom  he  howiever  excelled  in  correctness  of  design.  In 
portrait,  for  character,  digfiity,  and  proporiety  of  eotnpo- 
sitioa,  he  approached  Titian  himself,  in  the  opinion  of 
Guido.  His  power  of  drawing  with  the  pen  attracted 
Agbstitio  Caracci  to  his  s6ho6l^  who  made  it  the  guide  of 
his  line  in  engraving.  He  ciimposed  a  book  on  symmetry 
and  anatomy,  which  may  be  considered  as  a  commentary 
on  his  works.  He  had  three  sons  of  consider2d>le  merit  as 
artists.  A  sparrow,  often-  introduced  in  the  works  of  Bar* 
tholomew,  is  an  allusion  to  his  name*     He  died  in  1595.^ 

PASSIONEl  (DOMIKICK),  an  Italian  cardinal,  famous 
rather  as  a  patron  of  letters,  than  as  a  writer,  and  em*- 
ployed  by  the  see  of  Rome  in  many  important  negooiations^ 
was  bom  at  Fossombrone  in  the  dtftchy  of  Urbino,  in  1682. 
He  studied  in  the  Clementine  college  at  Rome,  where  he 
afterwards  formed  that  vast  library  and  curious  collectioH 
of  manuscripts,  from  which  the  learned  world  has  derived 
so  much  advantage*   In  1706  he  attended  the  nuncio  GuaU 
terio,  his  relation,  to  Paris,  where  he  formed  an  intimacy 
witli  the  most  learned  men  of  the  time,   and  examined 
every  thing  that  deserved  attention.     He  was  particularly 
intimate   with  Mabiilon,  and   Montfaucon.     In    1708   he 
went  into  Holland,  at  first  for  the  sak^s  of  lit^ary  inquiries, 
but  afterwards  as  a  kind  of  secret  agent  for  the  pope  at  the 
Hague,  where  he  resided  four  years,  and   attended  the 
congress  at  Utrecht  in  1712.     On  his  return  to  Rome,  he 
passed  through  Paris^  where  he  was  most  graciously  and. 
honourably  received  by  Louis  XIV.   who  gave   him   bis 
portrait  set  with  diamonds.     He  then  proceeded  to  Turiu 
to  accommodate  some  differences  between  the  pope  and 
the  duke  of  Savoy  ;  and  upon  his  return  to  Rome  was  de^ 
stared  president  of  the  apostolic  ehamber.     In  the  two 

^  PilkJDgto«»  by  FoselU 


182.  >ASSIONEI. 

coDgressesatBale  in  1714,  and  at  Soleure  in  1715,  be  was 
again  employed,  and  strongly  ennced  bi^  zeal,  talents, 
activity,  prudence,  and  otber  qualities  of  a  great  nego- 
tiator. His  account  of  this  embassy  was  published  in  1738, 
in  folio,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Acta  Legationis  Helvetica^/* 
which  may  be  considered  as  a  model  of  conduct  for  persons 
employed  in  such  services.  Upon  the  accession  of  Cle- 
ment XII.  he  was  sent  as  nuncio  to.  the  court  of  Vienna, 
where  he  pronounced  the  funeral  oration  of  prince  Eugene. 
In  the  pontificate  of  Innocent  XIII.  which  lasted  from  1721 
to  1724,  Passionei  had  been  made  archbishop  of  Ephesus ; 
lie  continued  in  favour  with  the  successors  of  that  pope, 
Benedict  XIIL  and  Clement  XII.  the  latter  of  whom,  in 
1738,  raised  him  to  the  dignity  of  cardinal,  having  at  the 
same  time  made  him  secretary  of  the  briefs.  Benedict 
XIV.  in  1755  made  him  librarian  of  the  Vatican,  whicli 
he  enriched  by  many  important  accessions;  and  in  the  same 
year  he  was  admitted  into  the  French  academy,  under  the 
peculiar  title  of  associ6  etranger.  He  died  on  the  15th  of 
July,  1761,  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine. 

Cardinal,  Passionei  did  not  write  much  besides  the  ar- 
ticles that  have  been  already  mentioned.     He  worked,  in- 
deed, witb  Fontanini,  in  revising  the  ^^  Liber  diurnus  Ro- 
manorum  Pontificum,''  and  produced  a  paraphrase  on  the 
nineteenth  psalm,  with  a  few  more  small  pieces :  but  he 
was  most  illustrious  for  his  enlightened  knowledge  of  let- 
ters, and  his  judicious  and  liberal  patronage  of  learned 
men  and  useful  works ;  an  example  but  too  little  followed 
in  the  present  age.     He  had  one  of  the  most  valuable  li- 
braries in  Rome,  composed  of  the  best,  the  scarcest,  and 
most  remarkable  books  in  all  sciences,  and  in  all  languages, 
ancient  and  modern.     He  himself  was  the  librarian,  and 
did  the  honours  of  it  in  a  manner  the  more  satisfactory  to. 
the  learned,  as  no  one  was  more  able  to  second  and  extend 
their  views  on  the  subjects  of  their  researches.     *^  In  this,^* 
says  a  Swedish  traveller,  "  he  was  very  different  from  the 
cardinals  Davia,  Gualterio,  and  Imperiali,  all  three  also 
very  rich  in  books.  .  The  first  was  always  readingj^  and 
never  wrote;  the  second  was  always  writing,  and  never 
read ;  and  the  third  neither  read  nor  wrote."     Cardinal 
Passionei's  temper,  however,  was  not  equable,  and  Bene- 
dict XIV.  delighted  to  put  him  in  a  rage,  sometimes  by 
taking  away  one  of  his  books,  and  making  him  think  it  was 
lost,  but  more  frequently,  which  was  the  greatest  prove- 


P  A  S  S  I  O  N  E  I.  l«8 

cation  out  cardinal  could  receivCi  by  introducing  a  wor|c 
written  by  a  Jesuit.  On  one  occasion  when  the  pope  did 
this,  the  cardinal  opened  the  window,  and  threw  the  book 
with  all  his  force  into  the  square  of  Monte  Cavallo.  At 
this  instant  the  pope  appeared,  and  vouchsafed  hioi  his 
grand  benediction.  It  is  said,  that  by  way  of  answer  to 
this  benediction,  a  certain  gesture  of  the  cardinal's  put  a 
stop  to  the  pleasantry  that  the  pope  had  promised  himself 
from  this  scene.  He  most  cordially  hated  the  Jesuits ;  and 
bad  it  depended  on  him,  tl^eir  society  would  have  beea 
soon  dissolved.  On  this  subject  and  every  other  on  which 
he  entered  with  the  pope  Benedict,  he  spoke  with  the 
firmest  independence,  and  the  pope  generally  found  it 
necessary  in  all  disputes  to  yield  to  him.  Let  us  not 
forget,  however,  that  it  was  this  cardinal  who  opened  the 
treasures  of  the  Vatican  to  Dr.  Kennicott,  in  a  very  hand- 
some order  signed  by  his  name.  This  was  at  the  time 
justly  said  to  be  an  honour  which  no  work  relating  to  the 
Bible  could  boast  of  since  the  reformation. 

His  nephew,  Benedict  Passionei,  rendered  an  important 
service  to  the  learned  world  by  publishing  at  Lucca,  in 
1763,  '^  Inscrizioni  antiche,  con  annotaz/'  a  folio  volume, 
containing  all  the  Greek  and  Latin  inscriptions  collected 
by  the  cardinal.  His  valuable  collection  of  antique  urns, 
bas-reliefs,  and  other  works  of  art,  was  dispersed  after  his 
death.  * 

PATEL,  a  celebrated  painter,  was  a  native  of  France ; 
but  neither  his  Christian  name,  his  age,  nor  the  master 
under  whom  he  studied,  are  known  to  the  writers  on  these 
subjects.  He  has  sometimes  been  called  the  French 
Claude,  from  his  successful  imitation  of  that  master.  In 
bis  figures  he  is  clearly  superior  to  him.  The  forms  of  his 
trees  are  elegant  and  free,  his  scenery  rich,  and  his  build- 
ings and  other  objects  designed  in  a  very  pleasing  manner. 
His  touch  is  light,  yet  firm ;  bis  colouring  generally  clear 
^nd  natural.  Two  of  his  works  have  been  engraved  by 
Strange,  and  all  of  them  prove  that  he  studied  nature  with 
nice  observation,  and  his  choice  from  her  productions  was 
always  agreeable.  In  France  he  is  sometimes  called,  Patel 
le  tue,  or  le  ban  Patel;  and  there  was  also  a  Patel  le  Jeune^ 
pf  whom  still  less  is  known.' 

*  Diet.  Hist. — «  Aoecdotes  of  Rome.  &c,  by  a  Swedish  Traretler/'  1768,  in 
«efit,MBg.vol,  XXXVIII. 

*  Pilkin^ton,— Strangers  Catalogue. 


184  P  A  T  E  R  C  U  L  U  S. 

PATERCULUS  (Caius  Velletits),  an  ancient  Roman 
historian,  who  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Tiberius  Caesar, 
was  born  in  the  year  of  Rome  735.  His  ancestors  were 
illustrious  for  their  merit  and  their  offices.  His  gi'and* 
father  espoused  the  party  of  Tiberius  Nero,  the  emperor^s 
father  ;  but  being  old  and  infirm,  and  not  able  to  accom- 
pany Nero  when  he  retired  from  Naples,  he  ran  himself 
through  with  his  sword.  His  father  was  a;  soldier  of  rank, 
and  Paterculus  was  a  military  tribune,  when  Caius  Caesar, 
a  grandson  of  Augustus,  had  an  interview  with  the  king  of 
the  Parthians,  in  an  island  of  the  river  Euphrates,  in  the 
year  753.  He  commanded  the  cavalry  in  Germany  utider 
Tiberius,  'and  accompanied  that  prince  for  nine  years*  suc- 
cessively in  all  his  expeditions.  He  received  honourable 
rewards  from  him ;  but  wef  do  not  find  that  he  Was  preferred 
to  any  higher  dignity  than  the  prsetorship.  The  praises  he 
bestows  upon  Sejanus  give  some  probability  to  the  conjec- 
ture, that  he  was  looked  upon  as  a  friend  of  this  favourite; 
and,  consequently,  that  he  was  involved  in  his  ruin.  His 
-death  is  placed  by  Dpdwell  in  the  year  784,  when  he  was 
in  his  fiftieth  year. 

'  He  wrote  "An  Abridgment  of  the  Roman  History,  in 
two  Books,"  in  which  although  his  purpose  was,  to  begin 
from  the  foundation  of  Rome  to  the  time  wherein  he 
lived,  we  find  in  what  remains  of  the^  beginning  of  his  first 
book,  some  account  of  many  cities  more  ancient  than 
Rome.  He  promised  a  larger  history,  of  which  this  is 
only  an  outline,  and  had  opportunities  to  have  acquired 
valuable  materials,  during  bis  military  expeditions  and  tra« 
Tels.  Even  in  the  present  work  we  have  many  par^culars 
related,  that  are  no  where  else  to  be  found.  The  style  of 
Paterculus,  although  injured  by  the  carelessness  of  tran- 
scribers, and  impossible  to  be  restored  to  purity  for  want 
of  manuscripts,  is  yet  manifestly  worthy  of  an  age,  which 
produced  his  celebrated  contemporaries  Vifgil^  Sallust, 
Livy,  &c.  His  manner  of  drawing  characters  is  one  of  his 
chief  merits ;  yet  he  is  condemned,  and  indeed  with  the 
greatest  reason,  for  his  partiality  to  the  house  of  Augustus, 
and  for  his  extravagant  praise,  not  only  of  Tiberius,  but 
even  of  his  favourite  Sejanus. 

Of  Velleius  Paterculus,  as  of  Hesychius  among  the 
Greeks,  one  MS.  only  was  discovered,  called  the  codex 
Murbacensis,  and  even  that  is  now  lost.  In  it,  says  Ben^- 
lej,  "  the  faults  of  the  9cribes  are  found  so  numerous,  and 


PATERCULUS.  t85 

the  defects  so  beyond  all  redress,  that,  notwithstanding 
the  pains  of  the  learnedest  and  acutest  critics  for  two  whole 
centuries,  these  books  still  are,  aird  are  like  to  continue, 
a  mere  heap  of  errors."  No  ancient  author  but  Priscian 
makes  mention  of  Paterculus  :  the  moderns  have  done  him 
infinitely  more  justice,  and  bav6  illustrated  him  with  notes 
and  commentaries.  He  was  first  published,  from  the  ma- 
nuscript of  Morbac,  by  Rhenanus,  at  Basil,  in  1520,  but 
under  such  circumstances,  that  this  edition  was  considered 
as  a  spurious  work.  It  was  reprinted  by  Paul  Manutius  at 
Venice  in  1571  ;  afterwards  by  Lipsius,  at  Leyden,  in  1581*: 
then  by  Gerard  Vossi us,  in  1639:  next  by  Boeclerus,  at 
Strasburg,  in  1642:  by  Peter  Burman,  at  Leyden,  in  ^719, 
in  Svo:  by  Ruhnkenius,  at  Leyden,  1779,  2  vols.  8vo: 
and  lastly,  by  Krausius,  at  Leipsic,  1 800,  Svo.  To  the 
Oxfbrd  edition,  in  1693,  Svo,  were  prefixed  the  •*  An- 
nales  Velleiani"  of  Dodwell,  which  shew  deep  learning, 
and  a  great  knowledge  of  antiquity.* 

PATERSON  (Samuel),  a  gendeman  who  deserves  ho- 
nourable notice  in  the  literary  history  of  his  country,  was 
the  son  of  a  wool  I  en -draper  in  the  parish  of  St.  Paul,  Co- 
vent-garden,  and  born  March  17,  1728.  He  lost  bis  father 
when  about  the  age  of  twelve  years ;  and  his  guardian  not 
only  neglected  him,  but  involved  his  property  in  his  own 
bankruptcy,  and  sent  him  to  France.  Having  there  ac- 
quired a  knowledge  of  foreign  literature  and  publications 
beyond  any  persons  of  his  age,  he  resolved  to  engage  in 
the  importation  of  foreign  books;  and,  when  little  more 
than  twenty  years  old,  opened  a  shop  in  the  Strand :  the 
only  person  who  then  carried  on  such  a  trade  being  Paul 
Vaillant.  Though,  by  the  mis-conduct  of  some  who  were 
•charged  with  his  commissions  in  several  parts  of  the  conti- 
nent, it  proved  unsuccessful  to  the  new  adventurer,  he 
continued  in  business  till  1753,  when  he  published  Dr. 
•Pettingars  **  Dissertation  on  the  original  of  the  Equestrian 
Figure  of  the  George  and  ,of  the  Garter."  At  the  same 
early  period  in  which  he  engaged  in  business  he  had  mar- 
Tied  Miss  Hamilton,  a  lady  of  the  most  respectable  con- 
nexions in  North  Britain,  still  younger  than  himself,  both 
-their  ages  together  not  making  38  years.  He  next  com- 
.  flieuced  auctioneer  in  Essex-house.  This  period  of  hts 
life  tended  to  develope  completely  those   extraordinary 

,  I  VoMiai  Qiit,  lat,"r-Saiii  OooMMt-HOibditt'*  Clastic^. 


186  P  A  T  E  R  S  O  N. 

talents  in  bibliography  (a  science  hitherto  so  little  attended 
to)  which  soon  brought  him  into  the  notice  of  the  literary 
world.  The  vahiable  collection  of  MSS.  belonging  to  the 
right  hon.  sir  Julius  Caesar,  knt.  judge  of  the  Admiralty  in 
the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  and,  in  the  reigns  of  James  I. 
and  Charles  I.  chancellor  and  under-treasurer  of  the  Ex- 
chequer,  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  some  uninformed 
persons,  and  were  on  the  point  of  being  sold  by  weight  to 
a  cheesemonger,  as  waste  paper,  for  the  sum  of  ten  pounds; 
3ome  of  them  happened  to  be  shewn  to  Mr.  Paterson,  who 
examined  them,  and  instantly  discovered  their  value.  He 
then  digested  a  masterly  catalogue  of  the  whole  collection, 
and,  distributing  it  in  several  thousands  of  the  most  singu- 
lar and  interesting  heads,  caused  them  to  be  sold  by  auc- 
tion, which  produced  356/.;  and  had  among  the  purchasers 
the  late  lord  Orford,  and  other  persons  of  rank.  These 
occurrences  took  place  in  1757. 

The  first  person  who  attempted  to  give  a  sketch  of 
universal  bibliography  and  literary  history  was  the  learned 
and  laborious   Christopher-Augustus   Hermann,  professor 
in  the  university  of  Gdttingen,  in  the  year  1718,  when 
he  published   his  well  known  work,   '^  Conspectus   Rei- 
publicae  Literarise,   sive   Via  ad   Historiam  Literariam ;'' 
which   gradually  went  through  seven  editions,    the  l^t 
of  which  was  published  at  Hanover,   1763.     Numberless 
other  Works,   analogous  to  this,    were    published   in   th^ 
same  interval,  in  Germany.     About  the  period  alluded 
to,  many  detailed,  descriptive,  and  rational  catalogues  of 
books  appeared  in  the  several  countries  of  Europe ;  the 
art  and  the  taste  of  constructing  libraries  becatme  mor^ 
general  than  in  any  preceding  age;  and  the  only  thing 
which  appears  worthy  of  remark,  and  rather  unaccountable, 
is  that,  even  after  the  progress  of  philosophy  or  bibliogra^ 
phy,  the  Germans,  in  this  department,  have  excelled  every 
other  people  in  Europe.     It  is  universally  acknowledged, 
that  the  best  work  of  the  kind  that  ever  appeared,  about 
,that  time,  was  the  catalogue  of  the  celebrated  library  of 
the  count  of  Bunau,  better  known  under  the  name   of 
<^  Bibliotheca  Bunaviana,!'  so  remarkable,  indeed,  for  num- 
ber, selection,  order,  connexion,  references,  and  universal 
inteirest.     The  only  historical  system  of  national  literature, 
exhibited  in  Europe  was  that  of  the  Italian,  by  Tiraboschi. 
Mr.  Paterson  supplied  some  important  materials  towards 
one  among  ourselves,  in  his  ^^  Bibliotheca  Anglica  Curiosa^ 


P  A  T  E  R  S  O  N.  18T 

1771/'  He  was  an  enemy  to  those  systems  of  bibliogra* 
pby  which  are  now  generally  practised  on  the  continent ; 
and  he  set  no  importance  even  on  the  newly-established 
classification  of  the  "  Universal  Repertory  of  Literature,*^ 
published  at  Jena.  We  hope,  indeed,  that  those  among 
the>  readers  themselves,  who  have  happened  to  look  at  the 
above-mentioned  catalogue,  will  not  only  coincide  with 
our  bibliographer's  opinion,  but  will  perhaps  smile  at  see- 
ing all  th^  branches  of  human  knowledge  confined  in  six- 
teen classes,  and  the  last  of  them  entitled  **  Miscellaneous 
Works ;"  the  proper  meaning  of  which  words  has  a  ten- 
dency to  destroy  the  whole  classification  !  Mr.  Paterson 
acted  consistently  with  these  ideas  in  all  his  bibliographical 
performances ;  and  it  is  owing  to  the  merit  of  an  appropri- 
ate,,  circumstantial,  and  judicious  classification,  that  his 
catalogues  are  unrivaled,  and  some  of  them  are  justly  re- 
garded as  models.  We  refer  the  readers  to  the  catalogues 
themselves,  and  especially  to  the  Bibliotheca  Fleetwoodi- 
ana,  Beauclerkiana,  Croftsiana,  Pinelliana,  published  from 
time  to  time,  as  well  as  to  those  of  the  Strange,  Fagel,  and 
Tyssen  libraries,  which  he  performed  within  the  last  two 
years  of  his  life ;  and  they  will  perceive  in  each  of  them 
an  admirable  spirit  of  order,  exhibited  in  different  ways, 
and  suggested  by  those  superior  abilities  which  alone  can 
discover  and  appreciate  these  variable  combinations  of  the 
several  circumstances. 

A  man  so  thoroughly  conversant  in  the  history  of  lite- 
rature could  not  fail  to  perceive  that  a  vast  number  of 
books  were  held  as  valuable  and  scarce  in  £ngland, 
which  were  rathier  common  in  other  countries.  He  thought 
he  could  do  his  native  country  an  essential  service,  and 
procure  emolument  for  himself,  if  he  should  undertake 
a  journey  through  some  parts  of  the  continent,  and  suc- 
ceed in  purchasing  some  articles  of  this  description.  With 
this  view  he  set  out  for  the  continent  in  the  year  1776,  and 
actually  bought  a  capital  collection  of  books,  which,  6n 
his  return  to  England,  he  digested  in  the  catalogue  (the 
best,  perhaps,  of  his  performances)  that  bears  the  title  of 
"  Bibliotheca  Universalis  Selecta."  One  of  the  most  re- 
spectable booksellers  of  London  bad  been  his  fellow-travel- 
ler in  that  journey;  and,  being  informed  of  bis  design, 
and  relying  on  his  good  sense  and  excellent  ini^ention, 
offered  him  his  friendly  assistance.  He  lent  him  a  thou- 
sand pounds,  to  be  employed  in  an  additional  purchase 


1SS  P  A  T  E  R  S  O  N. 

of  bookfiy  in  hopes  that  be  might  hare  the  moiiey  re- 
turned to  him  when  the  speculation  was  carried  into  exe^ 
cution.  Mr.  Paterson,  as  usual,  proved  unsuccessful ;  and 
ihe  generous  friend,  sympathising  in  his  misfortunes,  never 
claimed  the  return  of  his  loan!  Mr.  Paterson^s  fame 
had  come  to  the  ears  of  the  late  marquis  of  Lansdown,  who 
requested  the  learned  bibliographer  to  arrange  his  elegant 
find  valuable  library,  to  compile  a  detailed  catalogue  of 
his  books  and  manuscripts,  and  to  accept,  for  the  purpose, 
the  place  of  his  librarian,  with  a  liberal  salary.  Mr.  Pa- 
terson  accordingly  entered  into  the  office  of  librarian,  re- 
mained in  it  for  some  years,  and  perhaps  expected  to  close 
bis  life  in  the  same  station ;  when,  unfortunately,  a  mis- 
understanding  took  place  between  the  noble  lord  and  him^ 
by  which  he  was  obliged  to  withdraw. 

Mr.  Paterson  was  a  writer  of  some  consideration,  and 
from  time  to  time  indulged  in  several  publications,  to 
none  of  which  he  ever  put  his  name.  The  first,  in  order 
of  time,  is,  to  our  knowledge,  "Another  Traveller;  or, 
Cursory  Remarks  made  upon  a  Journey  through  Part 
of  the  Netherlands,  by  Coriat,  jun.  in  1766,"  in  three 
volumes  12mo;  the  second  is  "  The  Joineriana :  or,  The 
Book  of  Scraps,"  in  two  volumes  8vp,  1772,  consisting 
of  philosophicat  and  literary  aphorisms ;  the  third  is 
**  The  Templar,"  a  periodical  paper,  of  which  only  four- 
teen numbers  appear  to  have  been  published,  and  the  last 
of  thein  in  December  1773,  intended  as  an  attack  on 
the  newspapers  for  advertising  ecclesiastical  offices,  and 
places  of  trust  under  government ;  and  the  last  is  **  Spe- 
culations on  Laiv  and  Lawyers,"  1778,  tending  to  evince 
the  danger  and  impropriety  of  personal  arrests  for  debt 
previous  to  any  verification.  At  the  pressing  solicitations 
of  his  friends,  he  consented,  as  soon  as  the  Fagel  cata- 
logue was  completed,  to  undertake  some  "  Memoirs  of  the 
Vicissitudes  of  Literature  in  England  during  the  latter 
Half  of  the  Eighteenth  Century;"  of  which  it  is  not  im- 
probable some  materials  may  be  found  among  his  papers. 

Mr-  Paterson  died  in  his  house  in  Ndrton-street,  Fitzroy- 
isquare,  on  the  29th  of  October,  1802,  in  the  77tb  year  of 
his  age  ;  and  on  the  4th  of  ^be  subsequent  November,  he 
was  buried  in  the  parish-church  of  his  birth,  in  Covent- 
garden.  He  was  rather  below  the  middle  size,  and  thiii, 
but  well  proportioned,  of  philanthropic  looks,  sonorous 
voice,  and  unassuming  and  polite  manners.     His  mordl 


PATERSON.  18* 

character  was  eminent^  and  unexceptipoable,  in  every  seos^ 
of  the  wore,!.* 

PATIN  (Guy),  a  French  physicUn,  wit,  and  free-thinker, 
was  born  Aug.  3 1,   1601,  ac  Uodenc  en  Bray,  a  Tillage 
tiear  Beauvais.     He  appears  to  have  been  at  first  a  cor* 
rector  of  the  press  at  Paris,  and  in  that  capacity  was  noticed 
by  the  celebrated  Kiolan,  who  became  his  friend  and  ad- 
viser ;  and  Patii^  baying  applied  to  the  study  of  niedicinei 
acquitted  himself  so  ably  in  all  his  academic  trials,  that  he 
received  the  degree  of  doctor  in  the  Paris  school  of  medif 
cine  in  16^7.     In  this  city  he  began  practice,  but  became 
iBore.  noted  for  his  wit  and  humour,  both  of  the  inost  sar^ 
castic   kind,    whije  he   laid  himself  open   to   the  wit   of 
others  by  the  pecuUarity^f  bis  opinions,  by  his  censure 
of  every  thing  modern,  and  his  utter  aversion  to  all  iin« 
proveoiefM:  in  medicine*     Notwithstanding  these  .singula- 
rities, his  entertaining  conversatioa  procured  him.  acc^s  to 
Qtany  families  of  distinction ;  and  the  president  LamoignoQ 
ofteo  diverted  the  cares  of  bis  professional  life  by  the  sal-* 
ties  and  bon-motst  of  Patin.     Patin  was  an  excellent  Latia 
scbiolar,  and  expressed  hioiself  with  such  elegance  in  that 
la&^«iage,  that  all  Paria  fiocked  to  his  theses  as  to  a  comedy^ 
Some  fancied  be  bad  tbe  air  and  countenance  of  Cicero,- 
^01  he  won  more  upon  them  by  having  the  disposition  of 
Rabelais^ 

In  1650  be  was  chosen  dean  of  tbe  faculty  of  medicine^ 
and  afterwards  succeeded  Riolaa^  the  younger,  in  the  pro* 
fessorship  of  medicine  in  the  Royal-college,  where  he 
taught  with  great  reputation.  The  disputes  which  took 
place  in  bis  time  respecting  tbe  use  of  antimony  roused  all 
his  spleen,  as  he  regarded  this  medicine  ajs  a  poisoo,,  and 
had  even  made  out  a  list  of  patients,  which  he  called  the 
martyralogy  of  antimony.  Great,  however,  was  his  naor« 
tification  when,  in  1666,  a  majority  of  the  faculty  decided 
to  admit  emetic  wine  into  the  list  of  prescriptions;  He 
was  quite  inconsolable. 

Patin  died  iri  1672,  with  the  character  of  a  man  of  learn- 
ing. He  had  a  good  library,  and  knew  books  well,  but  his 
judgment  was  not  equal  to  his  erudition;  he  projected 
some  works  in  his  profession,  particularly  a  history  of  cele- 
brated physicians,  but  executed  little,  except  a  life  of 
Simon  Pietre,  which  appears  not  to  have  beeo  printed* 

1  Gent.  Mag.  1802.-«Sk6toh  of  His  Life  by  Mr.  Dstmiani— and  another  hj 
Mr.  Mortimer  in  European  Mag.  1802. 


190  i»  A  r  I  N. 

I 

His  memory  is  preserved  by  his  **  Letters,"  publiiibed  iff 
six  vols.  li2mOy  a  miscellany  of  literary  history,  criticism^ 
and  satire,  mixed  with  many  of  those  loose  opinions  which 
have  made  some  rank,  him  among  the  philosophers  of 
France.  His  great  consolation  on  his  death-bed  was  that 
he  should  meet  in.  the  other  world  with  Aristotle,  Plato^ 
Virgil,  Galen,  and  Cicero.  His  "  Letters"  were  long  read 
with  avidity,  but  are  not  to  be  relied  on  in  point  of  fact. 
Every  thing  of  that  kind  is  disfigured  by  prejudice.  Therel 
is  a  collection  of  his  sayings  among  the  ^^  Ana."  ^ 

PATIN  (Charles),  son  of  the  preceding,  and  an  able 
physician  and  antiquary,  was  born  at  Parisi  Feb.  23,  1633; 
He  was  educated  with  great  care  by  his  father,  and  made^ 
such  surprizing  progress  in  his  studies,  that  at  the.  age  of 
fourteen  he  defended  Greek  and  Latin  theses  in  philoso* 
phy,  with  the  greatest  applause  in  an  assembly  composed 
of  thirty-four  prelates,  the  pope's  nuncio,  and  many  other 
persons  of  distinction.  Being  intended  for  the  bar,  he 
completed  his  law  studies^  and  became  an  advocate  in  the 
parliament  of  Paris,  but  he  soon  relinquished  this  career 
for  the  study  of  medicine,  which  in  his  opinion  promised 
greater  advantages.  He  became  afterwards  a  considerable 
practitiouer,  and  a  teacher  of  reputation  in  the  medical 
school  of  Paris,  where  he  took  his  doctor's  degree  in  1656  ^ 
but  was  about  this  time  obliged  to  leave  France  for  fear  of 
imprisonment.  The  cause  of  this  is  variously  related,  but 
the  most  probable  account  is,  that  he  had  been  in  some 
way  accessary  to  the  circulation  of  certain  libels  which 
drew  upon  him  the  resentment  of  the  court. 

He  then  visited  Germany,  Holland,  England,  Swisser-* 
land,  and  Italy,  and  finally  settled  at  Padua,  where  he  was, 
in  Sept.  1676,  appointed  professor  extraordinary,  in  1681 
first  professor  of  chemistry,  and  in*  1663,  professor  of  the 
practice  of  physic.  In  all  these  appointments  he  acquitted 
himself  with  such  credit  and  ability,  that  the  Venetian 
state  honoured  him  with  knighthood  of  the  order  of  St. 
Mark ;  the  academy  ^^  naturae  curiosorum"  also  admitted 
him  a  member,  under  the  titled  of  Galen  I.,  and  he  was  a 
long  time  chief  director  of  tlie  academy  of  the  Ricovrati. 
He  died  at  Padua  Oct.  2,  1693.  He  was  a  man  of  exten* 
sive  learning,  and  a  voluminous  writer  both  iu  Latin^ 
Jrench,  and  Italian. 

1  Eloy,  Diet,  mit  de  Mediciae. 


?  A  T  I  N.  191 

'  Such  of  his  works  as  relate  to  medicine  are  only  inau- 
gtiral  orations ;  hut  those  by  which  he  is  best  known,  relate 
to  the  medaliic  science,  in  which  he  was  a  great  proficient. 
These  are,  1.  ^*  Familiae  Romans  ex  antiqais  numismatic 
bus  ab  urbe  condita  ad  tempora  D.  Augusti,"  1663,  folio. 
This  is  chiefly  founded  on  the  work  of  Fulvius  Ursinus. 
2.  '<  Introduction  a  1'  Histoire  par  la  Connoissance  des  Me- 
dailies,'*  1665,  12mo.  3.  <*  Imperatorum  Romanorum 
Numismata,''  1671,  folio.  4.  "  Thesaurus  Numismatum,'* 
1672,  4to.  5.  "Practica  delle  Medaglie,"  1673,  12mo. 
6.  ^' Suetonius  ex  Numismatibus  illustratus,'*  1675,  4to,'^ 
and  some  other  pieces.  He  published  also  the  lives  of  the 
professors  of  Padua,  with  the  title  of  ^'  Lyceeum  Patavi- 
Bum,  sive  Icones  et  Vits  Professorum  Patavi,  anno  1682, 
docentium,''  Pat.  1682,  4to.  His  wife  and  two  daughters 
were  learned  women,  and  members  of  the  Academy  of  Ri- 
covrati  at  Padua,  in  which  they  distinguished  themselves. 
Charlotte-Catherine,  the  eldest  daughter,  pronounced  a 
Latin  oration  on  the  raising  of  the  siege  of  Vienna,  and 
published  ^'  Tabellee  Selects,"  which  contained  an  expla- 
nation of  forty-one  engravings  from  the  most  celebrated 
painters.  Gabrielle-Charlotte,  the  youngest  daughter, 
published  a  panegyrical  oration  on  Louis  XIV.,  and  a  La- 
tin dissertation  on  the  phcenix  on  a  medal  of  Caracalla,  Ve- 
nice, 1683.  His  wife  was  author  of  a  collection  of  moral 
and  Christian  reflections. ' 

PATRICK  (Simon),  a  learned  English  prelate,  suc- 
cessively bishop  of  Chichester  and  Ely,  was  born  at  Gains- 
borough in  Lincolnshire,  Sept  8,  1626.  His  father  was  a 
mercer  of  good  credit  in  that  place,  and  sent  him  to  a 
school,  with  a  view  to  alearned  education,  which  was  kept 
by  one  Merry  weather,  a  good  Latin  scholar,  and  the  trans-> 
lator  of  sir  Thomas  Browne's  *^  Religio  Medici.'*  In  1644, 
June  25,  he  was  admitted  as  a  sizar  of  Queen's  college, 
Cambridge,  and  was  elected  fellow  March  1,  1648.  He 
took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1647  ;  that  of  M.  A.  in  1651  ; 
and  that  of  B.  D.  in  1658.  Previous  to  this  period  he 
received  holy  orders  from  the  celebrated  Dr.  Hall,  bishop 
of  Norwich,  then  ejected  from  his  bishopric  by  the  usurp- 
ing powers,  and  living  at  Higham.  This  was  probably  about 
1651,  as  in  1652  Mr.  Patrick  preached  a  sermon  at  the  fu^ 

serai  of  Mr.  John  Smith,  of  Queen's  college,  who  died 

t  .  ■  ■ 

>  Eloy,  Diet,  Hi8t,  de  Medicine.— den.  Dict^ 


•• 


193  PATRICK. 

Aug.  7/16^52,  and  was  buried  in  the  chapel  of  that  collegtf^ 
He  was  soon  after  taken  as  chaplain  inta  the  family  of  sit 
Walter  St.  John  of  fiattersea,  who  gave  him  that  living  in 
1656.     This  vacated  his   fellowship,  and   the  same  year 
he  took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity,  and  published 
his  first  work  (if  we  except  the  funeral -sermon  above  men-* 
tioned),  entitled  '^  Mensa  Mystica:  or  a  Discourse  eon«» 
teeming  the  Sacrament  of  tFw  Lord's  Supper ;  to  which  is. 
added,  a  Discourse  concerning  Baptism,,''  Land.  8vo.    In 
^tbe  following  year  he  published  "  The  Heart's  Ease,  or  a 
remedy  against  all  troubles ;  with  a  consolatory  discourse,, 
particularly  directed  to  those  who  have  lost  Uieir  friends 
and  dear  relations,"  ibid.  1659,   12mo^  this  went  through 
many  editions.     In  1660  appeared  "  Jewish  hypocrisy  ;  a 
caveat  to  the  present  generation,"  &c. 
.  In  1661,  he  was  elected,  by  a  majority  of  the  fellows, 
master  of  Queen's  college,  in  opposition  to  a  royal  man- 
damus, appointing  Mr.  Anthony    Sparrow  for  that  place; 
but  the  affair  being  brought  before  the  king  and  CQuncil| 
was  soon  decided  in  favour  of  Mr.  Sparrow;  and  ^om^  o£ 
the  fellows,  if  not  all,  whp  bad  sided  with  Patrick,  were 
ejected.  His  next  preferment  was  the  rectory  of  St.  Paul's^ 
Covent- Garden,  LondoU)  in  room  of  the  celebrated  non- 
conformist. Dr.  Manton.     Tbis  was  given  him  by  Williamr 
^arl  of  Bedford,  in  1662,     He  endeared  himself  much  t(> 
the  parishioners  by  instruction  and  example,  and  parti- 
cularly by  continuing  all  the  while  among  them  during 
the  plague  in  1665.     It  is  said  further,  that,  oat  of  a  spe^ 
^ial  regard  to  them,  he  refused  the  archdeaconry  of  Hun-< 
tingdoa.     His  rem^aiding  in  London,  however,  during  the 
plague  was  an  instance  of  pio.us  heroisya  which  ought  not 
to  be  slightly  passed  over.     He  was  not  indeed  the  on.ly 
clergyman  who  remained  at  hi^  po»t  on  this  occasion ;  but 
their  number  was  not  great.     We  s;hall  now  prdsent  qur 
readers  with  a  few  extracts  from  some  letters  which  ha 
wrote  to  his  friends  who  importuned  htm  to  leave  Lon« 
don,  as  they  give  a  nvore  faithful  and  pleasing  picture 
of  his  real  character  than  is  elsewhere  to  be  found. 

In  one  of  them,  dated  Sept.  9,  1665,  be  says,  *^  I  S0p« 
pose  you  think  I  intend  to  stay  here  still :  though  I  un* 
-derstand  by  your  question,  you  would  not  have  me.  But^ 
loy  friend,  what  am  I  better,  than  another.?  Somebody 
must  be  here ;  and  is  it^  fit  I  should  set  such  a  value  upon 
myself  as  my  going  away,  and  leaving  unotheri  will  sig- 


Ak 


PATRICK.  J» 

tify^  For  it  will,  io  eflpect,  be  to  say,  that  t  am  too  good 
IQ  be  io8it ;  but  it  is  no  matter  it  another  be.  Truly^  I  do 
pot  think  myself  so  considerable  to  the  world  :  and  though 
pay  friends  ^et  a  great  price  upon  me»  yet  that  temptation 
hath  uot  yet  made  me  of  their  mind :  and  I  know  their 
love  makes  me  passe  for  more  with  them  than  I  am  worth. 
Wh^n  I  mention  that  word,  love,  I  confess,  it  moves  me 
much,  and  I  have  a  great  passion  for  them,  and  Wish  X 
fBigbt  live  to  embrace  them  odce  again ;  but  I  most  not 
take  any  undue  courses  to  satisfy  this  passion,  which  i!i 
but  too  strong  in  me.  I  must  let  reason  prevaile,  and  stay 
with  my  charge,  which  I  take  hitherto  to  be  my  duty,  whatr 
ever  come.  I  cannot  tell  what  good  we  do  their  souls : 
though  I  preach  to  those  who  are  well,  and  write  to  those 
who  ^re  ill  (I  mean,  print  little  papers  for  them,  which  yet 
are  too  big  %o  send  you  by  the  post) :  but  I  am  sure, 
while  I  stay  here,  I  shall  do  good  to  their  bodies;  and, 
perhaps,  save  some  from  perishing;  which  I  look  upon  ais 
A  considerable  end  of  my  continuing.  •My  dear  friend,  do 
not  take  it  ill,  that  I  cannot  comply  with  your  desires  ia 
this  thing :  you  see  what  sways  me,  and  I  know  you  will 
yeild  to  it,  and  say,  it  ought  to  be  stronger  than  the  love 
of  you.  If  you  can  convince  me,  that  I  may,  with  a  good 
conscience,  go,  you  may  think  it  will  be  acceptable ;  bul; 
I  know  DQt  upoQ  what  grounds  you  will  make  it  good.  Try^ 
if  you  have  a  mind.'' 

Ill  another  letter,  dated  Sept.  21,  he  resumes  the  sub- 
ject of  the  former,  "  My  deare  friend,  I  must  tell  you, 
for  you  will  heare  it  from  other  hands,  that  the  plague  is 
again  increased,  as  I  suspected  it  would,  according  ad 
you  would  understand  by  my  last.  Our  only  comfort  is^ 
that  we  are  in  the  hands  of  God,  and  not  in  the  bands  df 
men  ;  for  his  mercies  are  very  great,  I  am  very  joyfull  to 
heare  at  last,  that  you  bend  your  thoughts  to  resign  me 
up  to  God.  I  hope  it  will  make  your  life  inore  happy, 
whether  I  die  or  live.  .  You  do  not  trouble  me  by  your 
instances  to  leave  this  place,  because  I  think  most  of  yoiir 
love,  which  is  conspicuous  therein :  and  I  should  have  re** 
fleeted  ds  much  without  these  intreaties  of  yours,  upon 
the  desirableness  of  seeing  my  friends  once  more,  who,  I 
think,  I  may  truly  say,  have  fasten  hold  of  me  than  anjf 
thing  in  this  world.  But  if  God  will  ))ull  me  from  them, 
his  will  be  done!  I  ought  to  esteem  him^my  best  frit-nd, 
who  doth  not  envy  to  me  any  other,  apd  will  spare  my  Ufi^» 

Vol.  XXIV.  O 


lU  JP  A  T  R  1  C  It 

iinless  it  be  l)etter  for  me  to  die.  To  him  I  stilt  refern^ 
myself,  which  I  call  trusting  in  God,  (as  you  would  hare 
veene^  if  ft  had  been  fit,  before  this  time :  but  I  doubt 
you  will  be  afraid  to  receive  papers  printed  in  London)  t 
but  It  is  not  to  accomplish  )ei  martyrdome,  as  you  call  ii 
(that 's  too  high  a  name);  but  to  do  a  little  service  to  my 
neighbors^  who  I  think  would  not  be  so  well  if  I  was  not 
here.** 

One  more  extract  will  not  be  thought  uninrterestingr 
<<  There  are  people  who  rely  opon  pitiful  things  as  certain 
tokens  of  its  (the  plague's)  going  away  shortly.  I  have 
been  totd,  more  than  once,  of  the  falling  ont  of  the  clap^ 
per  of  the  great  bell  at  Westminster,  which,  they  sayv 
it  did  before  the  great  plague  ended ;  and  this  they  take 
>for  a  very  comfortable  sign.  Others  speak  of  the  dawei 
0iore  frequenting  the  pallace  and  abbey,  which,  if  true> 
is  a  better  sign,  supposing  the  aire  to  have  been  infected^ 
'For  the  bookes  I  read  tell  mee,  that  the  goeinge  away  of 
birds  is  the  forerunner  of  the  plague,  and  that  one  shaU 
see  few  in  a  plague-year.  The  death  of  birds  in  houses 
where  they  are  caged,  ordinarily  preceeds  the  death  of 
the  inhabitants ;  for  these  aiery  creatures  feel  the  alteration 
in  that  element  sooner  than  wee.  Thus  you  see  how  de^ 
sirous  all  are  for  some  token  for  good,  and  how  they  catch 
at  the  smallest  shadows  for  it.  But  the  best  sign  of  all,  I 
doubt,  is  much  wanting:  and  that  is,  the  reformation  of 
•men's  manners ;  of  which  I^heare  little,  unless  that  those 
come  to  church  who  did  not  before.  I  think  often  of  a 
saying  in  the  second  book  of  Esdras,  wJhich  describes  the 
•temper  of  the  world  exactly,  chap.  xvi.  19,  20.  A  sad 
thing  that  the  event  of  these  judgments  proves  no  better; 
but  so  it  commonly  falls  out,  and  men  soon  forget  both 
their  smart,  and  also  the  good  resolutions  which  it  formed. 
I  hop^e,  my  friend,  the  hand  of  God  will  not  be  without 
its  instruction  to  us,  and  that  we  shall  be  careful,  if  he  l6t 
tis  live,  to  improve  it  as  we  ought.  I  cannot  but  acknp\r* 
ledge  a  great  wisdom,  as  well  as  justice,  in  this  restraint 
-which  I  now  suffer;  and  therefore  I  thankfully  accept  jt, 
and  intreat  you  to  assist  me  with  your  prayers,  that  I  may 
1>oth  understand  the  meaning  of  it,  and  likewise  make 
the  right  use  which  God  intends.  I  must  ever  also  acknoww 
ledge  a  wonderful  kindnesse  of  God  to  me,  mixed  with  this ; 
for  It^m  well  and  cbearful  to  my  admiratioii  and 'asti(>n]sli^ 
went,  when  I  seriously  think  ofJt.!'     '•  ^  .f 


-P  A  T  R  I  C  K*  19* 

•  Two  of  the  papers  mentioned  in  the  above  letters,  wjxich 
lie  circulated  during  the  plague^ » wiere  printed  in  the  latter 
editions  of  his  *^  Hearths  Ease."  Having  some  reason  to 
.be  offended  with  the  treatment  he  met  with  at  Cambridge, 
he  went. to  Oxford  for  bis  degrees  in  divinity;  and  enter- 
ing himself  of  Christ-church,  was  incorporated  B.  D.  and 
completed  bis  doctor's  degree  in  1666,  about  which  time 
he  was  made|  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  the  king.  In  1668 
he  published  his  "  Parable  of  the  Pilgrim,"  4to,  which 
some  have  thought  the  precursor  of  Bunyan's  more  popu* 
lar  work ;  but  the  di^erence  is  too  strikingly  marked  in  the 
reception  these  two  "  Pilgrims"  have  met  with  to  admit 
of  any  comparison,  or  detract  from  the  genius  that  pre- 
dominates in  the  humble  tinker's  performance.  This  was 
followed  by  tir.  Patrick's  "  Exposition  of  the  Ten  Com-> 
Inandments,"  1668,  8vo,  and  by  a  controversial  work  of 
some  importance,  printed  the  following  year,  with  the 
title  "  A  friendly  debate  betwixt  two  Neighbours,  the  one 
9L  conformist,  the*  other  a  non^conformist,  about  several 
weighty  matters^  Published  for  the  benefit  of  this  city.  By 
^  lover  of  it,  and  of  pure  religion."  This  consisted  of  twp 
iparts^  to  which  a  third  was  added  in  1670,  and  was  an- 
swered by  some  of  the  non-conformist  writers,  who  were; 
inuch  exasperated  at  it^. 

*  Harris,  the  Writer  of  the  Life  of  y^ars ;  hut  th&t  he  had  lived  Ion|^ 
"Di,  Mantoa  the  fion«confonni8t,  flays,  enough  to  see  reason  to  alter  his  opl> 
that  "  it  has  been  generally  allowed,  nion  of  that  people,  and  that  way  of 
that  Dr.  Patrick  wrote  the  first  volume^  writing ;  and  that  he  was  verily  per* 
'Of  the  *  Friendly  Debate,'  in  the  heat  ,  suaded  there  were  some,  who  were  ho- 
of his  youth,  and  in  the  midst  of  his  nest  men,  atid  good  Christians,  who 
expectations ;  which  by  aggravating  would  b^e  neither,  if  they  did  not  ordi« 
^me  weak  and  undautiods  expressions  narily  gb  to  church  and  sonietimes  to 
in  a  few  particular  writers,  designed  to  the  meeting;  and  on  the  other  bari^^ 
«xp08«  the  noQ-confbrmist  ministry  to  some  were  honest  men  and  good  Chris- 
<»ntempt  and  ridicule.  The  design  was  tiahs,  who  would  be  neither,  if  they^ 
afterwards  carried  on  by  a  worse  hand  did  not  ordinarily  go  to  the  meet* 
..(bishop  Parker),  and  with  a  more  yiru-  ings,  and  sometimes  to  the  church.'  A 
lent  spirit:  a  method  altogether  un-  rare  instance  this  of  retractation  and 
reasonable  and  unworthy,  because  it  moderation,  which,  I  think,  redounds 
will  be  always  easy  to  gather  rash  and  greatly  to  bis  honour,  and  is  wurtby 
unadvised  expressions  firom  the  weaker  of  imitation."  This  was,  bovver, 
persons  of  any  party  of  men$  and  only  viewed  in  a  dtflerent  light  by  Wharton, 
serves  to  expose  religion  to  the  scorn  who  i^  his  MS  notes,  says,  i>r.  Pv 
and  contempt  of  the  profane.  But  bi-  trick  **  was  a  person  of  great  leaminj^ 
shop  Patrick,  in  his  advanced  age,  and  and  reputation,  for  goixtness  and  wit- 
in  a  public  debate  in  the  House  of  dom,  before  he  was  made  bishop ;  but 
Iiords  abbnt  the  Occasional  Bill,  took  .  after  that,  he  losthi^  reputation  through 
Ihe opportunity  to  declare  himself  to  impndent  management,  openly  &• 
this  purpose ;  *  Hiat  he  bad  been  vouring  the  dissenters,  an^  employifi|f 
known  to  write  against  the  Dissenters  none  bnt  such*" 
with  seg^e  warmth  ia  liis  younger 

O  2 


IQB  PATRICK. 

Dr.  Patrick's  next  publication,  of  the  more  ptacticsd 
kind,  was  his  "  Christian  Sacrifice;  a  tt-eatise  showing  the 
necessity,  end,  and  manner  of  receiving  the  rioly  Commur 
liion,  &c.'*  1671,  8vo.  This  was  followed  by  his  "  Devout 
Christian,*'  a  book  of  forms  of  prayer,  1672;  >*  Advice 
to  a  Friend,"  1677,  12mo;  "Jesus  and  the  Resurrectioh 
Justified  by  witnesses  in  Heaven  and  Earth,**  1677,  8vo ; 
**The  Glorious  Epiphany,*'  1674,  8vo;  a  translation  cf 
Grotius,  "  De  Veritate,'*  16^0,  8vo;  and  various  'piou)^ 
tracts  of  the  popular  kind,  published  from  this  date  to 
1703,  and  a  considerable  number  of  occasional  sertnobs.  ^ 

In  the  interim,  in  July  1672  he  was  made  pi'ebendarjr 
of  Westminster,  and  dean  of  Peterborough  in  Atig.  167i?. 
Here  he  completed  the  **  History  of  thd  Church  of  Petet* 
borough,'*  which  had  been  coulpiled  by  Simon  Gunton'^ 
who  was  a  native  and  prebendary  of  Peterborough.  Guh- 
toh  died  in  1676;  and  Patrick  published,  in  1686,  hik 
inanuscript  in  folio,  with  a  large  "Supplement,"  from 
page  225  to  332,  containing  a  fuller  aCcoutit  6(  the  abbots 
and  bishops  of  Peterborough,  than  had  been  given  by 
Gunton.  In  1680,  the  lord-chancellor  Fin<Jh  offered  hiih 
the  living  of  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields;  but  be  refused  it, 
"and  recommended  Dr.  Thomas  Tenison.  fn  1682,  "DK 
Lewis  de  Moulin,  who  had  been  *  history-professor  at  O:^-^ 
ford,  and  had  written  much  against  the  church  of  England, 
tent  for  Patrick  upon  his  death-bed^  and  solemnly  dcf- 
xlared,  before  l3r.  Burnet  also,  his  regret  tipon  that  ac- 
count ;  which  declaration  being  signed,  was  published  after 
lis  death.  -      • 

During  the  reign  of  James  II.  t)r.  Patrie^L  ftras  one  of 
those  able  champions,  who  defended  the  proteslant  reii- 
igion  against  the  designs  of  the  court,  ail'd  published  som% 
pieces,  which  were  afterwards  reprinted  in  the  coUeetion  of 
:"  Controversial  Tracts,"  3  vols.  fol.  ButhiifiAdst  rematif- 
able  service  in  this  way  was  his  conference  with  twp 
Romish  priests,  of  which  we  have  the  followttrg  accoui6t': 
'**  0reat  endeavours  were  used  to  bring  Laurence  Hy<Jfe, 
earl  of  Rochester,  lord  high  treasurer  in  king  Jameses 
yeign,  ^o  embrace  popery ;  but  in  vain.  At  length  hi«  loi*d- 
fhip  being  pressed  and  fatigued  by  the  king^  intreatiey, 
told  his  majesty,  that  to  let  him^ee  it  was  not  tlii'ougb  an% 
rejudice  of  education,  or  obstinacy,  that  lie  persevere<J  in 
is  religion,  be  would  freely  consent  to  bear  some  protec- 
tant divines  dispute  with  some  popish  priests,  ^nd  prd«« 


« 


PATRICK.  19T 

ipbed  to  side  with  the  conquerors.  On  this  the  king  ap- 
Ipointed  a  cpnfference  to  be  held  at  Whitehall,  at  which  hii 
ftiaj^stjr  and  se?eral  persons  of  rank  were  present.  Th§ 
fliptjsstAnt  champions  were  Dr.  Patrick  and  Dr.  Willian) 
J[^Re,.ithe  two  chaplains  then  in  waiting.  Those  on  th^ 
popisli  side  were  GifFord,  a  doctor  of  the^Sorbonne,  pro* 
babl^  the  same  ^yhom  king  James  wished  to  obtrude  upogi 
Magdat/fn- college,  a^id  a  Mr.  Tilden,  who,  having  turne4 
jlStpi^t  at  Lisbon,  went  by  the  name  of  Dr.  Godden.  Th^ 
fll^ject  o^  tbjeir  dispute  was  the  ^  rule  of  faith,'  and  *  th^ 
proper  judge  iacontrpyersies.*  The  conference  was  ver^r 
iQOg ;  Md  at  last  t^e  Ropnish  doctors  were  pressed  with  s9 
tQu^h  strength  of  reason  and  authority  'against  them,  that 
they  were  really  put  to  silence.  0,n  this  the  earl  of  Ro- 
chester declared  ^  that  the  victory  the  protestant  divines 
Jpad  gained  made  no  alteration  in  his  mind,  being  before- 
i^apd  co.|iv^a<ced  of  the  truth  of  his  religion,  and  firmly  rer 
Italved  never  to  forsake  it.*  The  king,  going  off  abruptly^ 
Sv^  heard  t0  say,  he  never  saw  a  bad  cause  so  well,  nor  ^ 
^ood  on^  SQ  ill  maintained."  , 

^  Such  .is  the  account  given  of  this  debate  by  Kennet  in 
^  VCompl^lie  Ijiisjtory  of  England  :"  bishop  Burnet*s  aci- 
pp^njt. is  somewhat  different  He  says,  *^  That  the  king 
^j^siried  of  the  earl,  he  wpuld  suffer  himself  to  be  instructed 
ff^  teji^ifi^.  He  answered,  he  was  fully  satisfied  about  hi$ 
f^ljglon;  but,  \ipon  the  king's  pressing  it  that  he  jwould 
ikear  his  priests,  he  said  l^e  desired  then  to  have  some  qf 
ijlie  £nglish  clergy  pXi^stent,  to  which  the  king  consented ; 
D^ly  ih(e  ^xc^pted  to  JiHotson  ^nd.Stillingfleet..  Lord  Ro'^ 
<?hester  said  be  would  take  those  who  should  happen  to  bp 
^  waiting ;  for  the  forms  of  the  chapel  w^re  still  kept  up. 
i^nd  Drs,  Patrick  and  Jane  w^re  the  men.'*  "  Patrick,'* 
Jidds  Burqet,  '^  told,  me,  that  at  the  conference  there  was 
j}0  occasion  lor  them  to  say  much.  The  priests  began  the 
attack.  And  when  they  had  done,  the  earl  said,  if  they 
tod  i^iothiag  stifonger  to  urge,  be  would  not  trouble  those 
jyearsi^d  gentjleme^i  to  say  any  thing ;  for  he  was  sure  he 
iKM^td  anaw^  all  ,that  he  had  heard.  And  so  SLiiswered  all 
;fli|h<m^h  he9,t  a^d  spirit,  ,not  without  some  scorn,  saying, 
dJKer^ibe^e  grounds  to  persiuade  men  to  chapge  their  reli-' 
l^ion^?  This  be  \irg<ed  over  and  over  again  with  great  vehe- 
jUieiM^e.  T4>e  king,  seeing  in  wh^  temper  he  was,  broke 
#ff  the  c^nf^rence,  charging  all  that  w^e  present  to  say 
fiJ^pg  of  it.'* 


l9S  PATRICK* 

'  The  ting  had  often  taken  pains  to  gain  tfftr  Patrick^ 
isent  for  biniy  treated  him  kindly,  desired  him  to  abate  biti 
zeal  against  his  church,  and  quietly  enjoy  his  own  religion  t 
but  the  dean  replied,  with  proper  courage,  **That  he 
tcould  not  give  up  a  religion  so  well  proved  as  that  of  the 
Protestants."  Conforniably  to  this  principle,  he  opposed 
the  reading  of  his  majesty's  declaration  for  liberty  of  con-^ 
science ;  and  assisted  Dr.  Tenison  in  setting  up  a  school 
)at  St.  Martin's,  in  opposition  to  the  popish  one,  opened  ill 
the  Savoy,  in  order  to  seduce  the  youth. of  the  town  i^nto 
popery ;  and  this  was  the  origin  of  the  ward  and  parish 
schools  of  London.  He  bad  also  a  great  share  in  the  cooi^ 
prehension  projected  by  archbishop  Sancroft,  in  order  t<l 
bring  over  the  dissenters,  which,  it  is  well  known,  was  \xfkm 
successful.  * 

'  At  the  Revolution  in  1688,  great  use  was  tnade  of  the 
dean,  who  was  very  active  in  settling  the  affairs  of  the 
church :  he  was  called  upon  to  preach  before  the  prince 
^nd  princess  of  Orange;  and  was  soon  after  appointed  one 
of  the  commissioners  for  the  review  of  the  liturgy.  H0 
\vas  thought  to  have  excellent  talents  for  devotional  com*? 
position,  and  his  part  now  was. to  revise  the  collects  of  the 
whole  year,  in  which  he  introduced  some  amendments  und 
improvements  of  style^  In  October  1689,  he  was  made 
bishop  of  Chichester ;  and  employed,  with  others  of  the 
new  bishops,  to  compose  the  disorders  of  the  church  of 
Ireland.  In  July  1691,  he  was  translated  to  the  see  c^ 
Ely,  in  thp  room  of  Turner,  who  was  deprived  for  refusr 
ing.  the  oaths  to  government.  Here  he  continued  to  per«<- 
form  all  the  offices  of  a  good  bishop,  as  well  as  a  good  man^ 
which  he  had'  ever  proved  himself  on  all  occasions,  -  He 
died  at  Ely,  May  31,  1707,  aged  eighty;  and  was  interre4 
in  the  cathedral,  where  a  moiiumefit  is  erected  to  his  me* 
Ipoioryi^  with  an  inscription  said  to  have  been  written  by  Dev 
Leng^  afterwai^ds  bishop  of  Norwich* 

This  prelate  was  one  of  the  most  learned  men  as  well  e$ 
best  writers  of  his  time*  We  have  noticed  his  principal 
■writings,  but  have  still  to  add  his  ^^  Paraphrases'^  and  dom*^ 
mentaries  upon  the  Old  Testament,  as  far  as  the  prophets,; 
which  are  the  result  of  extensive  reading,  and  perhaps  tbei 
most  tiseful  of  any  ever  written  in  the  English  language 
They  were  published  at  various  times,  <but  reprinted  in 
^  vols,  folio;  and,  with  Lowth oa  the  Rropbets,  Arnald  oa 
|be  Apocrypha,  and  Whitby  on  the  New  TesitameQt^  bav^ 


PATRICK.  W9 

%een  ^pubUsbedt,  in  folioi  and  very  recently  in  4t6,  a$  ^ 
regular  commentary  upon  all  ibe  sacred  books.  The  ^tyle 
of  this  prelate  is  even  and  easy,  bis  compositions  rational, 
iand  full  of  good  and  sound  sense.  Burnet  ranks  him. 
among  those  many  .^vorthy  and  eminent  clergymen  in  this 
laation,  who  deserved  a  high  character;  and  were  indeeci 
an  hodour  to  the  church,  and  to  the  age  in.  which  they 
lived*. 

;  Our  prelate  bad  a  brother  John  Patrick,  preacher  at  the 
Charter»house,  according  to  Wharton,  aud  one  of  the  trans- 
lators of  Plutarch*  Dr.  Samuel  Patrick,  the  editor  of  an 
edition  of  Ainsworth's  Pictionary  was  also  at  ibe  Charter- 
kouse,  but  whether  a  relation  does  not. appear.  Wharton^ 
also  says  he  had  a  son,  who  wasted  an  estate  left  him  by  bis 
father,  and  it  was  sold,' after  his  death,  *^  for  debts  and 
portions."  Mrs.  Catherine  Patrick,  a  maiden  lady  of  eighty <• 
two  years  old,  said  to  be  oijr  prelate's  grand-daughter,  died 
At  Bury  in  1792.  Wbtstoa  speaks  of  a  life  of  bishop  Patrick, 
written  by  himself,  which  he  had  read,  and  which  was  in 
Dr.  Knight's  hands,  but  where  now,  is  not  known.  ^ 

PATRIX  (Peter),  a  French  minor  poet,  was  born  at 
Caen  in  1585,  and  being  the  son  of  a  lawyer,  was  designed 
by  his  father  for  the  same  profession.  This  destination, 
which  seldom  suits  a  poetical  imagination,  was  accordingly 
rejected  by  Patrix,  who  addicted  himself  entirely  to  poetry, 
^bont  the  age  of  forty,  he  attached  himself  to  the  court  of 
Gaston,  duke  of  Orleans,  to  whom,  and  to  his  widow^ 
Margaret  of  Lorraine,  he  faithfully  devoted *his  services, 
A  Norman  accent,  and  a  certain  affectation  of  rustic  sim<7 
pHcity,  did  not  prevent  him  from  being  in  high  f^.vour  at 
jtbat  little  court:  his  wit,  liveliness,  and  social  talent| 
snaking  amends  for  such  imperfections.  Towards  the  latter 
«nd  oif  life,  he  became  strongly  touched  with  sentiments  of 
religion,  and  suppressed,  as  far  as  hie  could,  the  licentious 
poems  which  bjC  had  written  in  his  youth.  H^  lived  to  th0 
great  age  of  eighty rejght,  and  died  at  Paris  in  1672.  At 
^g;hty,  he  had  a  violent  illness,  and  when  he  recovered 
from  it,  bis  friends  advised  bim  to  leave  his  bed ;  ^^  Alas  V* 
said  he,  "  ajt  my  time  of  life,  it  is  hardly  worth  while  to 
jtake  the  trouble  of  dressing  myself  again.^'  He  proved 
Jiowisver  jaaistaken,  as  to  the  shortness  of  his  subsequent 

*  Biog.  Brit— Gfeq.  Diet. — ^Buraet*^  Own  Times.— Whision's  Meinoir8.-^R»- 
•titata,  Tol.  i.  p.  56,<^Birch'8  I^fe  of  Tiilotson.— Cole's  MiS  Atheaa  in  Britiel 


too  P  A  T  R  I  X. 

life.  Of  bis  works  there  are  extant,  1.  A  eoUectioti  of 
verses  entitled  *^  La  misericorde  de  Diea  sur  on  pecbeor 
p6niient,'*  Blois,  1660,  4to.  These  were  written  in  his 
stge,  yet  possess  some  fire.  2.  **  Plaiiiu  des  Consonnes 
^ui  n'ont  pas  Thonneur  d^entrer  dlaifis  le  nom  de  Neufger* 
main,''  preserved  in  the  woriis  of  Voiture.  S.  Misceilane-* 
ous  paems,  in  the  collection  of  Barbin»  ^  The  greater  patt 
of  them  are  feeble,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  original 
passages.  The  poem  most  known  was  made  a  few  days 
before  bis  deatb.  It  is  called  the  Dream  ;  and,  though  it 
is  of  a  serious  cast,  a  translation  of  it,  oddly  enough,  po$*- 
sesses  a  place  in  all  our  English  jest  books,  beginning,  <*  I 
dreamt  tbat  buried  in  my  fellow-clay,*'  &c.  It  asserts  a 
inoral  and  religious  axiom,  which  is  undeniable,  tbat  death 
levels  all  conditions.  The  original  is  little  known ;  it  ik 
this : 

Je  songeois  cette  nuit  que,  de  mal  consume, 

C6te  k  c6te  d'un  Pkuvre  on  m*avait  inhum^^ 

£t  que  n*en  pouvant  pas  soui&ir  le  voisinage^ 

En  mort  de  quality  je  lul  tins  ce  langage : 

''  Retire  toi>  coquin !  va  pourrir  loin  d'ici, 

II  ne  t'appartient  pas  de  m*approcher  ainsi.'* 

**  Coquin!"  me  dit  il>  d*une  arrogance  extreme, 

*'  Va  chercher  tes  coquinsiailleurs,  coquin  toi-m^me  ! 

Ici  tous  sont  egauxj  je  ne  te  dois  plus  rien  $ 

Je  suis  sur  mon  famier«  comme  toi  sur  le  tien.'* ' 

PATRIZI  (Francis,  or  Patricius),  a  platonic  pbiloso*^ 
pber  and  man  of  letters,  was  born,  in  1529,  at  Clissa  in 
Illyricum,  and  was  educated  at  Padua.  In  1553  he  began 
to  appear  as  an  author  by  some  miscellaneous  Italian  tracts. 
In  1537,  with  the  view  of  obtaining  the  patronage -of  the 
duke  of  Ferrara,  he  published  a  panegyrical  poem  on  tlie 
house  of  Este,  entitled  "L'Eridano,"  in  a  novel  kind  of 
heroic  verse  of  thirteen  syllables.  After  this,  for  several 
years,  he  passed  an  unsettled  kind  of  life,  in  which  he 
twice  visited,  the  isle  of  .Cyprus,  where  he  took  up  his 
abode  for  seven  years,  and  which  be  finally  quitted  on  liil 
reduction  by  the  Turks  in  1571.  He  also  travelled  intb 
France  and  Spain,  and  spent  three  years  in  the  httdr 
jcoiintry,  collecting  a  treasure  of  ancient  Greek  MSS, 
which  he  lost  on  his  return  to  Italy.  In  1578  be  was  irtm 
vited  to  Ferrara  by  duke  Alptionso  11.  to  teach  philosophy 
in  the  university  of  that  city.    Afterwards^  upon  the  9bc^ 

i  l^icerwh  TQi.  iP^lV.-T-Moreri,— Ptct.  Bist/ 


P  .A  T  R  I  Z  I.  SOI 

^essson  of  CSetnent  VIII.  to  the  popedom^  he  was  appointed 
public  profesior  of  the  Platonic  philosophy  at  Rome,:  an 
effice  which  be  held  with  high  reputation  till  his  death,  m 
1597.  He  professed  to  unite  the  doctrines  of  Amtotle  and 
Plato,  but  in  reality  undermined  the  authority  of  the  for«> 
met.  He  wholly  deserted  the  obscurity  of  the  Jewish 
Cabbala,  and  in  teaching  philosophy  closely  followed  the 
ancient  Greek  writers.  During  his  lecturing  at  Rome,  be 
more  openly  discovered  his  av^sion  to  the  Aristotelian 
philosophy,  and  advised  the  pope  to  prohibit  the  teaching 
of  it  in  the  schools,  and  to  introduce  the  doctrine  of  Ptatb^ 
as  more  consonant  to  the  Christian  faith.  His  ^'  Discus*- 
■iones  Peripatetiess,'*  a  learned,  perspicuous,  and  elegant 
«vork,  fully  explains  the  reason  on  which  his  disapprobation 
cf  the  Peripatietic  philosophy  was  founded.  He  was  one  of 
the  first  of  the  moderns  who  attentively  observed  the  pheno- 
mena of  nature,  and  be  made  use  of  every  opportunity, 
that  bis  travels  afforded  him,  for  collecting  remarks  con- 
cerning various  points  of  astronomy,  meteorology,  and 
natural  history.  In  one  of  his  ^*  Dialogues  on  Rhetoric,** 
he  advanced,  under  the  fiction  of  an  Ethiopic  tradition,  a 
theory  of  the  earth  which  some  have  thought  similar  to 
that  afterwards  proposed  by  Dr.  Thomas  Burnet.  His 
other  principal  works  were,  "Nova  Geometria,"  1587; 
*'  Parallel!  Milikari,"  1594,  both  of  which  are  full  of  whim- 
aical  theories ;  and  an  elaborate  edition  of  *>  Oracula  Zo- 
Toastris,  Hermetis  Trismegisti,  et  aliorum  ex  scriptis  Pla- 
tonicorum  collecta,  Orece  et  Latine,  prehxa  Dissertatione 
fiistorica/'   1591.' 

PA.TRU  (Oliver),  a  polite  scholar,  and  memorable  for 
being  one  of  the  first  polishers  and  refiners  of  the  French, 
language,  was  born  in  1604  at  Paris,  where  bis  father  was 
procurator  to  the  parliament.  After  studying  the  law,  and 
peing  received  an  advocate,  he  went  into  Italy ;  and,  on 
bis  retarn  to  Paris,  frequented  the  bar.  *^  He  was  the 
fitrst,**  says  Voltaire,  '^  who  introduced  correctness  and 
^rity  of  language  in  pleadings.*'  He  obtained  the  repu- 
taftion  of  a  tnost  exact  speaker  and  excellent  writer,  and 
Wsts  esteemed  so  perfectly  knowing  in  grammar  and  in  hit 
Wn  language,  that  all  his  decisions  were  submitted  to  aa 
foracles.-  Vaiigelas,  the  famous  grammarian,  to  whom  tb^ 
.French  language  was  greatly  indebted^  for  much  ofJtU 

^  Gen.  Dist.—'Liadi  Hist,  I<itk.  4^ti|He.--BnidMr^*-4Kaes's  Cyofc^eduu 


lOJ  F  A  T  B  IT. 

* 

perfection,  confesses  that  be  learned  much  from  Palm  i 
and  Boileau  applied  to  him  to  review  his  works,  and  usei) 
to  profit  by  bis  opinion.  Patru  was  an  extremely  rigid 
censor,  though  just;  and  when  Racine  made  some  obser* 
Nations  upon  the  works  of  JBoileau  a  little  too  subtle  and 
fefined,  Boileau,  instead  of  the  Latin  proverb,  <^  Ne  sia 
mihi  patruus,*'  '*  Do  not  treat  me  with  the  severity  of  an 
sincle,''  replied^  ^'  Ne  sis  mihi  Patru,'*  '*  Do  not  tr^t  me 
)with  the  severity  of  Patru*'* 

.'  Satra  was  in  his  personal  character  honest,  generous^ 

#incere^;  and  preserved  a  gaiety  of  temper  which  no  advert 

•i^ty  could  affect:  for  this  famous  advocate,  in  spite  of  all 

his  talents,  lived  almost  in  a  state  of  indigence.    -The  love 

of  ,t.b^  belles  lettres  made  him  neglect  the  law  *  and  thja 

barren  glory  of  being  an  oracle  to  the  best  French  writers 

■had  more  charms  for  him,  than  all  the  profits  of  the  bas^ 

Henqe  be  became  so  poor,  as  to  be  reduced  to  the  neces« 

^ity  of  selling  his  books,  which  seemed  dearer  to  him  tfaaa 

hh  life ;  and  would  actually  have  sold  them  for  au  under? 

jirice^  if  Boileau  had  not  generously  advanced  him  a  larger 

jaum>  with  this  further  privilege,  that  he  should  have  th^ 

(Use  of  them  as  long  as  be  livedo.     His  death  was  preceded 

^y  a  tedious  illness,  during  which  he  received  a  present  of 

iive  hundred  crowns  .from  the  statesman  Colbert,  as  a 

4»ark  of  the  esteem  which  the  king  bad  for  him.     He  died 

Jan.  16,   1681.     He  had  been  elected  a  member  of  tb^^ 

French  academy  in  1640,  by  the  interest  of  cardinsd  Hiche*- 

lieu,  and  made  a  speech  of  thanks  on  bis  reception,  with 

which  the  academicians  were  so  much  pleased,  as  to  order 

*tbat' every  vevt  member  should  in  future  make  one  of  a 

similar  kind  on  being  admitted;  and  this  rule  has  been  oh* 

served  ever  since.     When  At.  Conrart,  a  member  of  th# 

JFrench  academy  died,  one  of  the  first  noblemen  at  court^ 

ibut  whose  miiKl  was  very  moderately  cultivated^  having 

ipfFered.  for  the  vacant  place,  Patru  ppened  the  me^tin^ 

■mth  the  following  apologue;    ^^  Gentlemen,  an  ancient 

4j^recian,  had  an  admirable  Lyre;  a  string  broke,  but  m^ 

vtead  of  replacing  it  with  one  of  catgut,  he  ^ould  h^veit 

silver  one,  and  the  Lyre  with  its  silver  string  was  no  longer 

Jiavmonious,"     The  fastidious  care  with  which  he  retouched 

fuid  finished  eyery  thing  he  wrote,  4i4  Mt  permit  him  t^ 

,  •    .      ;  •.   .      '  :  .  ■        ■'     ti 

*  This  act  of  generosity  was  dramatised  at  Paris  in  1802,  In  a  piece  entitled 
**  La  BiJ>lioth«au«.  de  Patri^,*?  in  which  Boileau  is  made  tft  |iye  ;3Q^0QO  liTI^  ^^ 
Mie  libr^'r^/wlucii  really  cbsl;  him  only  40QQ, 


PAT  R  U.  «0» 

fitiblish  muofa.'    His  niMcelianeoiis  works  were  printed  at 
Pms  in  1670,.  4to;  the  third  edition  of  whichy  in  1714^ 
was  augmented   with  several   pieces.      They    <*onsist  of 
f*  Pleadings,"  *^  Orations,"  "Letters,"  <<  Lives  of  sooie  of 
bis  Friends,"  <^  Remarks  upon  the  French  Language,"  &o; 
^  very  ingenious  tract  by.  him  was  published  at  Paris  in 
^651,  4to,  with  this  title,  "  Reponse  du  Cur6  a  la  Lettm 
4u  Marguillier  sur  la  conduite  de  M.  le  Coadjateun"^       » 
:    PATTEN.     See  WAYNFLETE. 
.    PATTISON  (William),  an  yn fortunate  poet,  was  bom 
«tt  Peasmarsb,  in  the  county  of  Sussex,  in  1706,  and  wa* 
the  son  of  a  farmer  at  that  place,  who  rented  a  consider* 
able  estate  of  the  earl  of  Thanet.     He  discovered  excellent 
parts,  with  a  strong  propensity  to  learning ;  and  his  father, 
iiot  being  in  circumstances  to  give'  him  a  proper  educatioi^ 
applied  to  his  noble  Jandlord,  who  took  him  under  bis  pro« 
lection,  and  placed  him  at  Appleby  school- in  Westmore* 
land»     Here  he  became  acquainted  with  Mr.  Noble,  a  cier* 
gyman  of  great  learning  and  fine  taste,  who  promoted  hig 
«$tudiea  and  directed  his  taste.     Mp^o  his  leaving  Appleby^ 
he  went  to  Sidney  college  in  Cambridge,  where  he  pura* 
3$ued  the  plan  Mr.  Noble  had  given  him,  and  went  through 
the  classics,  as  well  as  ail  our  English  poets,  with  great 
iadvantage.     Of  these  last,  Spenser*!*  <*  Fairy  Queen"  and 
Brown's  *<  Britannia's  Pastorals^'  are  said  to  have  given  him 
4he  greatest  delight.     He  had,    however,    unfortunately 
contracted  a  habit  of  desultory  reading,  and  bad  no  relish 
lor  academical  studies.     His  temper  could  not  brook  rem 
-^traint;  and  his  tutor,  be  thought,  treated  him  with  great 
^  Tigour.     A  quan^el  ensued ;  and,  to  avoid  the  scandal  .of 
expulsion,  with  which  he  was  threatened,  be  tQok  histiame 
out  of  the  college  book,  and  went  to  London*     Even  now 
}ii$  friends  would  have  forgiven  him,  and  procured  bis  re^ 
admission ;  but  the  ple!asures  of  the  town,  the  desire  of 
peing  known^  and  his  romantic  expectations  of  meeting 
««vith  some  generous  patron  to  reward  his  merit,  rendered 
iiim:  deaf  to  all  advice.     He  led  a  pleasurable  life,  fre^ 
quented  Button'i^,  and  became  acquainted  with  some  of 
%he  most  eminent  wits  of  the  time.     As  he  had  no  fortuneu 
mor  any  means  of  aubsistence,  hut  what  arose  from  the 
subscriptions  for  the  poems  he  proposed  to  publish ;  and^ 
f(S  he  wanted  oveu  common  prudence  to  manage  this 

I  iH»a«f<7is«T^ieer«|»  t^L  VI,— Pemnlt^  ^Ui  B<»Bn|et  Iltiigtrli,>* 


f  04  I^  A  T  T  I  3  O  N. 

carious  'incoipey  be  was  soon  iovolr^d  in  the  dee|jes| 
^isstress  and  most  deplorable-  wretcbedoe^s.  In  »  poeco^ 
entitled  ^^  Effigies  Autboris/'  addreaised  to  lord  Burling** 
Ion,  be  describes  himself  as  destinite  of  friends,  of  money; 
a  prey  to  hunger;  and  pa$si«ig  bis  nights  on  »  bench,  ii 
Bt.  James's  paric.  In  a  private  letter  to  a  gjentleman,  be 
thus  expressed  jiimself:  ^' Spare  my  blushes;  1  have  not^ 
enjoyed  the  common  necessaries  of  life  these  two  dayS| 
and  caVi  hardly  bold  to  subscribe  myself/'  &c*  CurU»  the 
iHKikseller,  finding  some  of  his  compositions  well  received, 
And  going  through  several  impressions,  took  him  into  his 
house;  and,  as  Pope  affirms  in  one  of  his  letters,. starved 
him  io  death.  But  this  does  not  appear  to  be  strictly  true; 
^od  his  death  is  more  justly  attributed  to  the  smsJUpox^ 
ivbicb  carried  him  off  iu  1727,  in  his  21st  year.  His  biot- 
grapber  says,  that  he  bad  a  surprising  genius,  and  bad 
xatised  hopes  in  all  that  knew  him,  that  he  would  become 
4D!oe  of  the  most  eminent  poets  of  the  age  ;  but  such  of  hiit 
^ems  as  we  find  in  the  collection  published  in  2  vols.  8vq, 
in  1728,  would  not  in  our  days  be  thought  calculated  to 
eupport  such  high  expectations*^ 

PAUL  OF  BuRQOS,  a  learned  Jew,  born  in  that  city,  in 
13.53,  embraced  Christianity,  and  entered  the  ecclesiastic 
iE:al  profession  after  his  wife's  decease.  He  was  appointed 
preceptor  to  John  tl.  king  of  Castillo ;  afterwards  accbdea- 
^n  of  Trevigno,  bishop  qf  Carthagena,  bishop  of  Burgos, 
and  is  said  to  have  died  patriarch  of  Aquileia,  August  29, 
JL435,  aged  St.  He  has  left  additions  to  Nicholas  de 
J^yra's  *<*  Postills;"  .a  treatise,  entitled  "  Scrutinium  Serifs 
lurarum,"  Man^t.  1474,  &I.  reprinted  several  times;  and 
^her;  learned  wo^ks,  abounding,  according  to.Dupin,  m 
Mseful  hiblinal  criticism.  ^  His  three  sons  were  baptized 
jwi^ium,  and  i;ecommended  themsdves  by  tb^ir  merit. 
i^L^HOiitSQ  wa^  bishop  of  Burgos,  and  wrote  an  abridgm^it 
^  ;the:  Spanish. History,  which  is  in  the  f' Jiispania  illuS^ 
itcat^'^  4  .vob.  foK  GoNSALyo,  the  second  son,  was  bishop 
x^.PI,acentia;  and  Alivarbz,  the  third,  published  a  History 
jDf  ioiMi.ILlang.of  Caftille.*  ^  / 

^;  PAUL,  ibe:  Deacon,  or  Paulus  DiAcaNUS,  so  called 
jhecanse.he  bad  been  a  d^eon  .of  the  church  o^  f riuU^ 
|ii€Migh  somei  ^^  him  ,by  (bis  .father's  name  Warn^aidus^. 
and  others,  from  due  pixrfiBssiou  .he  took  up  Ja  iiis 


PAUL.  S04 

5reara  PAtrtus  Monachcs,  was  originally  a  Lombard,  boro 
kk  the  city  of  Frialiy'in  the  eighth  century,  and  educated 
hi  the  court  of  the  Looillard  kings  at  Pavia.  After  Desi-^ 
derias,  the  last  king  of  the  Lombards,  was  taken  prisoned 
by  Charlemagne^  and  carried  to  t'rance,  tired  of  the  tu^. 
Inult  of  the  public  world,'  he  retired  from  the  busy  scene's 
h^  had  been  engaged  in,  and  became  a  monk  in  the  &« . 
mous  monastery  of  Monte  Casino,  where  he  wrote  his  history 
of  the  Lombards,  in  six  books,  from  their  first  origin  down 
to  the  reign  of  Luitprandus,  who  wa^  their  eighteenth  king 
that  reigned  in  Italy,  and  died  in  the  year  743.  He  was 
an  eye-witness  of  many  of  the  transactions  he  relates ;  tfnd 
as  he  was  a  Lombard,  we  may  suppose  him  well  informed 
of  the  affairs  of  his  own  nation,  and  had  rdad  the  history  of 
the  Lombards,  written  in  the  same  century  in  which  they 
bbgan  to  reign  in  Italy,  by  Sectindus  Tridentinus,  origi- 
fiAlly  a  Lombard,  biit  a.  native  of  the  city  of  Trent,  whb 
flourished,  according  to  Baronins,  in  the  year  615 ;  but  hi^ 
faistory  is  now  lost.  He  often  quotes  his  authority,  and 
though  he  sometimes  falls  into  trivial  mistakes,  about  fo- 
ireign  afFaifs,  and  such  as  happened  long  before  his  time, 
as  Grotius  learnedly  evinces,  yet,  in  the  transactions  of  liis 
own  nation,  he  is,  generally  speaking,  very  exact.  He  died 
In  the  year7'91^.  His  history  was  printed  at  Hamburgh  in 
16 1 1,  and  is  besides  to  be  fotlnd  in  the  eighteenth  volume  of 
IMuratori^s  Reru^  Italic.  Scriptores.  ^ 
'  PAUL  of  Samosata,  so  named  froth  the  place  of  hfs 
birtlr,  flourished  in  the  third  century,  and  was  eimong  the  ' 
first  who  entertained  the  opinions  since  known  by  the  nama 
of  Sdcinian,  or  Unitarian.  In  the' year  260  he  was  chbsen 
bishop. of  Antioch,  and  having  begun  to  preach  against  the 
diVinity  of  Jestis  Christ,  be  was  admonished,  in  a  council 
assembled  at  Antioch,  in  the  year  264 :  but,  in  anothei|, 
l^ld'  in  the  year  269  or  270,  sentence  of  deposition  wks 
pas&ed.  To  this  he  refused  t6  submit,  and  was  supported 
|ti  liis  diflob^dience  by  Zenobia  the  consort  of  Odenatus. 
At  length^  when  this  queen  was  driven  from  Antioch,  the 
^peror  Aurelian  expelled  Paul  in^  the  year  272  or  273* 
iHls  no|t  known  what  became  of  him  afterwards;  nor  are 
aiiy  of  his  writings  extant.  His  morals  appear  to'  bav6 
ftfeen '  ^s  obnoxious  as  his  doctrines.  Dr.  L§rdner  has  en- 
lle^votired  to  defend  both,  yet  it  appears  evident  that  be 


(OS  P-  A  U  Lr 

bad  tlie  whole  Christian  world  against  him^  aod  qiteett 
Zenobia  only  for  him.  His  wealth,  says  Gibbon,  was  » 
sufficient  evidence  of  bis  guilt,/since  it  was  neither  de-* 
rived  from  the  inheritance  of  his  fathers,  nor  acquired  by 
the  arts  of  honest  industry.  His  followers  were  for  a  €oq-< 
siderable  time  called  Paulianists,  but  have  since  been  known 
by  many  other  names^  according  to  the  shades  of  difference 
ia  their  opinions.  ^ 

PAUL  DE  VINCENT  (St.),  a  wprthy  ecclesiastic  of  the 
llomish  church,  wa^  born  April  24,  1576,  and  studied  at 
Toulouse,  where  he  was  ordained  a  priest  in  1600.  On 
bis  return  to  Narbonne  from  Marseilles^  his  ship  was  taken 
by  the  Turks,  and  he  remained  for  a  considerable  time  ia 
$layery^  under  three,  masters,  the  last  of  whom  he  con^ 
Terteda  Returning  at  length  to  France,  Louis  XIII.  made 
bim  abbot  of  St.  Leonard ,  de  Chaulme,  and  he  had  after^* 
^wards.tbe  care  of  the  parish  church  pf  Clicby,  which  he 
completely  .repaired  and  furnished  at  his  own  expeiTce« 
Towards  the  end  of  1 609,  he  went  to  reside  in  the  bouse 
of  Emmanuel  de  Goudy,  as  tutor  to  his  children,  but  does 
not  appear  to  have  remained  here  long.  He  then  obtained 
the  curacy  of  Ch&tillon^les-Dombes,  which  he  kept  only 
five  months.  Con^pelled  by  the  solicitations  of  numberr 
less  persons  of  the  highest  distinction,  to  rethrn  to  the 
Opudy  family,  he  resigned  himself  wholly  to  his  natursd 
desire  of  orelieving  the  poor  and  afflicted.  Louis  XIII.  being 
made  acquainted  with  his  zeal,  appointed  him  almonerr 
general  of  the  gallies,  1619  ;  and  the  following  yea%  St^ 
Francis  de  Sales,  because,  as  he  says,  he  '^  knew  not  a 
worthier  priest  in  the  church,^'  made  him  superintendant 
of  the  nuBs  of,  the  visitation.  On  madame  de  Goudy's  def 
cease,  M.  Vincent  retired  to  the  college  des  Bon  Enfans, 
of  which  he  was  principal,  and  which  he  never  quitted^ 
"but  to  perform  the  office  of  a  missionary..  Some  yearft 
after,  he  accepted  the  house  de  St.  Lazare,  though  with 
great  reluctance.  His  life  was  a  continued  series  of  good 
works,  and  it  is  scarcely  to  be  conceived  how  one  maa 
could  plan  so  many,  still  less,  how  he  could  execute  them. 
Among  these  were  missions  in  all  parts  of  France,  as  we|| 
as  in  Italy,  Scotland,  Barbarv,  Madagascar,  &c. ;  ecclef 
siastical  conferences,  at  whicn  the  most  eminent  bishops 
^f  the  kingdom  were  present;  spiritual retirementSj its thc^ 

I  Lardaer.--Milaer's  Cbarch  Hist.^GiblH»'t  Hi»t— Care,  Vol.  U 


r  A  U  L. 


«0T 


were  tdHed,  Which  were  also  gratuitous ;  an  Hospital  for 
'^Foundlings,  for  which  bis  humane  applications  procured 
can  income  of  40,000  livres;  the  foundation  of  the  Chari« 
table  VirginSf  for  the  relief  of  sick  poor ;  to  which  we 
CDfiay  ^dd|  the  hospitals  de  BicStre,  de  la  Salp^triere,  de 
Ja  Piti6 ;  those  of  Marseilles  for  galley-slaves ;  of  Sr.  Reine 
for  pilgrims,  and  of  le  Saint  N09)  de  Jesus,  for  old  men^ 
which  are  principally  indebted  to  him  for.  their  establish* 
ment«  In  times  of  the  greatest  distress,  he  sent  above  two 
millions  of  livres  into  Lorraine  in  money  and  effects ;  nor 
<did  Picardy  and  Champagne  experience  much  less  of  bis 
bounty,  when  the  scourges  of  heaven  badjreduced  those 
provinces  to  the  most  deplorable  indigence.  During  ten 
years  that  M.  Vincent  presided  in  the  council  of  conscience^ 
«nder  Anne  of  Austria,  he  suffered  none  but  the  most 
worthy  to  be  presented  to  benefices.  Being  a  zealous  pa« 
iron  of  nunneries,  he  supported  the  establishment  of  the 
Duns  de  la  Providence,  de  Sainte  Genevieve^  and  de  U 
Croix.  He  laboured  with  success  for  the  reform  of  Cram« 
mont,  Premontr6,  and  the  abbey  of  St.  Genevieve,  as  well 
las  for  the  establishment  of  the  great  Seminaries.  Even 
those,  who  have  doubted  whether  his  talents  were  veiy 
-extensive,  have  openly  acknowledged  that  he  was  one  of 
the  most  pious  priests  in  the  kingdom,  and  more  useful  to 
the  poor  and  to  the  church,  than  most  of  those  who  are 
-considered  as  -great  geniuses.  This  excellent  man  died 
loaded  with  years,  labour,  and  mortificationg,  Sept.  27,1660^ 
ftged  near  85.  He  was  canonized  by  Clement  XII.  or 
July  16,  1737«  Those  who  wish  to  know  more  of  St.  Vio« 
cent  de  Paul,  may  consult  his  Life  by  M.  Collet,  2  vols.4to^ 
mnd  **  I'Avocat  du  Diable,'*  3  vols.  l2mo./  >  ^ 

PAULINUS,  an  ecclesiastical  writer  of  the  fifth  century^ 
^vas  descended  from  an  illustrious  family  of  Roman  senators^ 
mud  bom  a^  Bourdeaux  about  the  year  253.  He  was  directed 
-in  bis  studies  by  the  famous  Ausonius ;  and  applied  himself 
^so  earnestly  to  the  best'  Latin  authors,  that  he  acquired  ^ 
style  tiot  unlike  theirs.  He  was  advanced  afterwards  to  the 
most  considerable  offices  of  the  empire.  Ausonius  saySy 
4bat  Paulinus  was  consul  with  him ;  but  bis  name  not  being 
^ound  in  the  f*asti  Consulares,  it  is  probable  he  obtained 
«^bac  dignity  only  in  the  room  oF  ^ome  other  person,  who 
tlU^  in^the  office,  and  perhaps  in  the  year  378^  after  the 


SOS  PAULINUS. 

,  death  of  Valens;    He  married'  T4ierasia/  tn  opulent; 'fipa* 
nish  lady,  who  proved  instrumental   in  converting  him  lb 
Ohristianity ;  and  he  was-  baptized  in  the  year  389.     He 
dwelt  four  years  in  Spain,  where  he  embraced  voluntarj 
poverty  ;  selling  his  goods  by  degrees,  and  giving  them  to 
the  poor.    The  inhabitants  of  Barcelona,  where  he:i^esidec^ 
conceived  such  an  esteem  for  him,  that  they  would  have 
him  ordained  a  l^riest ;  to  which,  after  a  long  resistance,  he 
consented,  upon  condition  that  he  should  not  be  obliged  to 
remain  in  Barcelona,  because  his  design  was  to  withdraw  to 
Nola.  This  ordination  was  performed  in  the  year  393,  and 
the  next  year  he  left  Spain  to  go  into  Italy.    In  his  way  he 
saw  St.  Ambrose  at  Florence,  who  ahewed  him  marks  of 
respect ;  and  was  kindly  received  at  Rome  both  by  the  qua«- 
lity  and  the  people :  but  the  clergy  there  growing  jea^ 
lous  of  him,  be  left  that  city  quickly,  and  went  to  Nola, 
where  he  dwelt  in  a  country-house  about  half  a  league 
£rom  the  town.     He  lived  thefe  sixteen  years  with  his  wife 
Therasia,  in  the  study  and  exercises  of  a  monastic  life;  and 
then,   in  the  year  409,  was  chosen  and  ordained  bishop 
of  N(>la.  The  beginnings  of  his  episcopate  was  disturbed  by 
t|ie  incursions  of  the  Goths,  who  took  that  city ;  but  the 
assault  being  over,  he  enjoyed  it  peaceably  to  his  deaths 
which  happened  in  the  year  43 1. 

*  His  works  consist  of  *^  Poems,*'  and  ^^  Letters,*'  and  are 
written  with  much  art  ahd  elegance;  his  manner  of  expres- 
iion  being  close  and  clear,  his  words  pure  and  well  chbsen, 
and  his  sentences  strong  and  lively*  All  his  writings  are 
short,  but  pretty  numerous,  and  compos:ed  with  great 
care.  Ausonius  highly  commends  bis  poems;  yet  they 
cannot  pass  for  perfect,  especially  those  which  he  made 
after  his  conversion.  He  uas  esteemed,  beloved,  and  ca« 
jressed  by  all  the  great  men  of  that  age,  of  what  party  so- 
ever they  were ;  and  corresponded  with  them  all,  without 
falling  out  with  any!  He  was,  in  truth,  like  I'itus,  the  de- 
light of  his  times.  Milner  says  that  he  appears,  through' 
the  mist  of  superstition,  which  clouds  his  narrative,  to  have 
heen  one  of  the  best  Christians  of  the  age.  He  was  a  mir« 
rorofpit^ty,  liberality,  and  humility,  worthy  of  a  more  in- 
telligent age,  and  of  more  intelligent  writers,  than  of  those 
who  have  recorded  his  life.  The  first  edition  of  his  works 
was  at  Paris,  in  1516,  by  Badius ;  the  seconxl  at  Cologne, 
by  Graevius:  Roswedius  caused  them  to  be  printed  at 
Antwerp^  in  1622;  and  the  last  edition  of  them  was  at 


P  A  U  1  1  N  U  S.  20» 

VsLvisj  in  2  vols,  quarto,  the  former  of  which  contains  hit 
genuine  work9.  Du  Pin  wishes,  that  ^^  the  booksellers  had 
taken  as  much  care  to  have  it  upon  good  paper,  and  ia 
a  fair  character,  as  the  editor  did  to  make  it  correct  and 
useful." '  .  -    - 

PAULINUS>  patriarch  of  Aquileia  in  the  eighth  century^ 
and  one  of  the  best  bishops  of  his  time,  owes  his  fame  ia 
a  great  measure  to  his  zeal  in  behalf  of  the  doctrine  o£ 
the  Trinity.  He  was  born  near  Friuli,  in  the  year  726, 
and  became  greatly  distinguished  by  bis  laborious  appli<* 
cation^  and  zeal  for  the  advancement  of  learning  and 
science.  The  emperor  Charlemagne  bestowed  on  him  va- 
rious substantial  marks  of  bis  favour,  and,  towards  the 
close  of  the  year  776,  promoted  him  to  the  patriarchate  of 
Aquileia,  where  he  died  in  the  year  804.  A  complete 
edition  of  all  his  works,  with  learned  notes  and  com* 
mentaries,  was  published  at  Venice,  in  1737,  by  John 
Francis  Madrisi,  a  priest  of  the  congregation  of  the  Ora« 
tory.  * 

PAULLI  (Simon),  a  Danish  professor  and  physiciaOj^ 
was  born  at  Rostock,  in  the  circle  of  Lower  Saxony,  April 
Gy  1603,  and  died  at  Copenhagen,  April  25,1680.  Ha 
published  some  medical  treatises,  and  in  1639  a  Latia 
quarto,  on  medicinal  plants,  entitled  Quadripartitum  Bo- 
tanicum ;  and  in  1648  a  thicker  volume,  in  Danish,  with 
wooden  cuts,  called  ^'  Flora  Danica,''  which,  ^however,  em«< 
braces  the  garden  plants  as  well  as  the  pativeones,  known 
in  Denmark  at  the  time  of  its  publication.  He  wrote  alsa 
against  tobacco  and  tea,  and  his  work  was  translated  into 
English  by  the  late  Dr.  James,  in  1746.  The  most  re* 
mailable  circumstance  attending  it  is  his  contending,  with 
the  positiveness,  usual  to  those  who  are  in  the  wrpng)  that 
the  Chinese  Tea  is  no  other  than  our  European  Myrica. 
gale;  an  error  which  Bartholin  very  cautiously  and  repect*-; 
fully  corrects,  in  his  Acta  Medica,  v.  4.  1,  where  the  true; 
tea  is,  not  very  accurately,  figured.  The  Paullipii^j  ia 
Ibotany,  is  so  named  in  honour  of  him,  by  LinnaBus«  ^ 

PAULMIER  DE  GRENTESMENIL  (Jambs  lb),  mor« 
coouBodly  known  to  the  learned  by  his  Latinized  namf  ^ 

1  Ddpin. — Milner,  vol.  11.  p.  485  and  528« — Cm,  voL  I.;-Savii  Onomuit*  . 
«  Dupin.—Cave,  Vol.  I.— Mi!ner'«  Church  Hist.  vol.  Ill,  p.  211.    ' 
4  £ioy,  Diet.  Hitt.  d«  M«di6io«,-^Ree8*g  C^cIop»di«« 

VduXXIV.  f 


810  PAULMIER. 

Palmerlus,  was  born  in  the  territory  of  Auge,  in  1587,  the 
ion  of  Julien  le  Paulmier,  who  was  a  physician  of  eminence. 
Be  was  bred  a  protestant,  embraced  a  military  life,  and 
liefrved  with  credit  in  Holland  and  in  France.  After  a  time, 
Be  retired  to  Caen,  where  he  gave  himself  up  entirely  to 
the  study  of  letters  and  antiquity ;  and  was  the  firsi  pro-* 
nioter  of  an  academy  in  that  city,  which  has  since  been 
Considered  as  a  valuable  institution.  He  died  at  Caen, 
Oct.  I,  1670,  being  then  eighty-three.  His  works  are,  1. 
**  Obiervationes  in  optimos  auctores  Graecos,"  Lugd.  Bat. 
166S,  4to.  2.  "Graeciae  antiquae  Descriptio,"  Lugd.  Bat. 
1678,  4to.  This  work  contains  a  very  learned  and  useful 
digest  of  what  the  ancients  have  written  concerning  Greece. 
Prefixed  to  it  is  a  life  of  the  author,  written  at  some  length, 
but  in  a  very  affected  style,  by  the  editor  Stephen  Mori- 
nets.  3.  Some  poems  in  the  Greek,  Latin,  French,  Italian, 
and  Spanish  languages.  These,  however,  are  the  worst 
^art  of  his  works.  He  versified  in  too  many  languages  to 
be  very  excellent  in  any. ' 

PAULO  (Mark),  a  celebrated  traveller,  was. the  son  of 
Nicholas  Paulo,  a  Vienetian,  who  went  with  his  brother 
Matthew,  about  1225,  to  Constantinople,  in  the  reign  of 
Baudoin.  While  they  were  on  this  expedition  Marco  wa» 
borri.  On  their  return  through  the  deserts  they  arrived  at 
the  city  where  Kublai,  grand  khan  of  the  Tartars,  resided. 
This  prince  was  highly  entertained  with  the  account  which 
they  gave  him  of  the  European  manners  and  customs,  and 
atppointed  them  his  ambassadors  to  the  pope,  in  order  to 
demand  of  his  holiness  a  hundred  missionaries.  They 
aeccordingly  came  to  Italy,  obtained  from  the  Roman  pon- 
tiff two  Dominicans,  the  one  an  Italian,  and  the  other  an 
Asiatic,  and  carried  with  them  young  Marco,  for  whom  the 
Tartar  prince  expressed  a  singular  affection.  This  youth 
was  at 'an  early  period  taught  the  different  dialects  of  Tar- 
tary,  and  was  afterwards  employed  in  embassies  which  gave 
him  the  opportunity  of  traversing  Tartary,  China,  and 
Othe^  eastern  countries.  After  a  residence  of  seventeen 
years  at  the  court  of  the  great  khan,  the  three  Venetians 
came  back  to  their  own  country  in  1295,  with  immense 
wealth.  A  short  time. after  his  return,  Marco  served  bis 
country  at  sea  ags^nst  the  Genoese,,  his  galley  iii  a  naval 
engagement  was  sunk,  and  himself  taken  prisoner  and 

1  NiceroD,  vols.  VIII  and  X  — 'Chaufepie.— Diet.  Hist, 


PAOLO.  2U 

carried  to  Genoa.  He  remained  there  many  years  in  con- 
finement; and,  as  well  to  amuse  bis  melancholy,  as  to 
gratify  those  who  desired  it  of  him,  sent  for  his  notes  from 
Venice,  and  composed  the  history  of  his  own  and  his 
father's  voyages  in  Italian,  under  this  title,  **  Delle  mara- 
viglie  del  mondo  da  lui  vidute,''  &c.  of  which  the  first 
edition  appeared  at  Venice  in  1496,  8vo.  '  This  work  has 
been  translated  into  several  foreign  languages,  and  hat 
been  inserted  in  various  collections.  The  best  editions  are 
one  in  Latin,  published  by  Andrew  MuUer  at  Cologne  in 
1671,  and  one  in  French,  to  be  found  in  the  collection  of^ 
voyages  published  by  Bergeron,  at  the  Hague  in  1735,  in 
two  vols.  In  the  narrative  there  are  many  things  not  easily 
believed*,  but  the  greater  part  of  his  accounts  has  beem 
verified  by  succeeding  travellers.  He  not  only  gave  better 
accounts  of  China  than  had  been  before  received ;  but 
likewise  furnished  a  description  of  Japan,  of  several  islands 
of  the  East  Indies,  of  Madagascar,  and  the  coasts  of  Africa, 
so' that  from  his  work  it  might  be  easily  collected  that  a  di-* 
rect  passage  by  sea  to  the  East  Indies  was  not  only  pos* 
nible,  but  practicable.^ 

PAULUS  (iEGiNETA),  a  native  of  the  island  iEgina,  now 
Engia,  whence  he  has  his  name,  flourished,  according  to 
Le  Cierc,  in  the  fourth  century ;  but  with  more  truth  he 
is  placed  by  Abulfaragius,  who  is  allowed  to  give  the  best 
account  of  those  times,  in  the  seventh.  It  is  said  that  he 
travelled  over  Greece  and  other  countries  to  gain  infor- 
mation respecting  the  medical  art ;  and  that  he  studied  at 
Alexandria  before  it  was  taken  and  plundered  by  Amrour, 
and  there  copied  a  part  of  the  works  of  Alexander  Tralliany 
who  was  his  favourite  author.  On  his  return  from  his 
travels  he  made  an  abridgment  of  the  works  of  Galen,  and 
wrote  several  treatises,  which  are  deservedly  famous.  It. 
appears  that  his  knowledge  in.  surgery  was  very  great ;  for 
Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente,  one  of  the  best  chirurgical 

*  Among  these,  it  seems  difficult  is^qoalljr  difficult  to  believe  that  the 

to  belieye,  that  as  sooo  as  the  grand  pope,  who  donbtles  had  an  ardent  zeal 

khan  was  informed  of  the  arriTal  of  for  the  propagation  of  the  faith,  instead 

two  Venetian    roerchantSi    who  were'  of  a  hundred  shoald  have  sent  him  only 

come  to  tell  theriaoa  (or  treacle)  at  his  two  missionaries.-— The  authors  of  th« 

court,  he  sent  before  them  an  escort  Universal  History  are  of  opinion  that 

of '40,000  men,  and  afterwards  dis-  what  Mark  Paulo  wrote  from  his  owa 

.patched  these  Venetian  ambassadors  knowledge  is  both  curious  and  true, 

to  the  pope»  to  beseech  his  holiness  to  and  where  he  erred  he  was  probably 

«tnd  bim  a  bundled  missionaries.    It  deceived  by  his  father  and  udde, 

1  Eacyd.  Briiannica.— Univ;  Htltory. 

P  2 


,212  P  A  U  L  U  S. 

.  writers,,  has  thought  fit  to  transcribe  hinx  in  a  great  number 
Qf  places. 

^giheta's  principal  workd  are»  1.  '^Salubria  de  sanitate 
.tuenda  prse^^eptayV  Argent^.  .15 11,  !8vo.  2.  *^  De  remedica 
libLrL.septen)/',Ot?eekj  V^nioe,  152S;  foU  aofl  often  re- 
.printed  l;K>th  in: Greek, "Latin,  and  oiiber  languages,  with 
;CGampent|iries.  3.  ^^  ,De  0risi  et •  diebus  critici^ :  eommqne 
;SignJ8,"  ^^i^'l^^^,  tS^Q^  '  He:  appeaiii  toihave  -beeD '  par- 
.tic^qlarlyisjkilful  in  the.disordei*s  of  itfae  female  sex, ^ and  is 
4he  first  in  aatiqqit^r.^bo  deserves  tbe  tide  ^f  accoucheur.^ ^ 
*  P4tJSA£^lA^  '4n  ,anciejDt>Greek'-vi'feriter,  who  h^s  left 
^s  a:.<^ri<)iusde9<(rJiptiQn  pf^Gr^eecaief' lived  iin  the  second 
f entury^.  but  i^erji  ;fei¥^ paiftistiiars' :of .Us'; life  are  known. 
Suicls^  m^ntioiis  two  .of  .this,  name  :^t)ne  of^  Laponia^  who 
.wrptf)  c;oncemiePg.  t^e^  ;HeUespont)  ^  Laconia,  the '  Ampbye^ 
^ons^!  Sac* ;  anQtbes^:  who  was\a  sophist i;or  rhetorician  of 
C^s|u:e^:in;Capps(d«eiav  lived  at  the  same  time  with  Arisw 
tid^S). .and is  mendoHed  bjr.Pbildstrat<is,,in  his! Lives  of'tfaA 
b^stlPrs;.  Tbislaat>is  supposed  to  ibel  our  Pausanias.':  He 
ivas^  accprding:  to;  the  satn^  Pbilostratus,  .^  a  disciple  of  the 
famous  sophist  Herodes  Atticus,  whom'  he: imitated  in  many 
sefp^cts,  but  espieeiiilly  in  compo^ng  without  premedita- 
tion>r.  His  prpnujiciation^  was  according  .to  the  manner  of 
tbe:CappiidoeiaDis» -who  bad  a*  way  of  lengthening  short 
lylljiibJef^and^ihQrteni^g  lon^ones.  The  character  of  bi<^ 
9on>pp9itiQeQ  yi9^i  negligent,  yet*  npt  without  forcr.  He 
decUimf^d.a  long:. time  at  Rome,  where  he  died  very  old; 
tbpugU.he  contitiii^dall:  the  while  a  member  of  the  college 

S  Athens/'  His  work  is  properly  an  accountof  n  journ^ 
rough  Greece,. Ja  which  the  author  noted  every  thing*^ 
tb^t  was  reqaarkabler  All  public  monuments,  as  temples; 
tlieatres,.  tombs^  Statues;  paintings,.  &c.  came  within  hitf 
design:  be  tpcdc  thedamenaionsoEcities^  which*  had for-^ 
Q^exly  been  ^reat  end, famous,,  but  were  then  in'  ruins  ; ^  nor 
did.he  bastit^  >pasa  over  places'  that  were  ^memorable  for^ 
illustrious  transactions  of  old.  By  these  observations  he 
thi'dWs  much  light  upon  the  history  and' ant^uities  o£ 
Greece;  and. clears  up  many  passages  in  ancient author^,- 
which  would  otherwise  have  remaiiled  very  pei^plexed  and 
obscure.  His  work  has  been  recommendj^d  to  modern  .tra-> 
vellers,  and  it  is  well  known  that  Spon  and  Wheler  made' 
grea^  use„  of  it .  '■ 

}  JUof,  i>lct..  Hist,  de  liftediciaei  .  : 


P  A'U-S'A^  1  As.  «13 

^uBatiias  was  firA  p/uMiBned^at-Venicein'  1^16,  fol.  by 
Aldtts^  who  «i^a  assisted  bj  Marcus  'Masurus:  Musurus^ 
wrotea'prefaco  in  Gt^^k^  which  is  jJrfefixed  tcytbis-edition," 
and  addressed  to  Jv>hn  Lascar  is,  a -learned  Greek  of  ttie- 
%ime  age.  *  Afterwards^  in:  1547,  Rotttulus  Atnaseus  pub*' 
lisfaed  a' Latin  version  of  this  work  tic  Rome;  and,  three' 
years  afcer;'an  edition  was  pt-inted  at  Basil,  with  a  new^ 
Latinverftion  by  Abr:  Loescherus.     A  better  edition  than 
had  yet  appeared^'  with  the  Greefc'texl  of  Aldus  corrected ' 
by  Xyhinder,  and  <he  Latin  version  of  Amaseds  by  Sylbur- 
gius,  came  out  at  Francfort,»1583,'  in  folio;  from  which;^' 
that  of  Hanover,'  1613,  in  folio,  wa»  printed  word  for  wbrd/ 
But  the  best  of  all  is  that  of  Leipsic^  16^96,  in  folio;  with 
the  notes  of  Kuhnius.     This  learned  inan  had   already 
given  proofs  by  bis  critical  labours- upon  iElian,  D.Laer- 
tius,  suid  Pollux,  that  he  was- very  well  qualified  for  a  work ' 
of  this  nature ;  and  bis  tioties, .  though  short,  are  very  good. 
When  he  undertook  this*  edition  or  Pausanias  he  proposed ' 
great  advantages  from  "four  maniiscrlflls  in  the  king  of 
France's  library ;  but,  npon  con^dltittg   them  on   several 
corriipt  and  obscure*  passages,  he  foiind  that  they  did  not 
vary  from  Aldus's  copy. '  The  ^inain  succours  he  derived 
were  from  soine  manuscript  notes  of  Isaac  Casaubon,  upon 
the  margin  of  Aldus's  edition ;  atid^  by  the  help  of  these, 
and  hi3  Own  critical  skill,  he  w&s  enabled  to  correct  and 
amend  an  infinite  nnmber  of  places.    'A  new  edition,  in  4i 
vols.^  8vo,  Was  published  at .  Leipsic,  in  1794-^1'797,  by 
Jo.  Frid.  Facius,' which  by  the  few  who  hate  had  an  oppor- 
tunity of  Examining  it,  ia  thought  excellent.     It  ha^  very 
correct  indexes,  and  some  aid  from  a  Vienna  and  a  Mos* 
cow  manuscript.     An  English  translation  was  published  ia 
]  794  hy  Mr.  Thomas  Taylor.  * 

PAUTRE  (Anthony  le),  a  Parisian  architect  of  tho 
seventeenth  cefntury,  and  one  of  a  family  of  ^rtistsj.  ex- 
ceHed  iil- the  ornaments  and  decorations  of  buildings,  and 
was  architect  to  Louis  XIV;  and  monsieur  hts  only  brother. 
He  planned  the  cascades,  which  are  so  justly  admired,  at 
thie  castJ^  of  St.  Cloud,  and  built  the  church  of  the  nUns 
of  Port- toy  al,  at  Paris,  in  1625.  LePautreWas  received' 
into  the  royal  academy  6f  sculpture,  December  1,  1671, 
and  died  some  years  after.  His  "  CEuvres  d*Architect(ire'* 
are  engraved  in  one  vol.  folio,  sometimes  bound  up  in  five; 

1  Voisiui  de  Hist  Gne«,— -Fabijc*  BibU  Gnoc«"*<Sa3di  Onomait^ 


»!♦  P  A  U  T  R  E.      ' 

John  1e  Pautre,  bis  relation,  born  in  1617,  at  Paris,  was 
placed  wittv  a  joiner,  who  taugbt  bim  the  first  rudiments  of 
drawing ;  but  he  soon  surpassed  his  master,  and  became 
an  excellent  designer,  and  skilful  engraver.  He  perfectly 
understood  all  the  ornamental  parts  of  architecture,  and 
the  embellishments  pf  country  bouses,  such  as  fountains, 
grottos,  jets-d'eau,  and  every  other  decoration  of  the  gar- 
den. John  le  Pautre  was  admitted  a  member  pf  the.  royal 
academy  of  painting  and  sculpture  April  11,  1677,  and 
died  February  2,  1682,  aged  sixty-five.  His  ^^  CEuvres 
d' Architecture,*'  Paris,  1751,  3  vols.  fol.  contains  above 
782  plates,  which  were  much  valued  by  the  chevalier  Ber- 
xiin.  PoTER  le  Pautre,  related  to  the  two  preceding,  was 
born  at  Paris,  March  4,  1659,  and  excelled  so  much  in 
statuary  as  to  be  appointed  sculptor  to  bis  majesty.  He 
executed  at  Rome,  in  169.1,  thebeautiful  group  of  £neas 
and  Anchises,  which  is  in  the  grand  walk  attheThuilleries; 
and  completed,  in  1716,  that  of  Arria  and  Pstus  (or  rather 
of  Lucretia  stabbing  herself  in  presence  of  CoUatinus) 
which  Theodon  had  begun  at  Rome.  Several  of  his  other 
works  embellish  Marly.  This  ingenious  artist  was  profes-  . 
8or  and  perpetual  director  of  St.  Luke's  academy,  and  died 
at  Paris,  January  22,  1744,  aged  eighty-four.' 

PAUW  (Cornelius  de),  a  native  of  Amsterdam^  who 
distinguished  himself  by  his  philosophical  writings,  was 
born  there  in  1739;  no  particulars  of  his  early  life  are 
given  in  our  authority,  but  it  appears  that  he  was  educated 
for  the  church,  and  held  a  canonry  in  some  part  of  Ger- 
many. He  died  July  7,  1799,  at  Xantem,  near  Aix-Ia« 
Chapelle.  He  was  uncle  to  the  famous,  or  rather  infamous, 
Anacharsis  Cloots,  who  was  the  idol  of  the  lowest  of  the 
mob  of  Paris  about  the  time  of  the  revolution,  and  his 
opinions  were  in  some  respects  as  singular;  but  he  had  far 
more  learning,  and  more  skill  in  disguising  them.  He  i$ 
principally  known  for  his  '^  Recherches  philosopbiques,  1. 
sur  lesGrecs;  2.sur  les  Americains,  les  Egyptiens,  et  les 
Chinois,"  Paris,  1795,  7  vols.  8vo.  In  this  his  countryniei^ 
seem  willing  to  allow  that  he  asserts  more  than  he  proves  ; 
that  bis  object  is  to  contradict  all  preceding  historians,  and, 
to  lessen  the  character  of  the  nations  he  describes.  His  style 
is  agreeable,  but  he  is  full  of  paradoxes,  and  of  those  bold 
opinions  which  were  once  in  vogue  in  France,  and  recpm^ 

1  L'AfociU's  Diet  Hi^t; 


PAYS.  215 

mended  him  much  to  Frederick  the  Great  of  Prassia,  while 
they  rendered  bim  obnoxious  to  the  ministers  of  religion.  * 

PAYS  (Rene'le),  sieur  of  Villeueuve,  a  French  poet, 
born  at  Nantes  in  1636,  was  For  a  considerable  time  comp- 
tfoller-general  of  the  imposts  in  Dairphin^  and  Provence  j 
y«t  he.  mingled  the  flowers  of  poetry  with  the  thorns  of' 
t)iat  occupation,  and  became  celebrated  at  court  by  a  mis« 
cellaneous  publication  of  prose  and  verse,  entitled  "  Ami- 
ties, Amours,  et  Amourettes/*  published  in  1685>     This  . 
publication  gained  him  particularly  the  favour  of  the  la« 
dies;  and  the  duke  of  Savoy  honoured  him  with  the  title  of 
chevalier  of  St.  Maurice,  and  he  was  made  a  member  of. 
the  academy  of  Aries.     The  latter  part  of  his  life  was  em- 
bittered by  a  law-suit/ which  obliged  him  to  pay  for  the 
dishonesty  of  one  of  his  associates  in  office^    He  died  April , 
30,  1690,  at  the  age  of  6fty-four.     His  remaining  works 
are,   1.  **  Zelotide,"  a  novel  of  gallantry,  which  was  ad- 
loired  in  the  country,  but  despised  at  Paris.     2,  A  collec- 
tion of  poetry,  containing  eclogues,  sonnets,  stanzas,  &c, 
published  at  Paris  in  1672,  in  2  vols.  12mo,  under  the  , 
title  of  "  Nouvelles  Oeuvres."     These  contain  rather  th^ 
fancies  of  a  minor  wit,  than  the  efforts  of  real  genius.  * 

PEACHAM  (Henry),  a  writer  of  considerable  note  in 
bis  day,  appears  to  have  been  the  son  of  Mr.  Henry 
Peacham  of  Leverton,  in  Holland,  in  the  county  of' Lin- 
coln, and  was  born  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  unless  he  was  the  Henry  Peacham  who  published 
**  The  Garden  of  Eloquence,*'  a  treatise  on  rhetoric,  in 
1577,  4to,  and  then  he  must  be  referred  to  the  early  part 
of  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth.  But  we  are  more  inclined 
to  think,  with  Mr.  Malone,  that  the  **  Garden  of  Elo- 
quence" was  a  production  of  his  father's.  Very  littFe  i» 
known  with  certainty  of  his  history,  and  that  little  has 
been  gleaned  from  his  works,  in  which  he  frequently  intro- 
duces hin)«elf.  In  his  "  Compleat  Gentleman,"  he  sayg  , 
he  was  born  at  North  Mims,  near  St.  Alban's,  wliere  he 
received  his  education  unde**  an  ignorant  schoolmaster. 
He  was  afterwards  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  and  in 
the  title  to  his  "  Minerva,"  styles  himself  master  of  arts. 
He  si^eaks  of  his  being  well  skilled  in  music,  and  it  appears 
that  be  resided  a  considerable  time  in  Italy,  where  he 
learut  music  of  Orazio  Vecchi.     He  was  also  intimate  witb 

1  Diet  Hist,  *  MorerL— Gen.  Diet— DiQt.  Hist 


216  P  E  AC  HAM. 

all  the  gr0at  roasters  of  the  time  at  home,  and  has  cbarac* 
terized  their  several  styles,  as  well  as  those  of  many  oh  the 
continent.  His  opinions, '  says  Dr.  Burney,  conceruiog 
their  works  are  very  accurate,  and  manifest  great  know* 
ledge  of  all  that  was  understood  at  the  time  respecting 
practical  music. 

He  informs  us  also  of  his  skill  in  painting ;  that  he  could 
take  likenesses,  and  on  one  occasion  took  his  majesty's 
(James  L)  as  he  sat  at  dinner.  He  also  madCy  perhaps  en-> 
graved,  a  map  of  Cambridge.  Lord  Orford  mentions  his 
engraving  of  a  good  print,  after  Holbein,  of  ^ir  Thomas 
Cromwell,  knight,  afterwards  earl  of  Essex.  From  his' 
**  Gentleman's  Exercise"  we  learn  that  he  either  kept 
school,  or  had  private  pupils.  Lord  Orford  says  that  he 
Was  tutor  to  the  children  of  the  earl  of  Arundel,  whom  he 
accompanied  to  the  Low  Countries,  In  the  same  work,* 
Peacham  says  he  .translated  king  James's  ^^  Basilicoa 
Doron"  into  Latin  verse,  and  presented  it  to  prince  Henry, 
16  whom  he  also  dedicated  his  ^^  Minerva  Britannica"  in 
1612,  He  also  published  in  1613,  **  Prince  Henry  re-^ 
vived ;  or  a  poem  upon  the  birth  of  prince  H.  Frederick, 
heir  apparent  to  Frederick  Count  Palatine  of  the  Rhine.'* 
The  only  other  particulars  we  derive  from  his  own  hints 
are,  that  he  lived  for  some  time  in  St.  Martinis  in  the 
Fields,  and  was  addicted  to  melancholy.  It  is  said  that  he 
was  reduced  to  poverty  in  his  old  age,  and  wrote  penny 
pamphlets  for  bread.  This  last  is  asserted  in  a  MS  note 
by  John  Gibbon,  Bluemantle,  on'  a  copy  of  one  of  Pea<* 
champs  tracts  sold  at  Mr.  West's  sale.  It  is  entitled  <*  A 
Dialogue  between  the  cross  in  Cheap  and  Charing  crosses 
Cbmfortibg  each  other,  as  fearing  their  fall,  in  these  un-* 
certain  times.  By  Ryhen  Pameach'*  (Henry  Peacham). 
The  chief  merit  of  this,  Mr.  Gough  says,  is  that  its  wooden 
frontispiece  exhibits  the  ruined  shaft  of  Charing  Cross, 
and  the  entire  cross  of  Cheap.  It  has  no  date.  Cheap-» 
side  cross,  we  know,  was  taken  down  in  1640, 

'The  work  by  which  Peacham  is  best  known  is  his  '^  Com* 
plete  Gentleman,*'  a  4to  volume,  printed  in  1*622,  and  re- 
printed in  1627,  1634,  1654,  and  1661.  This  last  edition 
received  some  ioiprovements  in  the  heraldic  part  from 
Thomas  Blount^  author  of  the  *♦  Jocular  Tenures."  It 
treats  of  *'  nobilitie  in  geuerall ;  of  dignitie  and  necessitie 
of  learning  in  princes  and  nobilitie;  the  time  of  learning; 
th^  dutie  of  (N^reQt^  in  tb^ir  children's  education ;  of  a 


'  P  E  A  C  H  A  M.  ai» 

gentleman's  carriage  in  the.universitie ;  of  style  in  apeak- 
ing,  writing,  and  reading  history ;  of  cosmography ;  of 
memorable  observation  in  the  survey  of  the  earth ;  of  geo- 
metry ;  of  poetry  ;  of  musicke ;  of  statues  and  medalls  ;  of 
drawing  and  painting  in  oyle;  of  sundry  blazonnes  both 
ancient  and  modern ;  of  armory  or  blazing  armes  ;  of  ex- 
ercise of  body  ;  of  reputation  and  carriage ;  of  travaile ;  of 
warre ;  of  fishing.'* 

His  other  works  are,  1.  "  Minerva  Britannica,  or  a  gar- 
den of  Heroical  Devises,"  &c.  1612,  4to.  This  is  a  collec- 
tion of  emblems  in  vefrse,  with  a  plate  to  each.  Mr.  Ellis 
has  selected  several  specimens  from  this  curious  volume* 
2.  "The  period  of  Mourning,  in  memory  of  the  late  prince. 
Together  with  Nuptial  Hymnes  in  honour  of  this  happy 
marriage  betweene  Frederick  count  Palatine  and  Elizabeth 
daughter  of  our  Sovereigne,"  1613,  4to.  3.  "A  most 
true  relation  of  the  affairs  of  Cleve  and  Gulick/*  &c;  1614, 
4to,  in  prose.  4.  "  Thalia's  Banquet,'*  a  volume  of  epi- 
grams,'* 1620,  12mo.  5.  "  The  Valley  of  Varietie,"  1638, 
12mo.  6.  "  The  Duty  of  all  true  subjects  to  their  king; 
as  also  to  their  native  country  in  time  of  extremity  ^nd 
danger,"  in  two  books,  1639,  4to.  7.  "The  worth  pfa 
penny,  or  a  caution  to  keep  money  ;  with  the  causes  of 
the  scarcity  and  misery  of  the  want  thereof,  in  these  bard 
and  merciless  times;  as  also  how  to  save  it,  in  our  diet,, 
appare],  recreations,  &c."  4to.  This  piece  of  humour, 
which  appeared  first  ia  1647,  was  reprinted  in  1667,  1677, 
and  1695,  and  perhaps  oftener.  8.  "The  Gentleman's 
Exercise;  or  an  Exquisite  Practise  as  well  for  drawing  all 
manner,  of  beasts  in  their  true  portraiture,  as  also  the 
making  of  colours  for  limning,  painting,  tricking,,  and 
blazoning  of  coats  of  ai*ms,  &c."  1630,  and  1634,  4to.  All  • 
these  are-  works  of  considerable  merit,  Peacham  being  a  , 
man  of  general  knowledge,  good  taste,  and.  acute  obser*  , 
vation,  and  were  very  popular  during  the  seventeenth  cen-r 
tury.  His  **  Complete  Gentleman "  particularly  was  in 
high  estimation  with  the  gentry  of  that  age.  Sir  Charles  , 
Sedley,  who  had  been  guilty'of  an  offence  against  good 
Planners,  and  was  indicted  for  it,  was  asked  on  his  trial  by 
the  chief  justice,  sir  Robert  Hyde,  whether  he  had  ever 
read  the  ^*  Complete  Gentleman"  ?  ^ 

t  Cole's  MS  Atbeos  in  Brit  Mtt8.-^HawkinB>f  Hist  of  Maiic. — Gongb's  To- 
potrrapby.-rDr.  Barney  in  Rees's  Cyclop9dia«— Ellis's  SpeoineBs,— 'Walpole't 
£iigr»fers» 


S18  PEACOCK. 

•  • .  '  •  t  «  I 

-  PEACOCK,  or  PECOCK  (Reynold),  bishop  of  St. 
Asapfb,  and  Chichester,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  born  in  Wales  about  1390.  He  was 
educated  in  Oriel  college,  Oxford,  of  w^iich  he  was  chosen 
fellow  in  October  1417,  in  the  room.of  Richard  G^r&dale, 
S.  T.  P.  who  was  then  elected  provost  of  the  college. 
Having  studied  with  a  view  to  the  church,  he  was  ordained 
deac(.n  and  priest  in  1420  by  Fleming,  bishop  of  Lincoln. 
In  14^5  he  took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity,  and 
about  this  time  is  supposed  to  have  left  the  university. 
Humphrey,  duke  of  Gloucester,  was  now  protector  of  the 
kingdom,  and  being  a  great  patron  of  learned  men,  in- 
vited Mr.  Ptacock  to  court,  where  he  was  enabled  to  make 
a  very  considerable  figure  by  his  taknts.  In  !431,  he  was 
elected  niastt  r  of  the  college  of  St.  Spirit  and  St.  Mary, 
founded  by  sir  Richard  Whittington  ;  and  with  it  was  ap- 
pointed, to  the  rectory  of  St.  Michael  in  Riola,  now  St. 
Michael  Royal,  situated  in  the  street  called  Tower  Royal 
in  Vifitry  ward.  This  situation  he  resigned  in  1444,  on 
being  promoted  to  the  bishopric  of  St.  Asaph.  To  whom 
be  owed  this  preferment  se^ms  uncertain,  as  bis  patron 
the  duke  of  Gloucester  was  now  declining  in  court  interest, 
but  perhaps  the  estimation  he  was  held  in  at  court  may  ac- 
count for  it.  He  now  was  honoured  with  the  degree  of 
D.  D.  at  Oxford,  in  his  absence,  and  without  performing  ' 
any  exercises,  an  omission  for  which  he  was  reproached 
afterwards  by  his  enemies,  although  it  was  not  then  un- 
common. In  1447  he  preached  a  sermon  at  Paul's  cross^ 
in  which  he  maintained  that  bishops  were  not  under  obli* 
gation  to  preach  or  to  take  the  cure  of  souls,  and  that  their  ' 
duties  consist  entirely  in  the.variousacts  of  church  govern- 
ment. This  doctrine  was  npt  very  palatable  even  then, 
and  he  was  under  the  necessity  of  explaining  himself  to 
the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  ;  but  it  showed,  what  ap- 
peared more  clearly  afterwards,  that  he  was  accustomed  to 
think  for  himself,  and  to  pay  little  deference  to  authority 
or  custotn. 

In  1 449,  he  was  translated  to  the  see  of  Chichester,  and 
now  began  to  give  opinions  which  were  ill  suited  to  the 
times  in  which  he  lived.  Although  he  had  taken  great  ' 
pains  both  in  his  preaching  and  writings  to  defend  the  esta-* 
blished  church  against  the  disciples  of  Wickliffe,  now  called 
Lollards,  he  gave  it  as  his  opinion,  that  the  most  probable 
means  of  reclaiming  ihem  was  by  allowing  them  the  use  of 


PEACOCK.  ii9 

tbeir  reason,  andnot  insisting  on  the  infallibility  of  the' 
church.    The  clergy,  we  may  suppose,  were  not  satisfied  ' 
with  such  doctrine;  and  many  of  the  learned  men  of  the 
universities  were  so  highly  offended  with  it,  and  with  his 
writing  in  the  English  language  on  subjects  which  ought 
to  be  concealed  from  the  laity,  that  they  at  last  prevailed 
with  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  to  cite  him.     The  arch- 
bishop accordingly  issued  his  mandate,  in  Oct.  1457,  or- 
dering all  persons  to  appear  who  had  any  thing  to  allege 
against  the  bishop  of  Chichester;  and   his  books   being 
found  to  contain  various  heretical  opinions,  he  read  a  re- 
cantation, first  in  the  archbishop^s  court  at  Lambeth,  and 
afterwards  ^t  St.  Paul's  cross,  where  his  books  weref  burnt, ' 
as  they  also  were  at  Oxford.     He  was  likewise  deprived  of 
his  bishopric,  and  confined  in  Tborney  abbey,  in  Cam- ' 
bridgeshire,  where  it  is  supposed  he  died  about  1460.    His  ' 
biographer  has  given  an  ample  account  of  his  writings,  all 
of  which  remain   in  MS.  except  his  "  Treatise  of  Faith,'* 
published  by  Wharton  in  1688,  4to.     He  appears  to  have  ' 
been   a  man  of  learning,    and  an  acute  reasoner.     The 
opinions  for  which  be  suffered  were  not  perhaps  so  decided 
as  to  pro(!ure  him  admittance  to  the  list  of  reformers ;  but 
it   is  evident  that  he  was  one  of  the  first  who  contended 
against  the  infallibility  of  the  Romish  church,  and  in  f&-»  ' 
vour  of  the  holy  scriptures  being  the  principJil  guide.     In 
1744  the  rev.  John  Lewis,  of  Margate,  published  "  The 
Life"  of  this  prelate,  which,  as  he  justly  styles  it,  forms  a 
•^  sequel  to  the  Life"  of  Wickliff,  and  is  an  useful  intro- 
duction to  the  bi>tory  of  the  Ecjglish  refornnation. '  ' 

PEARCE  (ZachaRy),  a  learned  English  prelate,  was 
born  at  London,  Sept.  8,  1690.  He  was  the  son  of  Tho- 
mas Pearce,  a  distiller,  in  High  Hotborn,  who  having  ac^  ' 
quired  a  cdmpetent  fortune  by  his  business,  purchased  an 
estate  at  Little  Ealing,  in  Middlesex,  to  which  he  retired 
at  the  age  of  forty,  and  where  he  died  in  1752,  aged 
eighty -eight.  His  son,  after  some  preparatory  education 
at  a  school  at  Ealing,  was  removed  in  1704  to  Westminster 
school,  where  he  was  soon  distinguished  for  his  merit,  and 
in  1707  was  elected  one  of  the  king's  scholars.  He  re* 
meined  at  this  school  till  the  year  1710,  when  he  was 
twenty  years  old.  This  long  continuance  of  his  studies 
JlSta  been  attributed  to  the  high  opinion  Dr.  Busby  enter- 

)  Life  as  abore. 


i20  P  E  A  R  C  E. 

tained  of  bim,  who. was  accustomed  to  detain  those  boys 
longer  under  his  discipline^  of  whose  future  eminepce  be. 
bad  most  expectation.     That  Dr.  Busby  had  such  a  custom 
i^  cei^tainyi.and  that  it  was  continued  by  his  successor  is 
probable,  but  Mr.  Pearce  could  not  have  been  under  the 
tuition  of  Busby,  who  died  in  1695.     To  this  delay,  how* 
ever,  without  doubt,  Mr.  Pearce  was  greatly  indebted  for 
the  philological  neputation  by  which  he  was  very  early  dis« 
tiuguished. 
.  He  w^s  elected  to  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  in  1710^ 
and  during  his  first  yearns  residence,  amused  himsejf  occa* 
sionally  with  the  lighter  species  of  composition.     Among 
these  were  a  letter  in  the  Guardian,  No.  121,  signed  iV<;ci{.. 
Muvfi;  and  two  Spectators,  No.  572,  and  633;  speoimeua 
of  that  easy  humour  which  characterizes  these  periodical 
works.     In  17 16. the  first  fruits  of  his  philological  studies 
appeared  at  the  university  press,  in  an  excellent  edition  of 
Cicero  /*  De  Oratore,'*    with   very  judicious   notes  and 
emendations.     This  volume,  at  the  desire  of  a  friend^  he^ 
dedicated  to  lord  chij^f  jus^ce  Parker,  afterwards  ^arl  of 
Macclesfield,  to  whom  he  wi^s  then  a  stranger,  but  who  > 
became  his  patron.     The  first  favour  he  bestowed  on  Mr« 
Pearce,  was  to  apply  to  Dr.  Bentley  for  his  interest  in  the 
election  of  a  fellowship,  for  which  he  was  a  candidate,  ;and 
which. he  accordingly  obtained.     Soon  after  this  he  paid  a 
visit  to.  thjB  chief  justice,  who  received  him  in  the  kindest, 
inanner,  invited  him  to  dinner  at  Kensingtoui  apd  gave- 
him  a  purse  of  fifty  guineas.     From  that  time  an  intimacy 
commenced,  which   was  dissolved  only  by  his  lordship's 
d^th.. 

Jo  1717  Mr.  Pearce  was  ordained  a  deacon  by  Dr.  Fleet- 
wood, bishop  of  liXjf  and  in  the  following  year,  priest,  bj  . 
the  same  prelate.     It  had  always  been  his  intention  to  de- 
vote himself  to  the  chuGcb;  but,  as  he  himself  inforfns  us, 
^^  he  delayed  to  take  orders  till  he  was  twenty-seven  years  . 
o(  age ;  and,  as  he  thought,  had  taken  time .  to  prepare 
himself,  and  to  attain  so  much  knowledge  of  that  sacred  . 
o$ce,  as  should  be  sufficient  to  answer  all  the  good  pur- 
posets  for  which  it  is  designed."     In  1 7 1 8  he  went  to  reside 
as,  domestic  chaplain  with  lord  Parker,  then  lord  Chan- 
cellor, who  in  1719  gave  him  the  rectory  of  Stapleford 
Abbots,  in   Esse:;,  and  in  the  following  year  that  more 
valuable  one  of  St.  Bartholomew  Exchange.     When  he 
attempted  to  return  his  thanks  to  the  chancellor  for  this 


1^  E  A  R  C  E,  £21 

last  preferment,  his  lordship  said,  ^*f  You  are  not  to  thank 
me  sQ  much  as  Dr.  Bentiey,  for  this  benefice/*  <<  Hoiv  as 
that/ m  J  lord?"  J  *^Why,"  added  hia  lordship,  ^*  wharf  I 
asked  Dr.  Ben.tley  to  ma/ce  you  a  fellow  of  Trinity  college, 
he  consented  so  to  do  but  on  this  condilioit,  that  I  would 
promise  to  uwmkejQ^  again  as  soon  as  it  lay  in  my  power; 
and  now  be,  by  having  performed  his  promise,  has  bound 
me  to  give  you  this  living/*    . 

Not  long  after  this,  Mr^  Pearce  was. appointed  chaplain  to 
his  majesty ;  and  in  1723  was  presented  by  tbecbancelidr 
to  the  vicarage  of  St  Martin's  in  the  Fields,  on  which  he 
resigned  St.  Bartholomew's.  The  parish,  of  which  he  was 
now  vicar,  being  large,  and.  honoured  with  the  residence 
of  the  royal  family  in  it,  the  chancellor  represented  to  Mr. 
Pearce  the  propriety  of  taking  the  degree  of  doctor  in  di- 
vinity ;  and  as  he  was  not  of  sufficient  standing  in  the  uni- 
versity^, that  honour  was  obtained  for  him  by  application 
to  the '(archbishop  of  Canterbury.  In  1724  be  increased 
his  reputation,  9s  a  critic,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  by 
his  edition  of  .Longinus  '^  De  Sublimhate,"  with  a  new 
Latin  version  and  learned  notes.  This  appeared  first  in 
an  elegant  4to^  but  has  since  been  reprinted  in  8vo,  and 
remained  the  best  edition,  until  the  publication  of  that  of 
Toup.   ' 

In  1739,  in  consequence  of  the  late  queen  Car6line*f 
having  recommended  him  to.  sir  Robert  Walpole,  Dr.  Pearce 
waf  appointed  dean  loi  Winchester.  He  informs  us  in  bis 
meoMMfs  k>f  ^^hatied  to  1  this  promotion.  When  vicar  of  St. 
lAavtih^s,  lard  Sundon  ;wa»  onip  of  his  .'parishioaers,  and 
oneof  the  membeiis  of  parliament  foit  W^stvnrnster.  These 
two!  ciroumstances  ihrqught  them  acquainted  together,  and 
Dr^  Pearce  was  sdm^times  invited  to  dinner,  where  he  be* 
came  acquainted  with'  lady  Sundon,  iqueisn  Caroline's  fa-> 
vburite,  ;andbyher  meaias  was  introduced  to  her  majesty, 
wiio  frequently  honoqred  hihir.with.  her  conversation  ^t  the 
diaiiriDg^room.  The;i8ub)ccts  which  .her  majesty  started 
werd/^nbt  what  ate  ditkn.  introduced  in  that  cirde-  One 
day^fllie  asked  hida  if)  herhad.iread  .the  pamphlets  published 
by ^Djt.  8tebbing,>  and  Alr.iFosteii,  upon. the. sort  ofrheretics 
Bieanft^by  jSt..Patri^*\.whio^  itt.  10, 11,  he  repre< 

%6i\ts  Z3  self" c(nidemned,     '^Yes,  madam,"  replied  the  doc- 

#  He  was  at  this  time  only  of  f^t^  he  refased  to  accept  a  degree  by  royal 
teea  year«  tftanrding;  but  nineteea  are  mandate,  as  proposed  by  the  chaDcel- 
leqaired.    It  ouglit  to  be  added,  that     lori  and  preferred  the  Lambeth  degree,.' 


2S2  p  E  A  R  C  E. 

tor,  *^  I  bare  read  all  the  pamphlets  written  by  theat  oil 
both  sides'  of  the  question."  •*  Well,"  said  the  queen,  , 
.  **  which  of  the  two  do  you  think  to  be  in  the  right  ?'*  'The 
,  doctor  answered,  ^*  I  cannot  say,  madan),  which  of  the 
two  is  in  the  right,  but  I  think  that  both  of  them  are  in 
the  wrong  *'  She  smiled,  and  said,  •*  Then  what  is  your 
opinion  of  the  text?"  "Madam,"  said  the  doctor,  "it 
would  take  up  more  time  than  your  majesty  can  spare  at 
this  drawing-room,  for  me  to  give  my  opinion  and  the 
reasons  of  it ;  but  if  your  majesty  should  be  pleased  to  lay 
your  commands  upon  me,  you  shall  know  my  sentiments 
of  the  matter  in  the  next  sermon  which  I  shall  have  the 
honour  to  preach  before  his  majesty."  "  Pray  do  then," 
.said  the  queen,  and  he  accordingly  prepared  a  sermon  on 
that  text,  but  the  queen  died  a  month  before  his  term  of 
preaching  came  about,  and  before  he  was  promoted  to  the 
deanry  of  Winchester.  In  iT't^  the  dean  was  elected  pro- 
locutor of  the  lower  house  of  convocation  for  the  province 
of  Canterbury,  the  archbishop  having  signified  to  some  of 
the  members,  that  the  choice  of  biol  would  be  agreeable 
to  his  grace.  ... 

In  1748  dean  Pearce  was  promoted  to  the  seeof  Bangor^ 
but  the  history  of  this  and  of  his  subsequent  translation  to 
Rochester, .  will  be  best  related  in  his  own  words :  "  In  the 
year  1746,"  sajs  he,  "  archbishop  Potter  being  alone  with 
dean  Pearce  one  day  at  Lambeth,  said  to  him,  ^  Why  do 
you  not  try  to  engage  your  friend  lord  Bath  */  to  get  you 
made  a  bish9p  ?*  '  My  lord,'  said  the  dean;  *  I  am  ex- 
tremely obliged  to  your  grace  for  your  good  opinion  of 
me,  and  for  your  kind  intentions  iti  my  favour ;  but  I  have 
never  spoken  to  him  on  that  subject,  nor  ever  thought  of 
doing  so,  though  I  believe  he  would  do  what  lies  in  his 
power ;  but  I  will  tell  your  grace  very  frankly,  that  I  have 
no  thoughts  of  any  bishopric.  All  that  I  have  in  view  is 
this :  I  am  now  dean  of  Winchester ;  and  that  deanry  is 
worth  upwards  of  600^/ a  year ;  my  vicarage  of  St.  Martinis 
is  about  500/.  a  year,  and  this  last  I  should  be  glad  of  an 
opportunity  of  resigning,  on  account  of  the  great  trouble 
and  little  leisure  which  so  large  a  parish  gives  me ;  but  if 
I  should  out-live  my  father,  who  is  upwards  of  eight^^  years 

*  His  acquaintance  wiUi  Mr.  Pul-  improved  into  a  friendship  that  lasted 

teney  arose  iu  1724i  at  an  interview  very  nearly  forty  yearsi  and  till  the 

with  him  respecting  the  re-building  of  death  of  this  statesman,  who  sat  tbea 

^t,  Martin's  church,    and  gradually  in  the- bougeof  loVd»  as  earl  of .Bi^tfe, 


\ 


P  E  A  R  C  E,  22i 

old,  I  shall  come  to  his. estate,  being  his  eldest  son,  which 
will  enable  me  to  resign  my  vicarage ;  and  the  profits  of 
the  deanry  aione,  with  my  father's  estate,  will  make  me 
quite  contented.'  The  archbishop  smiled,  and  said,  "  Well, 
if  you  will  not  help  yourself,  your  friends  must  do  it  for 
you.'  Accordingly  he  spoke  to  the  earl  of  Bath,  and  they 
two  agreed  to  try  what  they  could  do  to  make  the  dean  of 
Winchester  a  bishop. 

"  In  1748  the  bishopric  of  Bangor  became  vacant.  The 
dean  was  then  at  Winchester,  and  received  there  a  letter 
from  Mr.  Clark  (afterwards  sir^homas,  and  master  of  the 
rolls)  informing  him,  that  lord  chancellor  Hardwicke  wished 
to  see  dean  Pearce  thought  of  on  that  occasion,  a,nd  that 
he  hoped  the  dean  would  answer  Mr.  Clarke's  letter  in 
such  a  way,  as  when  seen,  might  be  approved  of  by  the 
ministry.  Dean  Pearce  answered  the  letter  with  acknow- 
ledgment of  the  favour  thought  of  for  him;  but  assuriog 
Mr.  Clark,  who,  as  he  perceived,  was  to  communicate  the 
answ,er  to  lord  Hardwicke,  that  he  had  long  had  np  thoughts 
of  desiring  a  bishopric,  and  that  he  was  fully  satisfied  with 
his  situation  in  the  church  ;  and  that  as  to  the  ministry,  he 
was  always  used  to  think  as  favourably  of  them  as  they 
could  wish  him  to  do,  having  never  opposed  any  of  the 
public  measures,  nor  designing  so  to  do.  In  truth,  the 
dean  had  then  fixed  upon  a  resolution  to  act  no  otherwise 
than  as  he  had  told  the  archbishop  he  should  do,  upon 
his  father's  death.  The  dean  received  no  answer  to  this 
letter  written  to  Mr.  Clark,  and  he  thought  that  there 
was  an  end  of  that  matter. 

"  About  a  fortnight  after  this,  the  dean  went  up  to  his 
parish  in  Westminster;  but  in   his  way  thither,  lay  one. 
night  at  his  father's  house,  in  Little  Ealing,  near  Brent- 
ford ;  where,  the  next  morning  early,  a  letter  was  brought 
to  him  from  the  duke  of  Newcastle  by  one  of  his  grace'* 
servants,  signifying  that  his  grace  had  his  majesty's  order 
to  make  the  dean  of.  Winchester  an  offer  of  the  bishopric 
of  Bangor,  and  desiring  to  see  him  at  the  cockpit  the  next' 
day  at   12  o'clock..    Accordingly  he   waited   upon   him,' 
when,  with  many  kind  expressions  to  the  dean,  the  duke' 
signified  the  gracious  offer  of  his  majesty,  which  he  had 
the  order  to  make  him.     The  dean  asked  his  grace,  whe-  . 
ther  he  might  be  permitted  to  hold  his  deanry  of  Win-  ^ 
Chester  in  commendam  with  Bauijor,  to  which  the  answer 
waiB^  No  \  but  tliat  h^  might  hold  the  vicarage  of  St.  Mar* ' 


/  t 


«24  P  E  A  R  C  E. 

tin^s  mAi  it.     The  dean  said,  that  he  was  desirous  fo  quit 
the  living,  which  was  troublesome  to  him,  and  would  be 
more  so  as  he  vt^as  growing  in  years  ;  but  if  that  could  not 
be  indulged  him,  he  rather  chose  to  cpntipiiie  in  his  present' 
situation.     The  duke  used  some  arguments  to  persuade 
the  dean  to  accept  of  the  offer  with  a  commehdam  to  hold 
the  living.     He  could  not,  however,  prevail  with  the  dean 
any  farther,  than  that  he  would  take  three  days^  time  to 
consider  of  it.     During  that  time,  the  dean  had  brought 
his  father  and  lord  Bath  to  <?onsent,  that  he  might  decline 
to  accept  of  that  bishopric  without  their  displeasure  ;  but 
before  the  dean  saw  the  duke  a  second  time,  lord  Hard- 
wicke,  then  chancellor,  sent  for  him,  and  desired  him  to 
be,  without  fail,  at  his  house,  that  evening.    He  went,  and 
lord  Hardwicke  told  him,  that  he  found,  by  the  duke  of 
Newcastle,  that  he  made  difficulties  about  accepting  the 
bishopric  which  was  so  graciously  offered  him.     The  dean 
gave  his  lordship  an  account  of  all  that  had  passed  between 
the  duke  and  him ;  upon   which  his  lordship  used  many 
arguments  with  the  dean  to  induce  him  to  accept  the  offer, 
as  intended.     Among  other  things,  he  said,  *  If  clergy- 
men of  learning  add  merit  will  not  accept  of  the  bishoprics, 
how  can  the  ministers  of  state  be  blamed,  if  they   are 
forced  to  fill  them  with  others  less  deserving  ?'     The  dean 
was  struck  with  that  question,  and  had  nothing  ready  in 
his  thoughts  to  reply  to  it.     tie  therefore  promised  lord 
Hardwicke  to  consent,  the  next  day,  when  he  was  to  see 
the  duke  of  Newcastle.     *  Well  then,'  Said'  lord   Hard- 
wicke, ^  when  jou  consent,  do  it  with  a  good  grace.'    The 
dean  promised  to  do  that  too ;  and  accordingly  he  declared 
to  the  duke,  the  next  day,  bis  ready  .acceptance  of  his 
majesty's  offer,  with  such  acknowledgments  of  the  royal 
goodness  as  are  proper  on  the  occasion;  and  on  Feb;  21, 
1748,  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Bangor. 

'^  In  the  year  1755,  the  bishop  of  Bangor  being  with 
archbishop  Herring  at  Croydon,  and  walking  with  him  in 
his  garden,  he  said,  '  My  Lord,  you  know  that  the  bishop' 
c)f  Rochester,  Dr.  Wilcocks,  is  very  ill,  and  jitobably  wilj 
not  live  long;  will  you  accept  of  his  bishopric  s^nd  the 
deanry  of  Westminster,  in  exchange  fbr  yours  of  Bangor  ?V 
The  bishop  excused  himself,  and. told  him  plainly,  that  hift 
father  being  dead,  and  his  estate  come  to  him,  he  bad  nbvr 
nothing  in  view,  but  to  beg  his  majesty's  leave  to  resigb 
the  see  of  Bangor^  and  (o  r^tir^i  ta  a  private  life  in>  the  year 


P  E  A  R  C  E.  22* 

\l5i ;  that  so  long,  be  was  contented  to  continue  in  the 
possession  of  ttie  bishopric  of  Bangor ;  but  that  then  he 
designed  to  try  if  he  could  obtain  leave  to  resign,  and  live 
upon  bis  private  fortune.  The  archbishop  replied^  *  I' 
doubt  whether  the  king  will  grant  it,  or  that  it  can  be 
done.*  A  second  time,  at  another  visit  thei^,  he  mentioned 
the  same  thing,  and  a  second  time  the  bishop  gave  him 
the  same  answer.  But  in  a  short  time  after,  upon  another 
tisit,  when  the  archbishop  mentioned  it  a  third  time,  he 
added,  *  My  lord,  if  you  will  give  me  leave  to  try  what  I 
Can  do  to  procure  you  this  exchange,  I  promise  you  not  to 
take  it  amiss  of  you^  if  you  refuse  it,  though  I  should  ob« 
tain  the  offer  for  you.'  *  This  is  very  generous  in  your 
grace,'  siaid  the  bishop,  '  and  1  cannot  refuse  to  consent 
to  what  you  propose  to  do.* 

'*  Sometime  after,  in  the  same  year  (the  bishop  of  Roches** 
ter  declining  very  fast),  the  duke  of  Newcastle  sent  to  the 
bishop  of  Bangor,  and  desired  to  see  him  the  next  day. 
He  went  to  him,  and  the  duke  informed  him^  that  he  was 
toid^  that  the  chancellorship  of  Bangor  was  then  vacant^ 
and  he  pressed  the  bishop  so  much  to  bestow  it  upon  one 
whom  he  had  to  recommend,  that  the  bishop  consented  to 
comply  with  his  reqiiest.     *  Well,  my  lbrd>'  said  the  duke, 
*  liow  I  have  another  favour  to  ask  of  you.*     *  Pfay,  my 
lord  duke,*  said  the  bishop,  *  what  is  that  ?*     *  Why,'  said 
the  duke,  '  it  is,  that  you  will  accept  of  the  bishopric  of 
Rochester,  and  deanry  of  Westminster,  in  exchange  for 
Bangor,  in  case  the  present  bishop  of  Rochester  should 
die.*     *  My  lord,'  said  the  bishop,  *  if  I  had  thoughts  of 
Exchanging  my  bishopric,  I  should  prefer  what  you  men- 
tion before  any  other  dignities.*     *Thal  is  not,'  said  th6 
duke,  •  an  answer  to  my  question  :  \^ill  you  accept  them  irt 
exchange,  if  they  are  offered  to  you  ?*     'Your  grace  offers 
them  to  me,^  said  the  bishop,  *  in  so  generous  and  friendly 
a  mafiner,  that  1  promise  you  to  accept  them.*     Here  the 
tionversation  ended  ;  and  Dr.  Wilcocks  dying  in  the  begiti- 
«ihg  of  the  year  1756,  the  bishop  of  Bangor  was  promoteil 
to  the  bishopric  of  Rochester  and  deanry  of  Westminster.** 
On  the  death  of  Dr.  Sherlock,  bishop  of  London,  lord 
^ath  spoke  to  the  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  offered  to  use 
his  endeavours  with  his  majesty  fbr  appoititing  him  to  sue- 
treed  thit  eminent  prelate;  but  Dr.  Peah^  told  him,  that 
fMA  the  earliest  time  that  be  could  remember  himself  t^ 
iiliv^  ^cynsidereA  about  bishoprics,  he  had  determiried  ti^reir 
V«>t.  XXIV.  Q  .  J 


22*  IP  E  A  R  C  E, 

to  accept  the  bishoprip  of  London,  of  the  archbishopric  of 
Canterbury,  and  he  begged  his  lordship  not  to  make  any 
application  in  his  behalf  for  the  vacant  see  of  London., 
Lord  Bath  repeated  his  offer  on  the  death  of  Dr.  OsbaldiS': 
ton  in  1763,  but  Dr.  Pearce  again  declined  the  proposal,, 
and  was  indeed  so  far  from  desiring  a  higher  bishopric,, 
that  he  now  meditated  the  resignation  of  what  he  possessed^ 
This  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  circumstances  in  the 
life  of  Dr.  Pearce.  Being  now  (1765)  seventy-three  year* 
old,  and  finding  himself  less  fit  for  the  duties  of  bishop 
and  dean,  he  informed  his  friend  lord  Bath  of  his  intention 
to  resign  both,  and  to  live  in  a  retired  manner  upon  hi» 
own  private  fortune ;  and  after  much  discourse  upon 
the  subject  at  different  times,  he  prevailed  upon  his 
lordship  at  last  to  acquaint  his  majesty  with  his  intention, 
and  to  desire,  in  the  bishop's  name,  the  honour  of  a  pri- 
vate audience  from  his  majesty  for  that  purpose.  Thia 
being  granted,  Dr.  Pearce  stated  his  motives  as  he  had 
done  to  lord  Bath,  adding  that  he  was  desirous  to  retire 
for  the  opportunity  of  spending  more  time  in  his  devotions 
and  studies ;  and  that  he  was  of  the  same  way  of  thinking 
with  a  general  officer  of  the  emperor  Charles  V.  who, 
when  he  desired  a  dismission  from  that  monarch's  service, 
told  him,;  *^  Sir,  every  wise  man  would,  at  the  latter  end 
of  life,  wish  to  have  an  interval  between  the  fatigues  of 
business  and  eternity.''  The  bishop  then  shewed  the  king, 
in  a  written  paper,  instances  of  its  haying  been  done  seve- 
ral times,  and  concluded  with  telling  his  majesty,  that  he 
did  not  expect  or  desire  an  immediate  answer  to  his'  re<- 
quest,  but  rather  that  bis  majesty  would  first  consult  some 
pf  his  ministers  as  to  the  propriety  and  legality  of  it.  This 
the  king  consented  to  do ;  and  about  two  months  after,  he 
sent  for  the  bisihop  and  told  him,  that  he  had  consulted 
with  two  of  his  lawyers,  lord  Mansfield  and  lord  Nprthing^ 
:ton,  who  saw  no  objection  to  the  proposed  resignation, 
and  in  consequence  of  their  opinion,  bis  majesty  signified 
his  own  consent.  The  interference,  however,  of  lord  Bath, 
in  requesting  that  his  majesty  would  give  the  bishopric  and 
deanry  to  Dr.  Newton,  then  bishop  of  Bristol,  alarmed  the 
ininistry,  who  thought  that  no  dignities  in  the  church  should 
be  obtained  from  the  crown,  but  through  their  hands., 
Lord  Northington  suggested  to  his  majesty  some  doubts 
on  the  subject,  and  represented  that  the  bishops  in  gene-r 
ral  disliked  the  design  ;  and  at  length  Dr.  Pearce  was  told 
by  his  majesty,  that  he  piust  think  so  more  about  resigQipg 


I 
) 

I  •  ^ 


P  E  A  R  G  ft  927 

^e  bishopric ;  but  ^^  that  he  would  have  ali  the  merit  o^ 
paving  done  it."  Iq  176S,  however,  be  was  permiued  to 
resign  his  deanry,  which  was  nearly  double  in  point  of  in* 
coaae  to  the  bishopric  which  be  was, obliged  to.  retain; 

With  respect  to  Dr.  Pearce'is  earnest  desire  of  resigning 
his  preferments,  his  biographer  observes,  that  it  gave  oc^ 
casion  to  niuch  disquisition  and  conjecture.  ^*  As  it  could 
iiot  be  founded  in  avarice,  it  was  sought  in  vanity^  and 
Dr.  Pearce  was  suspected  as  aspiring  to  the  antiquated 
praise  of  contempt  pf  wealth,  and  desire  of  retirement.'^ 
But  his  biographer,  who  had  the  best  opportunities  ot 
judging,  is  of  opinion,  t)iat  bis  motives  were  what  he  pab- 
licly  alleged,  a  desire  of  dismission  from  public  cares,  ancj 
of  opportunity  for  more  continued  study.  To  a  private 
friend  the  bishop  declared  that  *'  as  he  never  made  a  sine^ 
cure  of  his  preferments,  he  was  now  tired  of  business,  and 
Jbeing  in  his  74th  year^  he  wished  to  resign  while  his  facul- 
ties were  entire,  lest  he  might  cbaiice  ^o  outlive  then),  and 
the  church  suffer  by  bis  iufirmities.^' 

Being  now  disengaged  from  bis  deanry,  bishop  Pearce 
fteexped  to  consider  himself  as  freed  from  half  his  burthen^ 
and  with  su'ph  vigour  as  time  had  left  him,  and  such  ala^ 
crity  as  hope  cpntinued  to  supply^  he  prosecuted  his  episr 
copal  functions  and  private  studies.  It  redounds  greatly 
to  his  honour,  that  in  the  disposal  of  ecclesiastical  prefer* 
ments,  he  never  gave  occasion  to  censure,  except  in  th^ 
isingle  instance  of  a,  young  man  ^,  on  whom  he  bestowed 
the  valuable  rectory  of  Stone,  in  consideration  of  his  being 
great-grandson  of  his  first  patron,  the  ^arl  of  Macclesfield, 
^hose  favours,  co^ferned  forty  years  before,  his  gratitude 
4id  not  suffer  him  to  forget. 

In  1773,  by  too  much  diligence  in  his  officei  bishop 
Pearce  had  exhausted  his  strength  beyond  recovery.  Hav- 
ing confirmed  at  Greenwich,  seven  hundred  persons,  h^ 
found  himself,  the  next  day,  unable  to  speak,  and  nevef 
Regained  his  former  readiness  of  utterance.  This  hap*> 
pened  gn  the  first  of  October,    and  from  that  time,  be 

* 

-    #  The  reverend  Thomas  Heatboote.  tacked,  than  many  panegyrict ;   be- 

**.Thit  appoiatment  save  so  much  of-  cause  it  shews,  that  he  w|io  deaii^pd  to 

fenpe  to  one,  named  by  bimsejf  Cleri-  say  evil,  had  at  last  tiothing  to  say.'' 

cus  Roffeusis,  who  seemed  to  Chink  the  With  respect  to  lord  Macclesfield,  ths 

fights  of  seniority  Violated,   that  he  reader  will  fiiid  one  of  the  ablest  vindr- 

#cote  against  his  diocesan*  a  pamphlet  cations  of  that  nobleman  from  the  pen 

filled  with  the  acrimony  of  disappoint-  of  bishop  Pearce,  in  the  "  Life*'  pub- 

ment ;  but  which  mnst  coiidace  more  li»hed  by  Mr.  Derby. 
.tilrmite  the  charaoter  of  the  man  ati  .."../ 

Q  2 


iii  ^  £  A  R  G  C. 

ifemained  in  a  languishing  state;  bis  patalytictomplsintifi^ 
Creased,  and  at  length  his  power  of  swallowing  was  almost 
lost.  Being  asked  bj  one  of  his  fatnily,  who  constantly^ 
attended  him,  how  he  cauld  live  with  so  little  nutrimert^ 
**  I  live,"  said  hej  **  upon  the  recollection  of  aft  innocent 
and  welUspent  life,  which  is  my  only  sustenance.'"  After 
some  months  of  lingering  decay,  he  died  at  Little  Eatings 
June  29,  1774,  aged  eighty-four,  and  was  buried  by  his 
wife  in  the  church  of  Bronaiey  in  Kent,  where  a  monun>ent 
is  erected  to  his  memory  with  anejpit^ph  written  by  him* 
^elfj  merely  rehearsing  the  dates  of  bis  birth  and  death, 
and  of  his  various  preferriients.  A  cehotaph  was  afterwards 
Erected  in  Westmilister-abbey,  with  a  Latin  inscription. 

Bishop  Pearce  married,  in  Feb.  22,  the  daughter  of  Mr. 
Adams,  an  eminent  distiller  in  Holborn,  with  a  consider* 
able  fortune,  and  lived  with  her  upwards  of  fifty-one  y^ars 
in  the  highest  degree  of  connubial  happiness.  Their  chil^ 
dren  all  dying  young,  he  made  his  brother  Williaifi  Pearce', 
esq.  his  heir  and  executor.  He  bequeathed  his  library  to 
the  dean  and  chapter  of  Westminster,  except  such  books 
as  they  already  had.  His  manuscripts,  with  the  books  not 
left  to  Westminster,  and  the  copy-right  of  all  his  works, 
except  the  Longinus  sold  to  Mr.  Tonson,  he  gave  to  hi^ 
chaplain,  the  rev.  John  Derby.  Besides  some  legacies  t6 
individuals,  and  sortie  to  various  public  charities,  he  left 
a  noble  bequest  of  five  thousand  pk)unds  Old  South  Se^ 
Annuities,  towards  the  better  support  of  the  twenty  widows 
of  clei^ymen,  who  are  maintained  in  the  college  of  Brom-. 
ley,  the  funds  of  which  had  become  too  scanty  for  that 
kind  of  genteel  provision  intended  by  the  founder,  bishop 
Warner.  Bishop  Pearce's  benefaction  raised  the  widow's 
pensions  to  30/.  per  ann.  and  the  chaplain's  salary  to  60/. 
His  heir,  William  Pearce,  esq.  who  died  in  1782,  left  a 
reversionary  legacy  df  12,000/.  for  the  purpose  of  building 
ten  houses  for  clergymen's  widows,  in  addition  to  bishop 
Warner's  college,  and  endowing  them.  This  leg^acy  fall- 
ing in  a  few  years  ago, 'the  houses  were  completed  i^ 
1 802. 

The  diligence  of  bishop  Pearce's  early  studies,'  says  his 
biographer,  appeared  by  its  effects  ;  he  was  first  known  to 
the  public  by  philological .  learning,  which  he  coutiuued 
to  cultivate  in  his  advanced  age.  Cicero  "  De  Oratore'* 
was  published  by  him,  when  he  was  bachelor  of  arts,  and 
Cicero  ^<  De  Officiis^'^  when  be  was  dean  of  Winchester^ 


]P  E  4  5  C  S^  e^9 

in  1745.  Tbe  edition  pf  Cicero  undertaken  by  OUvet, 
prpduced  a  ^orreipond^nce  between  bimi^nd  Dr*  Pearce,  ii^ 
wbicb  Olivet  express^s^  in  terms  of  great  re^pecl^  bis  eateeqi 
of  his  learning,  and  bi$  cpngdence  in  bis  criUcism,  Qui  Df. 
Penrce  did  not  ^pofine  bis  ^tteption  to  the  learned  lan- 
giiage9  \  he  was  p^vticul^ly  stndiqus  Qf  Milton's  poetry^ 
and  when  Dr,  Bentley  publi^bed  his  imaginary  emendation^ 
pf  the  ^^  Paradj$e  LjQsV  ijirro^e  in  opposition  to  thepi  a  fuU 
^Findioation  of  tbe  establifdied  %^^t  This  was  puhlisbed  in 
J 733,  9vo>  under  the  ti|le  of  •«  Review  of  ^he  Teyt  of  Par 
radise  Loat,''  a|id  is)  ww  becQme  v^ry  9parce;  but  many, 
bpth  of  tbe  GonjectuFes  and  jrefatatipn^,  are  preserved  in 
bishop  Newton'^  edition^ 

In  his  dQiiiestiip  life  he  was  <iuie(  wd  pkQid,  not  dimcuU 
f 0  be  pleaded,  nor  inclined  tp  harass  his  a^te^dants  or  ia<- 
feriors  by  peevishness  pr  qaprioe.  This  oalmness  of  mind 
appea^d  in  his  whole  manner  and  depcH'iment;.  His  sta- 
ture was  tally  his  appearan<?e  venei^bley  and  his  counter 
nance  e^pressivie  pf  benevolencet 

In  his  piairoohial  cure  he  was  pun4:tually  diligent,  and 
Tery  seldom  pmitted  to  preach ;  but  bis  sermons  had  np( 
aU  the  efieot  which  he  desired^  for  his  voioe  was  low  and 
feeble,  and  cpuld  opt  reach  the  whole  of  a  numerpps  cpur 
gregatiop.  Those  whpm  it  did  reaoh  were  both  pleased 
and  edifipd  With  the  good  sense  and  sound  doctrine  which 
he  never  failed  to  deliver.  When  advanced  to  the  honours 
of  episcopacy,  he  did  not  ponsider  himself  as  placed  in  a 
state  that  allowed  him  any  iHsmisaiou^from  the  Jid>ours  of  his 
ministry.  He  was  not  hindered  by  the  distance  of  Bango? 
from  annually  resorting  to  that  diocese  (one  year  only  exr 
cepted),  and  discharging  his  episcopal  duties  there,  tp 
IT 53;  after  which,  having  suffered  greatly  from  the  fatigue 
of  his  last  journey,  he  was  advised  by  his  physician  and 
feieud,  Dr.  Heber^eo,  and  prevailed  upon,  not  to  attemf^t 
another.  When  he  accepted  the  bishopric  of  Bangor,  he 
established  in  himself  a  resolution  of  conferring  Welsh  pre- 
ferments or  benefices  only  on  Welshmen  ;  and  to  this  re« 
solution  he  adhered,  in  defiance  of  influence  or  importu- 
nity. He  twice  gave  away  the  deanry,  and  bestowed 
many  benefices,  but  always  chose  for  his  patronage  the 
natives  of  the  country,  whatever  might  be  the  murmurs  of 
bis  relations,  or  the  disappointment  of  bis  chaplains.  The 
diocese  of  Rochester  conjoined,  as  had  been  for  some  time 
usual,    with  the  deanry  of  Westminster,    afforded  him  a 


gS0  >  £  A  R  C  £. 

bourse  of  duty  more  commodious.  He  divided  his  tim^ 
between  his  public  offices,  and  his  solitary  studies.  Hq 
preached  at  Bromley  or  Ealing,  and  by  many  years  labour 
in  the  explication  of  the  New  Testament,  produced  the 
^*  Commentary,"  &c.  which  was  offered  to  th^  public  after 
his  decease.  It  was  bequeathed  to  the  care  of  the  rev. 
John  Derby,  his  lordship's  chaplain,  who  published  it  in 
1777,  in  2  vols.  4to,  underthe  title  of  **  A  Commentary, 
with  notes,  on  the  Four  Evangelists  and  the  Acts  of  the 
Apostles,  together  with  a  new  trani^ation  of  St.  PauPs 
first  epistle  to  the  Corinthians,  with  a  paraphrase  and 
notes.  To  which  are  added  other -Theological  pieces.'* 
Prefixed  is  an  elegant  dedication  to  the  king,  in  the  name 
of  the  editor,  but  from  the  pen  of  Dr.  Johnson  ;  and  a  life 
written  by  the  bishop  himself,  and  connected  in  a  regular 
narrative  by  paragraphs,  evidently  by  Dr.  Johnson's  pen. 
This  life  is  highly  interesting,  and  contains  many  ourious 
particulars  which  we  have  been  obliged  to  omit. 

Dr.  Pearce  published  in  his  life-time  nine  occasional 
sermons,  a  discourse  against  self-murder,  which  is  now  in 
the  list  of  tracts  distributed  by  the  Society  for  promoting ' 
Christian  knowledge;  and  soon  after  -the  publication  of 
his  ^'  Commentary,"  bis  editor  gave  the  public  a  coHec-« 
tion  of  the  bishop- s  <^  Sermons  on  various  subjects,"  4  vols^ 
8vo.  ^  Besides  what  have  been  already  specified,  our  au- 
thor published  in  1720,  a  pamphlet  entitled  ^'  An  Account 
of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge;"  and  in  1722,  "  A  Letter 
to  the  Clergy  of  the  Church  of  England^"  on  occasion  of 
the  bishop  of  Bochester's  commitment  to  the  Tower.     He 
had  also  a  short  controversy  with  Dr.  Middleton,  against 
whom*  he  published  "  Two  Letters,"  and  fully  convicted 
that  writer  of  disingenuousdess  in  quotation.     His  editor, 
Mr.  Derby,  who  had  married  his  neice,<  did  not  long  sur- 
vive his  benefactor,  dying  Oct.  8,  1778,  only  five  dayi  after  ^ 
the  datef  of  his  dedication  of  the  bishop*s  "  Sermons," ' 
-    PEARSALL  (Richakd),  a  pious  dissenting  divine,  was 
born  £^t  Kiddenhinster  in  Warwickshire,  Aug.  29,  1698, 
and  received  his   education  at  a  dissenting  academy  at 
Tewkesbury,  in  Gloucestershire,  under  Mn  Jones,  who  was 
likewise  the  master  of  this  school  when  IV^ssrs.  Butler  and 
Pecker,  afterwards  the  well-known  prelates,  were  educated 
t^^  it.     Mr.  Pearsali  having  been  admitted  into  ^he  ministry 

^  }  Life  M  alitove. 


P  E  A  R  S  AX  L.  231 

«inong  the  dissenters,  was  settled  for  ten  years  at  Bromyard, 
in  Herefordshire^  and  afterwards  for  sixteen  years  at  War- 
minster, in  Wiltshire.  His  last  charge,  for  about  fifteen 
years,  was  at  Taunton,  in  Somersetshire,  where  he  died 
Nov.  10,  1762.  He  is  known  in  the  religious  world  by  two 
works  of  considerable  reputation,  his  **  Contemplations  on 
the  Ocean,"  &c.  in  2  toIs.  12mo,  which  are  mentioned 
with  respect  by  Hervey  in  the  third  volume  of  his  '^  Theroa 
andAspasio;"  and  bis  '^ReliquiaD  Sacrsej"  which  were  pub« 
lished  by  Dr.  Gibbons,  1765,  2  vols.  12mo.  They  consist 
of  meditations  on  select  passages  of  scripture,  and  sacred 
dialogues  between  a  father  and  his-  children.  He  is  much 
an  imitator  of  Hervey^  particularly  in  his  ^^  Contempla- 
tions," but  has  less  imagination,  although  enough  to  catch 
the  attention  of  young  reader's.  ^ 

PEARSON  (John),  a  very  learned  English  bi8hop,Vas 
born  Feb.  12,  1612,  at  Snoring  in  Norfolk;  of  which  place 
his  father  was  rector.  In  1623  he  was  sent  to  Eton  school ; 
whence  he  was  elected  to  King^s  coUe^,  Cambridge,  in 
1632*  He  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1635,  and  that  of 
master  in  1639;  in  which  year  he  resigned  bis  fellowship 
of  the  college,  and  lived  afterwards  a  fellow- commoner  in 
it.  The  same  year  he  entered  into  orders,  and  was  collated 
to  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  Sarum.  In  1640  he  was 
appointed  chaplain  to  Finch,  lord-keeper  of  the  great  seal ; 
by  whom  in  that  year  he  was  presented  .to  the  living  of 
Torrington,  in  Suffolk.  Upon  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil 
war  he  became  chaplain  to  the  lord  Goring,  whom  he  at- 
tended in  the  army,  and  afterwards  to  sir  Robert  Cook  in 
London.  In  1650  he  was  made  minister  of  St.  Clement's, 
Eastcheap,  in  London.  In  1657  he  and  Gunning,  after- 
wards bishop  of  Ely,  had  a  dispute  with  two  Roman  catho- 
lics upon .  the  subject  of  schism.  This  conference  was 
roaoaged  in  writing,  and  by  mutual  agreement  nothing  was 
to  be  made  public  without  the  consent  of  both  parties  ;  yet 
a  partial  account  of  it  was  published  in  1658,  by  one  of  the 
Romish  disputants,  cum  prtvilegio^  at  Paris,  with  this  title, 
^^  Schism  unmasked;  a  late  conference,"  Scc*^     In  1639 

1  Gibbons's  Preface. 

*  To  the  piece  if,  '*  A  Preface  of  to  Mr.  Den*s  Quaker  no  Papist,  hy 

the  Catholic  disputauts,  contaioing  the  Mr.  Thomas  ^mith,  of  Christ's-college 

proceedings  of  both  parties  on  matter  in  Cambridge,"  Lond.  1G59.     Thecon- 

Qf  fact."     There  is  an  account  of  this  ference  was  reprinted  at  Oxford  durin.ir 

publication  in  a    piece  entitled    *' A.  the  reign  of  king  James  II.  under  this 

Gagg  for  the  Quakers  i  with  an  Answer  title,  **  Th^  Schism  of  the  Church  »f 


23a  PEARSON. 

lie  published  ^^  An  Exposition  of  the  Creed,"  ai  I^ondon^ 

in  4to ;  dedicated  to  hia  parisbiopers  of  St.  Clemem^&gi 
Eastcheap,  to  whpoi  the  substance  of  that  excelleot  wprli^ 
kad  been  preached  several  years,  before^  and  by  whom  hQ 
had  been  desired  to  noake  it  public.  This  ^  £.xpositi.€K»» ' 
which  has  gone  through  twelve  or  thirteen  edition^i  is  ac-r 
counted  cMie  of  the  most  finisihed  pieces  of  theology  in  ow 
language,  it  is  itself  a  body  of  divinity^  the  style'  of  which 
is  just;  the  periods^  for  the  most  part,  well  turned;  tbi« 
method  very  exact ;  and  it  is,  upQu  the  whoie^  free  from 
those  errors  which  are  toQ  often  found  in  theological 
,  systems.  There  is  a  traoslation  of  itlnto  Latin  by  a  foreign 
divine,  who  styles  himself  ^^  Simon  Joannes  Arnoldus,  Eccle?; 
siarum  balliviae,  sive  prsefeeturae  Sonnenburgensis  Inspec- 
tor;" and  a  very  valuable  and  judicious  abridgment  was  in 
18  to  published  by  the  rev.  Charles  Burney,  LU  D.  F.  R«  S. 
In  the  same  year  (165.9)  bishop  Pearson,  published  ^^The 
Golden  Remains  of  the  ever-rmemorable  Mr.  John  Hales^ 
of  Eton  ;*^  to  which  he  wrote  a  preface,  containing  the 
character  of  that  great  man,  with  whom  he  had  been,  acr 
quainted  for  many  years,  drawn  with  great  elegance  and 
force.  Soon  after  the  restoration  he  was  presented  by 
Juxon,  then  bishop  of  London,  to  the  rectory  of  St.  Christ 
topher*s,  in  that  city ;  created  D.  D.  at  Cambridge^  in 
pursuance  of  the  king's  letters  mandatory;  installed  pre-* 
bendary  of  Ely^  archdeacon  of  Surrey,  and  made  master 
'of  Jesus  college,  Cambridge;*  all  before  the  endof  166Q. 
March  25,  166},  he  succeeded  Dr.  Love  in  the  Mai^aret 
professorship  of  that  university ;  and,  the  first  day  of  the 
ensuing  year,  was  nominated  one  of  the  commissioners  for 
the  review  of  the  liturgy  in  the  conference  at  the  Savoy, 
where  the  nonconformists  allow  he  was  the  first  of  their 
opponents  for  candour  and  ability.  In  April  1662,  he  was 
admitted  master  of  Trinity  college,  Camltridge;  and,  in 
August  resigned  bis  rectory  of  St.  Christopher's,  and  pre« 
bend  of  Sarucp.  In  1667  he  was  admitted  a  fellow  of  the 
royal  society.  In  1672  he  published,  at  Cambri4ge,  in 
4to,  ^  Vindiclse  Epistolarum  S.  Igoajtii,''  in  answer  to 
nions.  Daille ;  to  which  is  subjoined,  **  Isaaci  Vossii  epis* 

Eni^Iand  demonstrated  in  four  Argu.  bridf^e  in  1688,  4t6,  under  this  title, 

nents,"  &c.  which  was  scon  afier  ani-  <*  The  ReforiDation  of  the  Cbureh  of 

knadverted  upon  by  William  Saywelf,  England  justified,  &c.  being  an  An« 

D,  I),  master  of  Jesus-coHrge,  Cam-  8w<>r  to  a  paper  reprinted  at  Oxford^ 

l^rid^e^  i9  a  pamphlet  printed  at  Cam-  callfid,  The  Schisme/'  &c\ 


PEARSON.  «S 


tobe   dds  adv^tsas    Davtdett    BloA4ellttm.^*     Upon  the 
death  of  Wiikins^  bishop  of  Chester,  Pearson  was  prof 
noted  to  that  see,  to  whidi  he  vas  coAsoecated  Feb,  9, 1673. 
In  1684  his  '^  Aatiales  Cypriaaici)  save  tredecita  annoruoiy 
quibas  S.  Cyprian,  inter  Christianos  Tersatus  est,  bkttoria 
chroDokgica^^'  was  pnblished  at  Oxford,  with  Fell's  edition 
of  that  father's  works*     Dr.  Pearson  was  disabled  from  all 
p\ihlio  service  by  ill  healthy  having  emticely  lost  his  me^ 
mory,  a  consider^le  time  befieure  his  death,  which  hoif^ 
Opened  at  Chester,  July  16,  1686.     Two  years  after,  his 
pQsdiumous  works  were  publi^ied  by  Dodwell  at  London, 
^^CLJoaanis  Pearsoni  Cestrienais  nuper   Episcopi  opera 
posthuma,  &c.  &c.''     There  are  extant  two  sermons  pob-^ 
lished  hy  him,  1.  ^^  No  Necessity  for  a  Reformation,''  166 1, 
4to.    2.  **  A  Sermon  preached  before  the  King,  on  Eccles. 
Tii.  14,  published  by  his  majesty's  special  command,"  1671^ 
4to.     An  anonymous  writer  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazioe 
(nS9  p.  493)  speaks  of  some  unpviblished  MSS.  by  bishop 
Pearson  in  his  possession.     His  MS  notes  on  Suidas  are  in 
the  library  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  and  were  used 
by  Kuster  in  his  edition. 

Oar  prelate  was  reckoned  an  excellent  preacher,  very 
judjcioas  and  learned,  particuJariy  accurate  and  exact  in 
chronology,  and  well  versed  in  the  fathers  and  the  eccle<^ 
aiastioal  historiai^s.  Dr.  Bentiey  used  to  say  that  bishop 
Pearson's  "  very  dross  was  gold."  In  bishop  Burnet's 
opinion  he  ^'  was  in  all  respects  the  greatest  divine  of  his 
Age."  ^  Bishop  Huet  also,  to  whom  he  communicated  va^- 
rious  readings  on  some  parts  of  Origen's  works,  gives  hint 
a  high  character.  But;  as  Burnet  reminds  us,  he  was  an 
affecting  instance  ^^  of  what  a  great  man  can  fall  to ;  for  his 
memory  went  from  him  so  entirely,  that  he  became  a  child 
aoime  years  before  he  died."  He  had  a  younj^er  brother 
Richard,  professor  of  civil  law  in  Gresham  college,  and 
under-keeper  of  the  royal  library  at  St.  James's,  of  whom 
Ward  gives  some  account,  but  there  is  nothing  very  in- 
teresting in  his  history.  ^ 

PECHANTRE  (Nicolas  de),  a  French  wit,  the  son  of 
a  surgeon  of  Toulouse,  where  he  was  born  in  1638,  wrote 
several  Latin  poems,  which  were  reckoned  good^  but  ap- 
plied himself  chiefly  to  the  poetry  of  his  native  country.. 

1  Biog.  Brit — Cole's  MS  Athense  in  Brit.  Museum.-— Ward's  Gresbam^Pro^ 
lessors.— Burnet's  Own  Time«.  '  - 


034  PECHANTRE- 

Having  been  three  times  honoured  with  the  laurel  at  the 
academy  of  the  Floral  games,  he  wrote  a.^  tragedy  called 
Gela,  which  was  acted,  in  1687,  with  applause,  in  conse- 
quence of  which  he  published  it,  with  a  dedication  to  the 
first  prince  of  the  blood.     He  wrote,  also  ^'Le  sacrifice 
d' Abraham  ;*'  and/^  Joseph  vendu  par  ses  Freres,'*  two  sin- 
gular subjects  for  tragedies ;  but  received  with  favour.  He 
produced  besides  a  tragedy  called  ^<  La  Mort  de  Neron,'* 
concerning  which  an  anecdote  is  related,  which  nearly 
coincides  with  one  which  is  current  here,  as  having  hap- 
pened to  our  dramatic  poet  Fletcher.     He  wrote  usually 
at  public-houses,  and  one  day  left  behind  him  a  paper, 
containing  his  plan  for  that  tragedy ;  in  which,  after  va- 
rious marks  and  abbreviations,  he  had  written  at  large, 
.^Mci  le  roi  sera  tu6  :''     Here  the  king  is  to  be.  killed. 
The  tavern-keeper,  conceiving  that  he  had  found  the  seeds 
of  a  plot,  gave  information  to  the  magistrate.    The  poet 
was  accordingly  taken  up ;  but  on  seeing  his  paper,  which 
he  had  missed,  in  the  hands  of  the  person  who  had  seized 
him,  exclaimed  eagerly,  *^  Ah !  there  it  is ;  the  very  scene 
which  I  had  planned  for  the  death  of  Nero."  With  this  clue, 
bis  innocence  was  easily  made  out,  and  he  was  discharged. 
Pecbantre  died  at  Paris  in  1709,  being  then  seventy-one;  : 
be  bad  exercised  the  profession  of  physic  for  some  time, 
till  he  quitted  it  for  the  more  arduous  task  of  cultivating 
the  drama.  ^ 

PECHMEJA  (John  de),  a  man  of  letters  in  France,  who 
was  for  some  time  professor  of  eloquence  in  the  royal  col- 
lege of  la  Fleche,  was  born  in  1741,  at  Villa  Franca  in 
Bouergue.  He  was  a  disinterested  scholar,  a  plain,  modest, 
and  virtuous  man.  His  eulogium  on  the  great'Colbert  re- 
ceived the  public  approbation  of ,  the  French  academy  in 
1773.  His  principsfl  fame  has  arisen  from  a  poem  (as  he 
calls  it)  in  prose,  named  <*  Telephus,"  in  twelve  books. 
It  was  published  in  octavo  in  1784,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
translated  into  English.  The  piece  is  well  written,  and 
contains,  among  other  things,  a  beautiful  picture  of  true 
friendship,  of  vibich  he  himself  afforded  a  noble  example. 
Pechmeja,  and  M.  du  Breuil,  an  eminent  physician  of  the 
time,  were  the  Py lades  and  Orestes  of  their  age.  The  for-* 
mer  bad  a  severe  illness  in  1776,  when  his  friend  flew  to 
bis  assistance,  and  from  that  time'  they  were  inseparable, 

J  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist 


P  E  C  H  M  E  J  A.  iis 

Itnd  had  every  thing  in  common.  A  person  once  inquired 
of  Pechmeja  what  income  he  possessed,  **  I  have/*  said  he^ 
**  1200  livres  a-year*"  Some  wonder  being  expressed  hoir 
he  could  subsist  on  so  little,  **  Ob/*  said  he,  '^  the  doctor 
has  plenty  more.^  The  doctor  died  first  of  a  contagious 
disorder,  through  which  his  friend  attended  him,  and  died 
only  twenty  days  after,  a  victim  to  the  strength  of  his  friend<» 
4ihip.  He  died  about  the  end  of  April  1785,  at  the  age  of 
only  forty-f6ur.  * 

PECK  (Francis),  a  learned  antiquary,  the  younger  son 
of  Robert  and  Elizabeth  Peck,  was  born  in  the  parish  of 
St,  John  the  Baptist,  at  Stamford,  in  Lincolnshire,  May  4, 
and  baptized  May  12,  1692.  His  mother^s  maiden  name 
was  Jephson.  It  does  not  appear  at  what  seminary  he  re* 
ceived  the  early  part  of  his  education  ;  but  it  was  probably 
at  the  grammar-school  of  his  nat,ive  town.  He  completed 
bis  studies  at  Trinity-college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took 
thedegreeof  B.A.  1715;  and  of  M.  A.  1727. 

The  first  work  discovered  of  his  writing  is  "To  34^^  aymi 
4)f  an  Exercise  on  the  Creation,  and  an  Hymn  to  the  Creator 
of  the  World  ;  written  in  the  express  words  of  the  Sacred 
Text ;  as  an  attempt  to  shew  the  Beauty  and  Sublimity  of 
Holy  Scripture,"  1716,  8vo.  This  was  followed  by  a  poem, 
entitled  ^^  Sighs  on  the  Death  of  Queen  Anne,"  published 
in  1719  ;  subjoined  to  which  are  three  poems,  viz.  1.  **  Pa- 
raphrase on  part  of  the  cxxxixth  Psalm."  2.  "The Choice," 
3.  "  Verses  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Cecil,  on  her  Birth-day, 
Nov.  23,  1717."  At  the  end  of  this  work  he  mentions,  as 
preparing  for  the  press,  *^  The  History  of  the  two  last 
31onths  of  King  Charles  I."  and  solicits  assistance;  but 
this  never  was  published.  He  also  mentions  a  poem  on 
Saul  and  Jonathan,  not  then  published.  During  his  resi* 
dence  at  the  university,  and  perhaps  in  the  early  part  of 
it,  he  wrote  a  comedy  called  the  "  Humours  of  the  Uni-  ' 
Ti^rsity  ;  or  the  Merry  Wives  of  Cambridge."  The  MS.  of 
this  comedy  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Octavius  Gilchrist, 
esq.  of  Stamford,  who  has  obliged  the  editor  with  a  tran- 
script of  the  preface  *• 

1  Diot  Hist. 

*  **  It  may  be  necessary  to  inform  no  pleasure  in  drawing  those  descrip- 

4be  reader,  that  the   university  cha-  tious  which  scandalize  ih«  place  of  my 

racters  m  this  play  are  of  those  despi*  education^  were  it  not  to  inform'  the 

cable  wretches  only  who  dishonour  a  libertine  that  a  college  is  sacred  in  a 

college,  and  are  generally  expelled  as  double  sense  $  to  learning,  and   what 

fK>on  as  discovered.    For  I  should  take  is  beyond  it^  to  religion. 


««6  PECK, 

In  August  1719)  hii  occurs  cerate  of  King's  Cliffy  in 
NorthamptQa^hirey  and  iq  1721  be  pfF<^red  to  the  world 
proposals  for  printing  tb^  history  find  antiquities  of  bis  P&*- 
tive  tgwn.  In  1723^  hq  obtaiped  tb^  rectory  of  Godeby 
Maurew^rd^  by  purcbaa^,  from  Sapimel  Lpwe^  esq.  who  ait 
tthat  time  was  Iprd  of  ibe  oianor,  and  patron  of  the  ad*- 
yow^n.  In  1727^  he  drew  up  a  poetical  description  of 
JSelvoir  and  its  neighbourhood^  which  is  printed  in  Mr« 
Kichols^s  History  of  Leicestershire;  and  in  i^at  year  bit 
first  considerable  work  appeared,  und^r  the  title  of  '^  Aca-> 
de^nia  Tertia  Anglicana ;  or,  The  Antiquarian  Annals  of. 
Stanford,  in  Lincoln,  Rutland,  and  Northampton  Shires; 
containing  the  History  of  the  University,  Monasteriea» 
Gilds,  Churches,  Chapels,  Hospitals,  and  Schools  there,'^ 
^c«  ornamented  with  XLI  plates ;  and  inscribed  to  John 
duke  of  Rutland)  in  an  elaborate  dedication,  which  con*^ 
tains  a  tolerably  complete  history  of  the  principal  events  of 
that  illustrious  family,  from  the  founder  of  it  at  vhe  Coni- 
quest.  This  publication  was  evidently  hastened  by  ^^An  Essay 
on  the  ancient  and  present  State  of  Stamford,  1726,*'  4to^ 
by  Francis  Hargrave,  who,  in  the  preface  to  his  pamphlet, 
mentions  a  difference  which  had  arisen  between  him  and 
Mr.  Peck,  because  his  publication  forestalled  that  intended 
by  the  latter.  Mr.  Peck  is  also  rather  roughly  treated,  oq 
account  of  a  small  work  he  had  formerly  printed,  entitled 
"  The  History  of  the  Stamford  Bull-running."  In  1729, 
be  printed  a  single  sheet,  containing,  ^*  Queries  concern^ 
ing  the  Natural  History  and  Antiquities  of  Leicestershire 
and  Rutland,"  which  were  afterwards  reprinted  in  174(X 
He  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
March  9,  1732,  and  in  that  year  he  published  the  first  vo» 
lume  of  ^^  Desiderata  Cu^osa;  or,  A  Collection  of  dii^ers 
scarce  and  curious  Pieces,  relating  chiefly  to  matters  of 

"  Wit  ceases  to  be  so  when  it  plays  "  The  u  Diversity  then  is  pot  intend.- 

upon  religion  or  good  manners,  and,  ed  to  be  affronted,  or  the  nobility  and 

in  my  opinion,  he  hath  but  an  awk-  gentry  discouraged  from  sending  tbeir 

ward  genius  «ho  can't  exert  himself  sons  thither  for  education.     The  satire 

without  affrouting  Ood,  or  the  most  is  just,  and  no  man  need  quarrel,  but 

Taluable  part  of  mankind.  be  who  knows  it  to  be.his  own  character. 

*<  Wherefore  the  good  and  virtuous  "  To  conclude,  1  was  incapable  of 

man  hath  no  reason  to  be  angry  with  drawing  a  man  of  fine  sense,  iu  so 

him  who-  shows  him  the  pictures  of  much  perfection  as  be  ia  frequently 

some  persons  who  dishonour  that  sa*  met  with  in  the  nnirersity ;  and  tiiera»> 

cred  place,  more  by  their  scandalous  fore  waved  that  graceful  part  for  fesMc 

behaviour  than  any  writer  can  by  the  of  doing  injustioe  to  it,  thro'  die  feiat»> 

discovery  of  shamefiil  truths,  or  de«  oess  of  my  strokes,  and  the  wdakocss 

scriptions  of^viMaioous  falsehoods.  of  my  descriptions."  ' 


.  PECK.  as» 

4  • 

English  Itistory;  consisting  of  choice  Tracts,  Menioirs, 
Letters,  Wills,  Epitaphs,  &c.  Transcribed,  many  of 
them,  from  the  originals  thenisielves,  and  the  rest  from  di->- 
ters  ancient  MS  Copies,  or  the  MS  Collations  of  sundry 
famous  Antiquaries,  and  other  eminent  Persons,  both  of  the 
hist  and  present  age  :  the  whole,  as  nearly  as  possible,  di-^ 
gested  into  order  of  time,  and  illustrated  with  ample  Notes^ 
Contents,  additional  Discourses^  and  a  complete  Index.'* 
This  volume  was  dedicated  to  lord  William  Manners  ;  and 
was  followed,  in  1735;  by  a  second  volume,  dedicated  to 
Dr.  Reynolds,  bishop  of  Lincoln.  There  being  only  250 
copies  of  these  volumes  printed,  they  soon  became  scarce 
and  high-priced,  and  were  reprinted  in  one  volume,  4to',  by 
subscription,  by  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Evans,  in  1779, 
without,  however,  any  improvements,  or  any  attempt, 
which  might  perhaps  have  been  dangerous  by  an  unskilful 
hand,  at  a  better  arrangement.  In  1735,  Mr.  Peck  printed, 
in  a  quarto  pamphlet,  **  A  complete  Catalogue  of  all  the 
Discourses  written  both  for  and  against  Popery,  in  the 
tinie  of  King  James  the  Second;  containing,  in  the  whole 
&n  account  of  four  hundred  and  fifty-seven  Books  and 
Pamphlets,  a  great  number  of  theth  not  mentioned  in  the 
three  former  Catalogues ;  with  references  after  each  title, 
for  the  more  speedy  finding  a  further  Account  of  the  said 
Discourses  arid  their  Authors  in  sundry  Writers,  and  an 
Alphabetical  List  of  the  Writers  on  each  side."  In  1736, 
he  obtained,  by  the  favour  of  bishop  Reynolds,  the  pre- 
bendal  stall  of  Marston  St.  Lawrence,  in  the  cathedral 
church  of  Lincoln.  In  1739,  he  v^as  the  editor  of  "Nine- 
leen  Letters  of  the  truly  reverend  and  learned  Henry 
Hammond,  D.  D.  (author  of  the  Annotations  on  the  New 
Testament,  &c.)  written  to  Mr.  Peter  Stainnough  and  Dr» 
Nathaniel  Angelo,  many  of  them  on  curious  subjects,** 
&c.  These  were  printed  from  the  originals,  communi- 
cated by  Mt.  Robert  Marsden,  archdeacon  of  Nottingham, 
and  Mr.  John  Worthington.  The  next  year,  1740,  pro- 
duced two  volumes  in  quarto;  one  of  them  entitled  "Me- 
moirs of  the  life  and  actions  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  as  de* 
livered  in  three  Panegyrics  of  him  written  in  Latin  ;  th6 
first,  as  said,  by  Don  Juan  Roderiguez  de  Saa  Meneses, 
Conde  de  PenguiaO,  the  Portugal  Ambassador;  the  se- 
cond, as  affirmed  by  a  certain  Jesuit,  the  lord  ambassador's 
Chaiplain ;  yet  both,  it  is  thought,  composed  by  Mr.  John 
Milton  (Latin  Secretary  to  Oliver  Cromtvell),  as  was  the 


i^» 


>  E  C  K . 


.third :  with  an  English  version  of  each.  The  whole  itltisf 
trated  with  a  large  Historical  Preface  -,  many  similar  pas-' 
sages  from  the  Paradise  Lost)  and  other  works  of  Mr.  John 
Milton,  and  Notes  from  the  best  historians.  To  all  which 
is  added,  a  Collection  of  divers  curious  Historical  Pieces 
relating  to  Cromwell,  and  a  great  number  of  other  remark-^ 
able  persons  (after  the  mariner  of  Desiderata  Curiosa,  voU 
1.  and  II.)"  The  other,  "  New  Memoirs  of  the  Life  an4 
Poetical  Works  of  Mr.  John  Milton ;  with,  first,  an  Exa-* 
mination  of  Milton^s  Style ;  and,  secondly.  Explanatory 
and  Critical  Notes  on  divers  passages  in  Milton  and  Shakr 
speare,  by  the  £lditor.  Thirdly,  Baptistes ;  a  sacred  Dra- 
matic Poem  in  Defence  o^  Liberty,  as  written  in  Latin  by 
Mr.  George  Buchanan,  translated  into  English  by  Mr^ 
John  Milton,  and  first  published  in  1641,  by  oirderofthe 
House  of  Commons.  Fourthly,  The  Parallel,  or  arch^ 
bishop  Laud  and  cardinal  Wolsey  compared,  a  vision,  by 
Milton.  Fifthly,  The  Legend  of  sir  Nicholas  Throckmor- 
ton, knt.  Chief  Butler  of  England,  who  died  of  poison, 
anno  1570,  an  Historical  Poem,  by  his  nephew  sir  Thomas 
Throckmorton,  knt.  Sixth,  Herod  the  Great>  by  the  Edi- 
tor. Seventh,  The  Resurrection,  a  Poem,  in  imitation  of 
Milton,  by  a  Friend.  And  eighth,  a  Discourse  on  tbg 
Harmony  of  the  Spheres,  by  Milton ;  with  Prefaces  and 
Notes."  Of  these  his  **  Explanatory  and  Critical  Notes 
on  divers  passages  of  Shakspeare"  seem  to  prove  that 
the  mode  of  illustrating  Shakspeare  by  extracts  from  con* 
temporary  writers,  was  not  entirely  reserved  for  the  mo- 
dern commentators  on  our  illustrious  Uard,  but  had  oc-f 
curred  to  Mr.  Peck.  The  worst  circuo^tance  respecting 
this  volume  is  the  portrait  of  Milton,  engraved  from  a 
painting  which  Peck  got  from  sir  John  Mere?  of  Kirkby-* 
Beler  in  Leicestershire.  He  was  not  a  little  proud  to  pos<^' 
sess  this  painting,  which  is  certainly  not  genuine  ;  and  what 
is  worse,  he  appears  to  have  known  that  it  was  not  genu-* 
ine.  Having  asked  Vertue  whether  he  thought  it  a  picture 
of  Milton,  and  Vertue  peremptorily  answering  in  the  ne^ 
gative.  Peck  replied,  "I'll  have  a  scraping  from  it,  how-* 
ever  :  and  let  posterity  settle  the  difference." 

In  1742,  Mr.  Peck  published  his  last  work :  ^^FourDis*^ 
courses,  viz.  1.  Of  Grace,  and  how  to  excite  it.  2.  Jesus 
Christ  the  true  Messiah,  proved  from  a  consideration  of 
bis  miracles  in  general.  3.  The  same  proved*  from  a  con^ 
jsideration  of  his  resurrection  in  particular.     4.  The  he^ 


PECK.  ^39 

cessitjr  and  advantage  of  good  laws  and  good  magistrates  : 
as  deiiyered   in  two  visitation  and   two  assize^sermons.'*" 
At  this  time  he  bad  in  contemplation  no  less  than  nine 
different  works;  but  whether  he  bad  not  met  with  encou- 
ragement  for  those  which  he  had  already  produced,  or 
whether  he  was  rendered  incapable  of  executing  themb^ 
reason  of  his  declining  health,  is  uncertain  ;  none  of  them^ 
however,  ever  were  made  public.     He  concluded  a  labo* 
rious,  and  it  may  be  affirmed,  an  useful  life,  wholly  de- 
voted to  antiquarian  pursuits,  Aug.  13,  1743,  at  the  ao-e 
of  sixty<^one  years.  He  was  buried  in  the  church  of  Godeby^ 
with  a  Latin  inscription.     There  are  two  portraits  of  him  ; 
one^  in  his  *<  Memoirs  of  Milton  ;  the  other  prefixed  to  the 
second  edition  of  his  "  Desiderata  Curiosa,".  inscribed^ 
**  Francis  Peck,  A.  M.  natus  Stanfordias,  4  Maii,  mdcxcii.'* 
By  his  wife,  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Curtis  of  Stamford,  he  had 
two  sons,  Francis,  a  clergyman,  who  died  in  1749,  rector 
of  Gunby  in  Lincolnshire;  and  Thomas,  who  died  young; 
and  a  daughter,  Anne,  widow  (in  1794)  of  Mr.  John  SmaU 
ley,  farmer  at  Stroxton  in  Lincolnshire. 
.    The  greater  part  of  Mr.  Peck's  MSS.  became  the  pro- 
perty of  sir  Thomas  Cave,  bart.     Among  others,  he  pur- 
chased 5  vols,  in '  4to,  fairly  transcribed  for  the  press,  in 
Mr.  Peck's  own  neat  hand,  under  the  title  of  ^'  Monasticoit 
Anglicanunu''    These  volumes  were,  on  the  1 4th  of  May,r 
1779,  presented  to  the  British  Museum,   by  the  last  sir 
Thomas  Cave,  after  the  death  of  his  father,  who   twenty 
years  before  had  it  in  contemplation  to  bestow  them  on  that 
excellent  repository.     They  are  a  most  valuable  ^nd  almost 
inestimable  collection,  and  we  hope  will  not  be  neglected 
by'  the  editors  of  the  new  edition  of  Dugdale.     Mr.  Peck's 
4>ther  literary  projects  announced  in  the  preface  to  his 
"Desiderata,"  and  at  the  end  his  "  Memoirs  of  Cromwell,'* 
are,   1.  "Desiderata  Curiosa,"  vol.  IIL    Of.  this  Mr.  Ni- 
^bolfi  has  a  few  ttcattered  fragments.     2.  "  The  Annals  of 
i^Canford  continued."     3.  "  The  History  and  Antiquities 
of  the;  Town  and  Soke  of  Grantham,  in   Lincolnshire." 

4.  "The  Natural  History  and  Antiquities  of  Rutland." 

5.  **  The  Natural  History  and  Antiquities  of  Leicester* 
•hire."  The  ;  whole  of  Mr.  Peck's  MSS.  relative  to  this 
work,  were  purchased  by  sir  Thomas  CaVe,  in  1754,  whose 
grandson,  with  equal  liberality  and  propriety,  presented 
them  to  Mr.  Nichols  for  the  use  of  his  elaborate  history  ot 
that  county.     It  appears  from  one  of  Mr.  Peck's  MSS.  on 


UO  P  t  C  K. 

Ldcestershire,  that  he  meditated  a  ebaptef  on  appariticXfi^ 
in  which  he  cordially  believed.     6.  *^  The  Life  of  Mr.  Ni«^ 
chokia  Ferrar,  of  Little  Gtdding^  in  ihe  county  of  Hiin-f 
tittgdon,  gent,  oommonly  called  the  Protectant  St.  Nicho-^ 
}as,  and  the  pious  Mr.  George  Berber t*s  Spiritual  Brother^ 
done  from  original  MSS."  This  MS.  of  Ferrar  is novir  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  Gilchrist  of  Stamford^  before  meotioaed^ 
who  informs  us  that  there  is  nothing  in  it  beyond  wiiatoiay  ' 
be  found  in.  Peckard's  Life  of  Ferrar.     7.  **  The  Lives  of 
William  fiurton,  esq.  author  of  the  Antiquities  of  Leices-* 
tershire^  and  bis  brother  Robert  Burton,  B.  D.  stu^nt  of 
Christ-church,  and  rector  of  Seagrave,  in  Leicestershire, 
better  known  by  the  name  of  Democritusf  jun.**     Mr.  Ni-» 
cbols  had  also  the  whole  of  this  MS.  or  plan^  which  was 
merely  an  outline.     8.  "  New  Memoirs  of  the  Restoratidii 
of  King  Charles  the  Second  (which  may  be  considered  aisor 
as  an  Appendix  to  secretary  Thurloe's  Papers)>  containing 
the  copies  of  Two  Hundred  and  Forty*-six  Original  Letters 
and  Papers,  all  written  annis  1658,  i659y  amd  1660  (none 
of  them  ever  yet  printed).     The  whole  comtnu^MCated  by 
William  Cowper,  esq.  Clerk  of  the  Parliament."     In  1731^ 
Mr.  Peck  drew  up  a  curious  **  Account  of  the  Asshebys  and 
De  la  Launds,  owners  of  Blo^ham,  in  the  county  of  Lia^ 
coin,"  a  MS.  in  the  British  Museum.     Mr.  Gilchrist  has 
a  copy  of  Langbaine's  Lives,  carefully  intei'lined  by  him^ 
whence  it  should  seetti  that  he  meditated  aci  enlargemetit 
of  that  very  useful  volume.     Mr.  Peck  also  left  a  great 
many  MS  sermons,  some  of  which  are  in  the  possession  of 
the  same  gentleman,  who  has  obligingly  favQured  us  witb 
some  particulars  of  the  Stamford  antiquary.* 

PECKHAM  (John),  archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  thi 
reign  of  Edward  I.  was  born  in  the  county  of  Sudsex,  aboiA 
1240,  and  educated  in  the  monanery  at  Lew^  whence 
he  was  sent  to  Oxford,  and  became  a  minorite  friar.  Him 
name  occurs  in  the  registers  of  Merton-cdlege,  which  wa* 
founded  in  his  time,  but  not  with  suiBdient  precision  to 
enable  us  to  say  that  he  was  educated  there.  He  was^ 
however,  created  D.  D.  at  this  university,  and  read  publie 
lectures.  Pits  says  he  was  professor  of  divintly,  &nd  after- 
wards provincial  of  his  order  in  England.  H«  appears  X^ 
have  been  twi<se  at  Paris,  where  he  also  read  l<;ctures  wi^K 
great  applause.     He  went  from  Paris,   after  bis  seooiul 

■  •  a 

/  .4  .  ,  .  • 

^  Nichols's  L«icefitershire-^Bd  Bowj[«v.-— WartoD'tf  Miltoi^  f » 545*     ; 


PEC  K  H  A  M.  Wt 

vidty  to  Lyons,  where  he  obtained  a  canonry  in  the  ta* 
tfaedral,  which  Godwin  and.  Cave  inform  usvwas  held  with 
the  archbishopric  of  Caiiterbnry  for  two  centuries  after. 
Faller  says  it  was  a  convenient  half-way  house  between 
Canterbury  and  Rome.  He  then  went  to  Rome,  where 
the  pope  appointed  him  auditor  or  chief*  judge  of  his  pa* 
lace,  but  Leland  calls  the  office  which  the  pope  bestowed 
upon  him  that  df  Palatine  lecturer  or  reader,  **  lector,  ut 
vocant,  Palatinus.**  In  1278,  this  pope  consecrated  hint 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  on  Peckham's  agreeing  to  pay 
his.  holiness  the  sum  of  4000  marks,  which  there  is  some 
xeasoB  to  think  be  did  not  pay ;  at  least  it  is  certain  he 
was  so  slow  in  veikiitting  it,  that  the  pope  threatened  te 
excommunicate  kim.  -     , 

On  his  anivai  in  Snglaud,  he  summoned  a  convocation 
at  Lambeth,  reformed  various  abuses  iif  the  church,  and 
punished  several  of  the  clergy  for  holding  pluralities,  or 
for  being  ndn*residents;  nor  did  he  spare  the  laity,  of  what-* 
ever  rank^  if  found  guilty  of  incontinence.  In  1282  he 
went  1x1  person  to  the  prince  of  Wales,  then  at  Snowdon^ 
m  order  to  bring  about  a  reconciliation  between  him  and 
r  the  king  (Edward  I.)  but  was  unsuccessful,  and  therefore^ 
ivhen  on  his  return  he  passed  through  Oxford,  he  excom^ 
Bfiunicated^the  prince  and  his  followers.  He  died  at  Mort- 
lake,  in  1292,  and  was  buried  in  Canterbury  cathedral^ 
Bear  the  remains  of  St.  Thomas  a  Becket.  Godwin  repre* 
sents  him  as  a  man  of  great  state  and  outward  pomp,  but 
easily  accessible  and  liberal,  except  to  the  Jews,  whom  he 
persecuted  severely.  He  founded  a  college  at  Wingham^ 
ID  Kent,  which  at  the  dissoldtion  had  an  annual  revenue  of 
i  84/.     Wood,  in  his  *^  Annals,*'  makes  fiequent  mention  of 

I  ,  Peckham's  attention  to  the  interests  of  the  university  of 

I  Oxford;  and  in  some  of  his  regulations  he  showed  his  taste 

and  learning  in  censuring  certain  logical  and  grammatical 
absurdities  which  prevailed  in  the  schools,  and  appears  to 
have  always  promoted  discipline  and  good  morals.  Tan- 
ner enumerates  a  great  number  of  his  works  on  divinity, 
which  show  him  accomplished  in  all  the  learning  of  his  age. 
'  These  remain,  however,  in  manuscript,  in  our  different  ii« 

braries,  except  some  of  his  letters  published  by  Whartpn^ 
s^nd  his  statutes,  institutions,  &e.  in  the  ^' Concil.  Mag. 
Brit  et  Hib.  vol.  II."  Two  only  of  his  woifks  were  pub- 
lished, separately,  and  often  reprinted;  viz.  hb  '*  Collec-* 
ianea  Bibliorum  libri  quinque,"  Colon.  l^iS,  1691 '^  Paris, 
Vol.  XXIV.  R 


242  P  E  t!  Q:  U  E  T- 

15  \4  ;:ancl  bU.^VPer^p^ctiva  Comiminis,"  Venice,  1504  j 
Colon.   1592,.  Norioib,  1542,  and  Paris,  1556,  4tQ.^ 
.  PECOCK.    See  PEACOCK- 

PECQUET  (John),  a  learned  anatomist,  and  a  natire 
of  Dieppe,  a  considerable  author  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, has  rendered  bis  name  famous  by  his  discovery  of 
the  tborticic  duct,  and  the  receptacle  of  the  chyle ;  with 
wbicb,  however,  some  alledge  that  Bartbolomeus  Eusta* 
Hcbius  was  acquainted  before  him.     But  tfae  world  is  obliged 
to  Pecquet  for  shelving,  beyond  $iU  contradiction,  that  the 
lacteal  vessels  convey  the  chyle  tp  this  receptacle  ;  and  for 
proving  that  il|  is^  thence  carried,  by  particular  vessels, 
through  the  thorax,  almost  as  high  as  the  left  isboulder, 
and  there  thrown  into  the  left  subclavian  vein,  and  so  di- 
rectly carried  to  the  heart.     He  died  at  Paris,  in  February 
1674.    The  work  in  which  be  published  the  discovery  was: 
entitled  ^*  Experimenta  nova  Anatpmica,  quibus  incogni- 
tum  bactenus  Chyli  Receptaculum,  et  ab  eo  per  Thoracem 
in  Ramos  usque  subclavios  Vasa  lactea  delegnntur ;''  to 
which  was  subjoined  a  dissertation,  *^  De  Circulatione  San* 
guinis  et  Chyli  Motu,"   1651.     It  was  reprinted  in  165-4, 
together  with'  an  essay  **  De  Thoracis  lacteb,''  in  answer 
to  Riolan  ;  and  many  subsequent  editions  have  appeared.* 
PEDRUSI,  or  PEDRUZZI   (Paul),  a  learned  anti- 
quary, was  born  of  a  noble  family  at  Mantua,  in  1 646..  He 
entered  himself  among  the  Jesuits,    and  became  distirirt 
guished  for  his  deep  knowledge  of  history  and  antiquities. 
His  private  character  too  was  such  as  made  him  beloved  bj^ 
every  person  who  knew  him.,    He  was  chosen  by  Rannuncio, 
duke  of  Parma,  to  arrange  bis  rich  and  curious  cabinet  of 
medals,  of  which,  in  1694,  he  began  to  publish  an  account 
under  the  title  of  "  I  Csesari  in  oro  raccoiti  nel  Farnese 
Musseo  o  publicati  colle  loro  congrue  iiiterpretazioni  ;'*  and 
be  continued  his  labours  till  his  death,  Jan.  20,  1721.   This 
work,  in  its  complete  form,  consists  of  ten  vols,  folio,  and 
bears  the  title  of  ^<  Museo  Farnese ;''  but  is  not  held  in  so 
much  estimation  on  the  continent  as  to  bear  a  high  price. '^  : 
PEELE  (George),  an  English  poet,  wbp  flourished  in 
the  reijgn  of  queen  Elizabeth,  was  a  native  of  Devonshire 
He  was  first  educated  at  Broadgate^s  Hall,  but  was  some 
time  afterwards  made  a  student  of  Christ  Church  college, 
Oxford,  about  1573,  where,  after  going  tbcough  all  the 

*  Tanner. — Cave," — Whiirton's  Anglia  Sacra. — Archaeologia,  vol.  X. 

•  £loy,-*Di6t.  Hiat  de  Medicine.  »  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist» 


P  E  E  L  E.  24i 

•  »  t 

several  forms  of  logic  and  philosophy,  and  taking  all  the 
necessary  steps,  he  was  admitted  to  his  master  of  arts  degree 
in  1570.  After  this  it  appears  that  he  removed  to  London, 
became  the  city  poet,  and  had  the  ordering  of  the  pageants. 
He  lived  on  the  Bank-side,  over  against  Black-friars,  and 
maintained  the  estimation  in  his  poetical  capacity  which  he 
had  acquired  at  the  university,  which  seems  to  have  been 
of  no  inconsiderable  Vank.  He  was  a  good  pastoral  poet ; 
and  Wood  informs  us  that  his  plays  were  not  only  often 
acted  with  great  applause  in  his  life-time,  but  did  also 
endure  reading,  with  due  commendation,  many  years  after 
his  death*  He  speaks  of  him,  however,  as  a  more  volu-** 
minous  writer  in  that  way  than  he  appears  to  have  beet)^' 
mentioning  his  dramatic  pieces  by  the  distinction  of  tra- 
gedies anil  comedies,  and  has  given  us  a  list  of  those  which 
be  says  he  had  seen  ;  but  in  this  he  must  have  made  some 
mistake,  as  he  has  divided  the  several  incidents  in  one  of 
them,  namely,  his  "  Edward  I.'*  in  such  manner  as  to 
make  the  "  Life  of  Lleweliirt,"  and  the  "  Sinking  of  Queen 
Eleanor,''  two  detached  and  separate  pieces  of  themselves; 
the  error  of  which  will  be  seen  in  the  perusal  of  the  whole 
title  of  this  play.  He  moreover  tells  us,  that  the  last* 
mentioned  piece,  together  with  a  ballad  on  the  same  sub- 
ject, was,  in  his  time,  usually  sold  by  the  common  ballad- 
mongers.  The  real  titles  of  the  plays  written  by  this 
author,  of  which  five  only  are  known,  are,  L  **  The  Arraign- 
ment of  Paris,"  1584,  4to.  2.  *'  Edward  the  First,  1593," 
4to.  3.  "  King  David  and  Fair  Bethsabe,"  1599,  4to.  4. 
"  The  Turkish  Mahomet  and  Hyren  the  Fair  Greek.'*  5, 
**  The  Old  Wives  Tale,"  a  comedy,  1595,  4to. 
\  Wood  and  Winstanley,  misguided  by  former  cataloguesi 
have  also  attributed  to  him  another  tragedy,  called  **  AW 
pbonsus,'  emperor  of  Germany."  But  this,  Langbaine 
assures  us,  was  written  by  Chapman,  he  himself  having  th« 
play  in  his  possession,  with  that  author's  name  to  it. 
About  1593  Peele  seems  to  have  been  taken  into  the  pa- 
tronage of  the  earl  of  Northumberland,  to  whom  be  dedi- 
cated in  that  year,  **  The  Honour  of  the  Garter,  a  poem 
gratulatorie,  the  Firstling,  consecrated  to  his  noble  name.** 
He  was  almost  as  famous  for  his  tricks  and  merry  pranks  as 
Scoggau,  Skelton,  or  Dick  Tarleton;  and  as.  there  are 
books  of  theirs  in  print,  so  there  is  one  of  bis  called 
^*  Merrie  conceited  Jests  of  George  Peele,  gent,  sometime 
student  in  Oxford;  wherein  is  shewed  the  course  of  bia 

R  3      ' 


94^  !^  E  £  L  E; 

life,  how  lie  lived/*  &c.  1627,  4to«  These  jesU,  as  tbey 
«re  called^  might  with  more  propriety  be  termed  the  tricks 
of  a  shanper.  Peele  died  before  15^8,  of  the  coiisequence» 
of  his  debaucheries*  Oldys  says  he  left  behind  htm  a  wife 
and  a  daughter.  He  seems  to  have  been  a  person  of  a 
very  irregular  life ;  and  Mr.  Steevens,  with  great  proba- 
bility, supposes,  that  the  character  of  George  Pieboard,  in 
VThlft  Puritan,**  was  de#igaed  as  a,  representative  of  George 
l^eelQ.  8eei  a>  note  on  that  cpqi^ily^  as  publ^hed  by  VU^ 
li^aloaeJ    ?  -        .  .. 

P£GQ£  (8AMtJSL},,an'emio€tntaj^d.|abpriousaotiqQaryy 
descended. fifom  aa , ancient  family  in.  Derbyshire,  was  the 
son  of  Christopher  Peigg^  a  wpolieu-dir^per,  and  was  bom 
at  Che;$'terfield»  Nov.  j»,  1704*  He  was  Emitted  a  peo«- 
sipner  of  Sl,^ John's  cc^lege,  XanU)iridge,  May  20,  1722^ 
and  in  Novembi^rMV^as  ^elected.  a  schQlar.itpoD  Lupton's 
finindalion.  In  Jan.  1 725  he  took  bis  degree  of  B.  A.  and 
in  Mar(;h;172l$  was,el^te.4  U>t  a  fellowsdiip,.  wbiob  he^  did 
00^  bold  long,  owing^tQ  a-singular  circumstaupe.  His  feU 
low ;  competitor,  was  Mr^  Michael  Bui^ton,  whp  bad.th^ 
supeiior  righjt  as  being  a-k|in  jto  the.  fpwder  of  tb^  fellow 
ship,  hut  this  cjaimwaa-set  ailid^,  p\ying  to  his  b^ing  de- 
ficient in.liteiratMre.  He  now  artfqlly  applied,  to  the  coli^ 
l^ge  ibr  ,a  testimp^Qial,  that  b^  might  receive  orders,  and 
vndfertaE;^  some  cure  ia  tbc^  vicinity  of  Cambridge  ;,and  thia 
hwif^  unadvisedly. granted,  h^  immediately  Appealed:  ta 
the  visitor  {Dr.Tbov^as  Greene,  bishop  of  Ely),  represent- 
ing tbi|t,  as.  the  college  had,  by  the  testimonial,  thought 
h|.m  qualified  for  prdination^.  it  could,  not,  injustice,  defsm 
him  unworthy  of  becoming  a  fellow  of « the.  society.  Tha 
9Ptisequei;i.ce^was,.tba|;  the  visitor  found  .hims^elf  relnctantly 
obliged  to  ^jept  Mr.Pegg^  and  Burton  took  pos$es$ioo,  o.f 
%\j^  fellov^ship*.  The  visitor,  however,  recomm^nfled  Mx* 
^^gg^  in  sapb  a  manpier  to  the  muster  and  seniors  of  the 
college,  that  h^  was  .from  that,  time  coi^sider^  as(an  bo^ 
oorary  member  pf  the  bpdy  of  f<ello;is;s  {(anyufim  fiocius)^  and 
kept  his  seat  ^t  their  table  and  in  the  (^ba,pi^l,  .b^ing  placed 
la. the  siti^atioq^.of  a  f/ellawncommoner.  .Feeling, yiet  more 
the  indignity  of  i;h€^  trick i^layed  upon  tb^<n.by  Qurton,  thejf 
^bose  /Mr.  Pe^ge  tp,a  Platt-f^Howship  in  ,17;2^^,  ... 
:  plassiqarcriticiaip.  being  onje  of  his^  earliest  studies,  itia 
fought  that  he  bad  before  this  time  meditated^  )an  editioQ 

>  }Vtog.  Dram.— Warton's  HJit  o^  Pbistrjr. — Atb.  6x.  vtfK  I.  new  e<li 
tUrkUker«nfei;'ran.'4i:^»QdUi.  <    • 


P  E  G  G  K.  ir4* 

t>f  Xeaopbdn's  "  df  ropeedia^*  antl  ^*  Anafcasis/*  ifrttm  a  cal- 
lation  of  thera  withf  the  DaportMS;  in  theilibrjify  bf  Ettort, 
to  convince  the  world  that  he  had  not  been  unjustJy  pre- 
ferred to  Burton  ;  biit  this  undertaking  was  pr6bably  pre*, 
vented  by  the  appearance  of  Hutcbinson^s  edition.  HaV- 
ing  t&ken  the  degree  of  M,  A.  in  July  1729,  he  was  or- 
dained deacon  in  December,  and  prieistin  February  follow* 
ing,  on  both  occasions  by  Hr.  Baker,  bishop  of  Norwich. 
His  first  clerical  employnyent  \vks  accurate  to  the  ReV.  Dr. 
John  Lyncb,  at  Sandwich,  in  Kem.  This  he  held  fr^m 
Lady  Day  1730,  to  Midsummer  1731,  when 'he'  removed 
to  Bishopsbour^ne,  another  living  belongiiijrito  Dr.  Lyn«b, 
who  at  the  end  of  the  same  year  procured  fof  him  th^  liv* 
ing  of  Gddmersham.  ,  •    ' 

Being  now  possessed  of  ai  living,  and  of  'some  indepencK 
cnt  personal  property  iirherited  from  his  mother,-  be  ihar* 
ried,  in  April  1732,  miss  Anne  Clarke,  the  only  daughter 
of  Benjamin  Clarke,  esq.  6f  Stanley,  near  Wafcefidd^  in 
Yorkshire.  While  he  resided  in  Kent,  which  was  for  th^ 
space  of  twenty  years,  he  made  hifnself  universally  ac* 
ceptable  by  his  general  knowledge,  his  agreeable  conver- 
sation, and  his  vivacity.  Having  an  early  propensity  to  the 
study  of  antiquities  as  well  as  of  the  classics,  he  here  laid 
the  foundation  of  what  in  time  beeame  a  consriderabie  cot« 
lection  of  books,  and  his  cabinet  of  coins  grew  in  propor^ 
tion  ;  by  which  two  assemblages,  so  scarce  among  country 
gentlemen  in  genera;!,  be  was  qualiBed  to  pursue  those 
collateral  studies,  without  neglecting  bis  'parochial  duties, 
to  which  he  was  always  assiduously  attentive!  Here,  bow- 
ever,  the  p'lacid  course  of  his  life  was  irtterrapted  bythe 
deatth  of  Mrs.  Pegge,  whom  he  lamented  Vrith  unfeigned 
sorrow;  and  now » meditated  on  some  lAode  of  removing 
feimself,  without  disadvantage,  to  his  native  country,  either 
by  obtaininfg  a  preferment  tenable  with  bis  present  vicarage, 
or  by  exchanging  this  for  an  equivalent.  -  Having  been  in«- 
doced  to  reside  for  sometime  at  Surrenden,  to  superintend 
the*  edutatidti  'of  Sir  Edward  'Dering*s  son,  that  baroneC 
obtained  for  him  the  perpetual  curacy  of  Brampton,  near 
Chesterfield,  in  the  gift  of  the  dean  of  Lincoln ;  but  the 
parishioners  insisting  th^t  they  had  a  right  to  the  presenta- 
tion, law  proceedings  took  place,  before  the  termination^ 
of  which  in  favour  of  the  dean  of  Lincoln,  Mr.  Pegge  was 
presented  by  the  new  dean  of  Lincoln,  Dr.  George,  totlm 
lectofy  of  Whittington,  near  Chesterfield.    He  way  ao« 


U6  .P  E  G  G  E. 

cordingly  inducted  Nov.  11,  1751,  and  resided  here  up- 
wards of  forty-four  years  without  interruption.  About  a 
fortnight  after,  by  the  interest  of  his  friend  sir  Edward 
J)ering  with  the  duke  of  Devonshire,  he  was  inducted  into 
the  rectory  of  Brtnhill,  or  Brindle,  in  Lancashire,  on  which 
be  resigned  Godmersham.  Sir  Edward  also  obtained  for 
bim  in  the  same  year  a  scarf  from  the  marquis  of  Harting- 
ton  (afterwards  the  fourth  duke  of  Devonshire)  who  was. 
then  called  up  to  the  house  of  peers  by  the  title  of  baron 
Cavendish  of  Hardwick.  In  1758  Mr.  Pegge  was  enabled^ 
by  the  acquiescence  of  the  duke  of  Devonshire,  to  ex- 
change Brinhill  for  Heath,  alias  Lown,  which  lies  within 
§even  miles  of  Wbittington  ;  a  very  commodious  measure, 
as  it  brouglit  his  parochial  preferments  within  a  smaller 
distance  of  each  other.  The 'vicarage  of  Heath  he  held  till 
his  death.  His  other  preferments  were,  in  1765,  the  per- 
petual curacy  of  Wingerworth  ;  the  prebend  of  Bobenhull, 
in  the  church  of  Lichfield,  in  1757;  the  living  of  Wbit- 
tington in  Staffordshire,  in  1763 ;  and  the  prebend  of  Loutb^ 
in  Lincoln  church,  in  1772.  Towards  the  close  of  his  life 
)ie  declined  accepting  a  residentiaryship  in  the  church  of 
Lichfield,  being  too  old  to  endure,  with  tolerable  conve- 
"nience,  a  removal  from  time  to  time.  His  chief  patron 
^as  archbishop  Cornwallis,  but  he  bad  an  admirer,  if  liot  a 
patron,  in.  every  dignitary  of  the  church  who  knew  him , 
and  his  protracted  life,  and  his  frequent  and  almost  unin- 
terrupted literary  labours,  made  him  very  generally  known. 
In  1791,  whet)  on  a  visit  to  his  grandson,  sir  Christopher 
Pegge,  of  Oxford,  he  was  created  LL.  D.  by  that  univer- 
sity. He  died,  after  a  fortnight's  illness,  Feb.  14,  17 96, 
in  the  ninety-second  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried,  ac- 
cording to  bis  own  desire,  in  the  chancel  of  th^  church  of 
Whittington,  near  Chesterfield,  where  his  son  placed  a 
mural  tablet  of  bl^ck  marble^  over  the  east  window,  viith 
a  shprt  inscription. 
'    Dr.  Pegge's  manners  were  those  of  a  gentleitian  of  libe- 

,  r^l  education,  who  had  seen  much  of  the  world,  and  bad 
formed  them  upon  the  best  models  within  his  observation. 
Haying  in  bis  early  years  lived  in  free  intercourse  with 

,  many  of  the. principal  and  best-bred  gentry  in  various  parts 
of  Kent,  he  ev^r  after  preserved  the  same  attention,  by 
associating  with  superior  company,  ^nd  forming  honoura« 
ble  attachments.  In  his  avocations  from  reading  and  re« 
tiremei^t,  few  qien  cou(d  relax  with  npore  ease  and  cheeri\ 


P;  KG  G  R  J47 

fulness,  or  better  understood  the  desipcrt  in  loco:  and  as  he 
did  not  mix  in  business  of  a  public  nature,  he  appeared  to 
most  advantage  in  priTate  circles ;  for  he  possessed  an 
equanimity  which  obtained  the  esteem  of  his  friends,  and 
an  a£Fability  which  procured  the  respect  of  his  dependents. 
His  habits  of  life  were  such  as.  became  his  profession  and 
istation.  In  his  clerical  functions  be  was  exemplarily  cor- 
rect, performing  all  his  parochial  duties  himself,  until  the 
failure  of  his  eye-sight  rendered  an  assistant  necessary  ;  but 
tbat  did  not  happen  till  within  a  few  years  before  his  death. 
As  a  preacher,  his  discourses  from  the  pulpit  were  of  the 
didactic  and  exbortatory  kind,  appealing  to  the  under* 
standings  rather  than  to  the  passions  of  his  auditory,  by 
expounding  the  Holy  Scriptures  in  a  plain,  intelligible^ 
and  unaffected  manner.  Though  he  had  an  early  propen- 
sity to  the  study  of  antiquities,  he  never  indulged  himself 
much  in  it,  as  longas  more  essential  and  professional  oc^ 
cupations  had  a  claim  upon  him;  for  he  had  a  due  sense 
of  the  nature  and  importance  of  his  clerical  functions,  and 
had  studied  divinity  in  all  it^  branches  with  much  attention. 

As  an  antiquary,  by  which  character  chiefly  be  will 
hereafter  be.  known,  he  was  one  of  the  most  laborious  of 
bis  time.  He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries in  1751,  tbe  year  in  which  the  charter  of  incorpon 
ration  was  granted ;  and  when  their  "  Archaologia"  began 
tp'be  published,  he  contributed  upwards  of  fifty  meqDoirs^ 
many  of  which  are  of  considerable  length,  being  by  much 
the  greatest  number  hitherto  contributed  by  any  individual 
member  of  that  learned  body.  He  also  wrote  seven  curi- 
ous memoirs  for  the  "  Bibliotheca  Topographica  Brit."  and 
many  hundred  articles  in  the  Gentleman^s  Magazine  from 
the  year  1746  to  1795.  His  principal  signatijres  were  Paid 
Gemsege^  (Samuel  Pegge),  and  Tl  jRow,  (the  rector  of 
Whittingtpn),  and  sofmetimes  Z.  E,  the  final  letters  of  his 
name.  Numerous  as  these  articles  are,  there  is  scarcely 
one  of  them  w.hich  does  not  convey  some  curious  informa**- 
tion,  or  illustrate  some  doubtful  point  in  history,  classical 
criticism,  or  antiquities;  and  if  collected  together,  with 
some  kind. of  arrangement,  might  form  a  very  interesting 
;ind  amusing  volume,  or  volumes.  . 

His  independent  publications  on  numismatical,  antiqua*. 
rian,  and  biographical  subjects  wer^  also  very  numerous: 
i.  ^'  A  Series  of  Dissertations  on  some  elegant  and  v^ery 
ipiluable ,  Anglo- Saxon .  Repaains/?  )175$>  4to»     2k  VMe- 


U9  P  E  G  G  E. 

moirs  of  Rbger  de  Wesebam,  dean  of  Lineolii|  nher^ 
vards  bishop  of  Lichfield^  add  tbe  principal  fayou rite  of 
Robert  Grossetete,  bishop  of  Lincoln/^  1761|  4to.  3^ 
'<  An  Essay  on  the  Coins  of  Cunobelin :  in  an  epistle  to 
the  right  rev.  bishop  of  Cariide  (Dr.  Lf  ttelton),  president 
of  the  society  of  antiquaries,"  1766,  4to.  4.  "  An  assem- 
blage of  coins  fabricated  by  authority  of  the  archbishops  of 
Canterbury.  To  which  are  subjoined  two  Dissertations,'* 
1772,  4to.  5.  "  Fitz-Stephen's  Description  of  the  city  of 
London,''  &c.  1772,  4to.  6.  <«  The  Forme  of  Cury.  A 
roll  of  ancient  English  cookery,  compiled  about  the  yeat 
1390,  temp.  Rich.  II.  with  a  copious  index  and  glossary,** 
1780,  dvo.  The  original  of  this  curious  n>U  was  the  pro- 
perty of  the  late  Gustavos  Brander,  esq.  who  presented  it 
afterwards  to  the  British  Museum.  Prefixed  to  thJ0 
publication  is  his  portrait,  engraved  at  the  expence  of 
Mr.  Braivden  7.  ^'  Annates  Elise  de  Trickenham,  mo^ 
nachi  ordinis  Benedictini.  Ex  Bibliotheca.  Lamethana.'* 
To  which  is  added,  '<  Compendium  compertorum ;  eir 
bibliotheca  ducis  Devonise,"  17S9,  in  4to.  Both  parts 
of  this  publication  contain  copious  annotatioins  by  the 
editor.  The  former  was  communicated  by  Mr.  Nichols, 
to  whom  it  it  inscribed,  <<  ad  Johannem  Nicolsium,  eele- 
berrimum  typographum  ;"  and  the  latter  was  published  by^ 
permbsion  of  the  duke  of  Devonshire,  to  whom  it  is  dedi^ 
cated.  8.  <<  The  Life  of  Robert  Grossetete,  the  celebraUM 
bishop  of  Lincoln,"  1793,  4to.  This  has  very  justly  been 
considered  as  the  cktf^d^csuvre  of  the  author.  .  Seldom  has 
research  into  an  obscure  period  been  more  successful.  Jt 
is  a  valuable  addition  to  our  literary  history.  9.  ^^  An  his« 
torical  account  of  Beauchief  Abbey,  in  the  county  of 
Derby,  from  its  first  foundation  to  its  final  dissolotibfi,^^ 
1801,  4to.  10.  HAnonymiana;  or  Ten  centuries  of  ob* 
servations  on  various  authors  and  subjects,"  1809,  8vd^  a 
very  entertaining  assemblage  of  judicious  remarks  artd 
anecdotes.  It  is  needless  to  add  that  these  two  last  public 
cations  were  posthucnous. 

In  the  way  of  his  profession.  Dr.  Pegge  published,  in 
1739,;  a  pamphlet  on  a  controversy  exbited  by  Dr.  Sykes; 
entitled  ^<  The  Inquiry  into  the  meaning  of  Demoniacs  in 
the  New  Testament ;  in  a  Letter  to  the  author,"  8vo.  ^  He 
afterwards  published  two  occasional  sermons,  and  thr^e^ 
small  tracts  fof  the  use  of  bis  flock,  which  he  distributed 
among  them  gratis,  6u  the  subjects  of  coufirmatioRi  th# 


P  E  G  G  E-  U^ 

church  catecbisiDy  and  tbe'  Lord's  Prajeh  -TUe  late  I>iL 
Farmer  attriboted  to  Dr.  Pegge,  a  pamphlet  firinted  in 
1731,  and  entitled  ^^  Remarks  on  the  Miscellaneous  Obser-* 
vattons  upon  Authors  ancient  and  modern.  In  several  let^ 
ters  to  a  Friend.''  A  short  address  to  the  reader  says,  that 
**  These  letters  are  now  made  public,  in  order  to  stop  the 
career,  and  to  curb  the  insolence,  of  those  Goths  and 
Vandals  the  minor  critics  of  the  age,  the  Marklands,  the 
Wades,  and  the  Observators.^'  From  this  we  should  sup- 
pose tbe  work  to  be  ironical. 

Dr.  ]^egge  left  many  MSS.  a  considerable  part  of  which 
are  in  the  possession  of  his  grandson.  While  vicnr  of  God'^ 
mersbam,  lie  collected  a  good  deal  relative  to  the  college 
at  Wye,  in  that  neighbourhood,  which  he  thought  of  pnb^. 
lishing,  and  engraved  the  seal,  before  engraved  in  Lewis'^ 
seals.  He  had  *^  Extracts  from  the  rental  of  the  royal 
manor  of  Wye,  made  about  1430,  in  the  hands  of  Daniel 
earl  of  Winchelsea ;"  and  "  Copy  of  a  survey  and  tental 
of  the  coj^lege,  in  the  possession  of  sir  Windham  Knatdi-> 
bull,  1739."  He  .possessed  also  a  MS  ^^  Lexicon  Xeno^ 
pboaticum"  by  himself;  a  Greek  Le:tioon  ill  MS.;  aa 
*^  £nglidi  Historical  Dictionary,"  in  6  vols.  fol. ;  a  French 
and  Italian,  a  Latin,  a  British  and  Saxon  one^  in  oife  v6» 
lume  each ;  all  corrected  by  bis  notes ;  a  *^  Glossarium 
Generale  ;"  two  volumes  of  collections:  in  English  history ; 
collections  for  the  city  and  church  of  Lincoln,  now  in  Mr; 
Gough's  library  at  Oxford;  a  *^  Monasticon  Cantialium," 
2  vols,  folio;  and  various  other  MS  collections,  which  afford 
striking  proofs  of  unwearied  industry,  zeal,  and  judgment.* 

P£GGE  (Samuel),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in 
173 1.  He  studied  law,  and  became  a  barrister  of  the  Mid-** 
die  Temple ;  one  of  tbe  grooms  of  his  majesty^is  plrivy-cham«* 
ber,  and  one  of  the  esquires  of  the  king^s' household.  He 
was,  like  his  fatther,  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  Gentle- 
man^s  Magazine.  He  ^as  also  author  of  **  Curialia ;  or  an 
historical  acccnint  of  some  brahcfaai  of  the  Royal  Houses 
bold,'*  part  I,  1782  ^  part  II,  1784,  and  part  III,  17^1. 
He  had  been  several  years  engaged  in  preparing  the  re-i* 
maining  numbers  of  the  ^^  Curialia''  for  tbe  press ;  the  ma-r 
terials  for  which,  and  also  his  vei*y  amasing  *' Anecdotes 
of  the  English  Language,''  he  bequeathed  to  Mr.  Nichols, 
who  published  the  ^*  Anecdotes?'  in  1 803,  8vo,  a  second 
edition  in  18L4;  and  the  ibuith  and  fifth  numbers  of  tfair 

<  Life  by  hif  Son  ia  Gent.  M»f .  toI.  UCVl,«HiBd  in  Nicholi 'i  Bowyer. 


130  P  E  G  G  E- 

^^  Curialia*'  in  1806«  He  also  assisted  Mr.  Nichols  in 
publishing  his  father's  '^History  of  Beauchief  Abbey," 
and  wrote  bis  father's  life,  to  which  we  xhave  referred  in 
the  preceding  article.  He  died  May  22, 1800,  aged  sixty-* 
seven,  and  was  buried  on  the  west  side  of  Kensington 
church-yard.  By  his  first  wife,  he  had  one  son,  Christo- 
pher Pegge,  M.  D.  F.  R.  S.  knighted  in  1799,  and  now 
Tegius  professor  of  physic  at  Oxford. ' 

PEGUILON.     See  BEAUCAIRE. 

PEIRCE  (James),  an  eminent  dissenting  minister,  dis-r 
tinguished  for  his  zealous  defence  of  the  principles  of  non- 
conformity, and  a  no  less  zealous  latitudinarian  in  opinion, 
was  born  in  1673,  at  Wapping  in  London>  of' reputable 
parents.  By  his  mpther,  who  died  last,  when  he  was 
about  seven  y^ars  old,  he,  with  a  brother  and  sister,  both 
older  than  himself,  was  committed  to  Mr.  Matthew  Mead, 
the  famous  dissenting  minister  at  Stepney,  as  his  guardian, 
at  whose  house  he  lived  for  some  time  after  his  mother^s 
death,  and  was  taught  by  the  same  tutors  Mr.  P^^ad  kept 
for  his  own  sons.  He  was  afterwards,  by  Mr.  Mead's  direc« 
tion,  put  to  pther  grammar-schools,  and  at  last  sent  to 
Utrecht  in  Holland,  where  he  had  his  academical  institu- 
tion, and  studied  under  Witsius,  Leydecker,  Grsevius,  Leu^r 
den,  De  Vries,  and  Luyts,  and  was  well  known  to  the 
celebrated  Mr.  Hadrian  Reland,  who  was  then  his  fellow 
student,  and  afterwards  when  he  was  professor  corresponded 
with  Mr.  Peirce.  The  latter  part  of  his  time  abroad  Mr, 
Peirce  spent  at  Leydeh,  where  he  attended  Perizouius 
and  Noodt  especially,  hearing  Gronovius,  Mark  and  Span- 
heim,  occasionally ;  and  with  some  of  these  professors  in 
both  universities  be  afterwards  held  a  correspondence. 
After  he  had  spent  above  Ave  years  in  these  two  places,  he 
lived  privately  in  England,  for  some  time  at  London, 
among  his  relations,  and  for  some  time  at  Oxford,  where 
he  lodged  in  a  private  house,  and  frequented  the  Bodleian 
library.  After  this,  at  the  desire  of  his  friends,  he  prea9hed 
an  evening  lecture  on  Sundays  at  the  meeting-house  in 
Miles-lane^  London,  and  occasionally  in  other  places,  until 
he  settled  at  Cambridge,  where  he  was  treated  with  great 
respect  and  civility  by  many  gentlemen  of  the  university. 
In  1713  he  was  removed  to  a  congregation  at  Exeter, 
vvhere  he  continued  till  1718,  when  a  controversy  arising 
among  the  dissenters  about  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity^ 


P  E  I  R  C  Er  251 

ffom  which  some  of  them  were  at  this  time  departing, 
three  articles  wer^  proposed  to  him,  and  Mr.  Joseph  Hal- 
let,  senior,  another  dissenting  minister  in  Exeter,  in  order 
to  be  subscribed ;  which  both  of  them  refused,  and  were 
ejected  from  their  congregation.  After  this  a  new  meeting 
was  opejied  March  1^,  1613-9,  in  that  city,  of  which  Mr. 
Peirce  continued  minister  till  his  death,  which  happened 
March  30,  1726,  in  the  53cl  year  of  his  age.  His  funeral 
sermon  was  preached  April  the  3d  following  by  Mr.  Joseph 
Hallet,  jun.  and  printed  at  London,  1726,  in  8vo;  in 
which  he  was  restrained  by  Mr.  Peirce  himself  from  bestow* 
iug  amy  encomiums  on  him ;  but  Mr.  Hallet  observes  in  a 
letter,  that  **  he  was  a  man  of  the  strictest  virtue,  Exemplary 
piety,  and  great  learning ;  and  was  exceedingly  communis 
native  of  his  knbwledge.  He  would  condescend  to  con- 
verse on  subjects  of  learning  with  young  men,  in  whom  he 
found  any  thirst  after  useful  knowledge ;  and  in  his  dis-. 
^oursing  with  them  would  be  extremely  free,  and  treat 
them  as  if  they  had  been  his  equals  in  learning  and  years.'* 
•  His  works  have, been  divided  into  four  classes.  Under 
the  philosophical  class,  we  find  only  his  ^*  Exercitatio  Phi-^ 
losophica  de  Homoeomeria  Anaxagorea,''  Utrecht,  1692. 
3ut  be  was  more  voluminous  in  the  controversy  between 
the  church  of  England  and  the  dissenters.  Of  the  latter, 
he  has  been  esteemed, a  greaf:  champion.  In  their  defence 
be  published,  L  "  Eight  Letters  to  Dr.  Wells,"  London, 
1706  and  1707.  -  2.  *'  Consideration  on  the  sixth  Chaptec 
of  the  Abridgment  of  the  London. Cases,  relating  to  Bap- 
tism and  the  sign  of  the  Cross,"  Loiidoii,  1708.  3.  "  Vio- 
diciae  Eratrum  Dissentientium  in  AngliV  London,  1710, 
8vo.  4.  "An  Enquiry  into  the  present  duty  of  a  Low 
Churchman,"  London,  1711,  8vo.  ^.  "  Vindication  of  the^ 
I)issenters,"  London,  1717,  8vo.  6.  "A  Letter  to  Dr. 
Ben.net,  occasioned  by  bis  late  treatise  concerning  the 
Nonjurors'  Separation,"  &g.  London,  1717,  8vo.  7.  '*  Pre- 
face to  the  Presbyterians  not  chargeable  with  King  Charles's 
death,"  Exeter,  1717,  in  8vo.  8.  "Defence  of  the  Dis<^ 
senting  Ministry  and  Ordination,"  in  two  parts,  London, 
1718,  8vo.  9.  "  The  Dissenters'  Reasons  for  not  writing 
in  behalf  of  Persecution.  Designed  for  the  satisfaction  of 
Dr.  Snape,  in  a  letter  to  him,"  London,  1718,  8vo.  10. 
^^  Interest  of  th.e  Whigs  with  relation  to  the  Test- Act,'* 
I^ndon,  .1718,  8vo.  11.  ^^Reflections  on  Dean  Slier- 
Ipck's  Vindication  of  the   Co/poration  and   Test  Acts,'* 


fi52  P  E  I  R  C  E, 

London,  1718,  8vo.  12.  <*  Charge  of  misrepresentationi 
miantained  against  Dean  Sherlock/'  London,  1719,  8voc 
13.  ^<  Loyalty,  integrity,  and  ingenuity  of  High  Cbureh 
and  the  Dissenters  compared,*'  London,  1719,  8vo. — R6^ 
lative  to  his  controversy  at  Exeter,  which  produced  bin 
ejectment,  were  published  by  him,  1.  ^*  The  Case  of  the 
Ministers  ejected  at  Exon,''  London,  1719,  8va  2.  **  De-> 
fence  of  the  Case,''  London,  1719,  8vo.  3.  ^'Animadrer-* 
sions  on  the  true  Account  of  the  Proceedings  at  Salter's 
Hall:  with  a  Letter  to  Mr.  Eveleigh,"  London,  1719,  8vo» 
4.  **  A  Second  Letter  to  Mr.  Eveleigh,  in  answer  to  hk 
Sober  Reply,"  Exeter,  1719,  8vo.  5.  "  A  Letter  to  a 
Mibscribing  Minister  in  Defence  of  the  Animadversiolis/* 
&c.  London,  1719,  8vo.  ,6.  **  Remarks  upon  (be  Accouot 
^  what  was  transacted  in  the  assembly  at  Exon,"  London^ 

1719,  Bvo.  7.  "  An  Answer  to  Mr.  Enty's  Defence  of  tU^ 
Assembly,"  Lorrdon,  1719,  8yo.  8.  **The  Western  In- 
otiisition,"  London,  1 720, 8  vo.  9. "  The  Security  of  Truths 
manner  to  Mr.  Enty,"  London,  1721,  8vo.  10.  .V  Inqai-' 
Sftion-^bonesty  displayed,"'  London,  1722,  8vo. — On  the 
doctrine  of  the  Trinity  he  published,  1.  **  A  Letter  to  a 
Dissenter  in  Exeter,"  London,  1719,  8vo.  2.  <^  Plain 
Christianity  defended,"  in  four  parts,  London,  1719,  nw, 
9vo.  3.  **  Thirteen  Queries  propounded  to  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Walrond,  in  an  appendix  to  the  Innocent  yindicated,'* 
London,  1719,  8vo.  There  was  an  Answer  to  these  que^ 
ries  printed  in  1721,  under  the  title  of  *'  An  Answer  lo 
soiAe  Queries  printed  at  Exon,  relating  to  the  Arian  Con* 

? overly,"  and  ascribed  to  Dr.  Daniel  Waterlaod.  Mr. 
eirce  had  some  thoughts  of  writing  a  reply,  bnt  changing 
his  purpose,  Mr.  Joseph  Hallet,  jun.  wrote  a  defence  of 
them,  printed  at  London  in  1736^  8vo,  with  this  tide: 
*^  The  Truth  and  Importance  of  thfe  Scripture  Doctrine  of 
the  Trinity  and  Incarnation  demonstratM :  in  a  defence  of 
the  late  learned  Mr^  Peirce's  thilrteen  Queries^  and  a  Reply 

to  Dr.  W ^'s,  and  a  gentleman's  Answer  to  tbem,"  &g. 

4.  ^^Propositions  relating  to  tbe  ControVe^y  <5oncernuig 
the  Trinity,  in  a  Letter  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Enty,"  London^ 

1720,  8vo.  5.  '<  An  Answer  to  a  pamphlet,  entitled  Text« 
of  Holy  Scripture  compared,  &e."  London,  1721,  8va  6^ 
<<  A  Reply  to  Mr.  Enty's  late  piece,  entitled  Tmth  and 
Liberty  consistent,'^  &c.  London,  1721,  8vo.**-His  nsost 
valuable  works,  however,  are  bis  commentaries  on  the 
Scripture ;  L  <*  A  Paraphrase  and  Notes  on  the  Episde  of 


P  E  I  R  C  E.  253 

St.  Paul  to  tbe  Colossians.  With  an  Appendix  upon  Epbes^ 
iv.  8/'  London^  1725,  4to.  2.  *^  A  Paraphrase  and  Notes 
<m  the  Epistle  of  St.  Paul  to  the  Philippians/^  Lond.  1725^ 
4to.  3.  <<  A  Paraphrase  and  Notes  on  the  Epistle  to  the 
Hebrews/*  1727,  4to.  Theological:  1.  "  An  essay  in 
fiiTonr  of  giving  the  Epcharist  to  Children,'*  1728,  Svo* 
2.  '*  Fifteen  Sermons,  and  a  Scripture  Catechism,**  1728, 
«vo. » 

PEIRESC  (Nicolas  Claude  Fabri  p^),  a  very  learned 
Frenchman,    was  descended  from  an  ancient,  and  nobl^ 
family,  seated  originally  at  Pisa  in  Italy,  and  born  in  1580^ 
His  father,  Renaud  Fabri,  lord  of  Beaugensier,  sent  ^ioiL 
at  ten  years  of  age  to  Avignon,  where  he  spent  five  yeara 
on  his  classical  studies  in  the  Jesuits'  college,  and  wi^s  re«  ^ 
moved  to  Aix  in  1595,  for  the  study  of  philosophy.     In  the 
mean  time,  he  attended  the  proper  masters  for  ds^npip^ 
riding,  and  handling  arms,all  which  he  learned  to  perform  wijtb 
expertness,  but  rather  as  a  task,  than  a  pleasure,  for  even  at 
(bat  early  period,  he  esteemed  all  time  lost,  .that  was  not 
employed  on  literature.     It  was  during  this  period,  that  biy 
father  being  presented  with  a  medal  of  the  emperioi^  Ar- 
cadius,  which  was  found  at  Beaugensier,  Peiresc  beggp^l 
to  have  it :  and,  charmed  with  decyphering.  the  characters 
in  the  exergue,  and  reading  tbe  emperor^s  name«  in.  that 
transport  of  joy  be  carried  the  medal  to  bis  uncle ;  who  for 
his  encouragement  gave  him  two  more,  together  with  s^ome 
books  upon  that  subject.     This  incident  seems  ta  hs^ve  iied 
him  first. to  the  3tudy  of  antiquities,  for  which  he  became 
afterwafds  so  famous.    In  15^6,  he.fyassent  to  finish. bis 
course  of  philosophy  uqder  the  Jesuits  at  Tournoiu  vvhernl 
he  also  ati^died  mathematics  aqd  cosmography,.  Ira  being 
necessary  in  the  study  pf  history,  yet  all  this  without^  rer 
laxing  from  his  application  to  antiquity,  in  which  he  was 
much  assisted  b^  one  of  the  professors,  a  dcilful  medallist>i 
nor  from  the  study  of  belles  lettres  in  general.     So  .n^utb 
labour  and  attention,  often  protracted  .till  midnight,  conr 
•iderably  impaired  hi9  constitution,  which  was  not  origir 
lially  yery  strong.     In  1597,  his  uncle,  from  vjrbom  he  had 
gceat  expectations,    sen)t  him  to  Aix,  where  be  entered 
|ipoo  the  law ;  and  thp  following  year  be  pursued  the  same 
study  at  Avignon,  uqder  a  private  master,  whose  name  was 
]Peter David  ;  who,  being  well  skilled  likewise  in  antiqui- 

I  tMti9VT0X,jyi9tu  Mtgmn%  rol.  IL-^Gea.  Diet, 


854  P  E  I  R  E  S  C. 

ties,  was  not  sorry  to  find  bis  pupil  of  the  same  taste,  anq 
encouraged  him  in  this  study  as  well  as  that  of  the  law. 
Ghibertus  of  Naples,  also,  who  was  auditor  to  cardinal 
Aquaviva,  much  gratified  bis  favourite  propensity,  by  a 
display  of  various  rarities,  and  by  lending  him  Goltzius^s 
"  Treatise  upon  Coins."  He  also  recommended  a  visit  to 
Rome,  as  affording  more  complete  gratification  to  an  anti- 
quary jhan  any  part  of  Europe.  Accordingly,  his  under 
having  procured  a  proper  governor,  he  and  a  younger  bro- 
ther set  out  upon  that  tour,  in  Sept.  1599;  and  passing 
through  Florence,  Bologna,  Ferrara,  and  Venice,  he  fixed 
his  residence  at  PaduaL,  in  order  to  complete  his  course  of 
law.  He  could  not,  however,  resist  the  temptation  of  go- 
ing frequently  to  Venice,  where  he  formed  an  acquaint- 
ance with  the  most  distinguished  literati  there,  as  Sarpi, 
Molinus,  &c.  in  order  to  obtain  a  sight  of  every  thing  cu- 
rious in  that  famous  city.  Among  others,  he  was  particu- 
larly caressed  by  F.  Contarini,  procurator  of  St.  Mark,  who 
possessed  a  curious  cabinet  of  medals,  and  other  antiqui- 
ties, and  found  Peiresc  extremely  useful  and  expert  id 
explaining  the  Greek  inscriptions.  After  a  year's  stay  at 
Padua,  he  set  out  for  Rome,  and  arriving  there  in  OctI, 
1600,  passed  six  months  in  viewing  whatever  was  remark- 
able. After  Easter  he  gratified  the  same  curiosity  at  Na* 
pies,  and  then  returned  to  Padua  about  June.  He  now 
resumed  his  study  of  the  law;  and  at  the  same  time  ac- 
iquired  such  a  knowledge  of  Hebrew,  Samaritan,  Syriac, 
and  Arabic,  as  might  enable  him  to  interpret  the  inscrip- 
tions onr  the  Jewish  coins,  &c.  In  these  languages  he 
Availed  himself  of  the  assistance  of  the  rabbi  Solomon,  who 
was'  then  at  Padua.  His  taste  for  the  mathematics  was 
also  revived  in  consequence  of  his  acquaintance  with  Ga- 
lileo, whom  he  first  saw  at  the  house  of  Pinelli  at  Rome ; 
and  he  began  to  add  to  his  other  acquisitions  a  knowledge 
of  astronomy  and  natural  philosophy.  From  this  time  it 
was  said  that  ^^he  had  taken  the  fae)m  of  learning  into  hi» 
hand,  and  begun  to  guide  the  commonwealth  of  letters." 

Having  now  spent  almost  three  years  in  Italy,  he  re- 
turned to  France  in  the  end  of  1602,  and  arrived  at  Mont- 
pellier  in  July,  where  he  heard  the  law  lectures  of  Julius 
Pacins,  until  he  returned  to  Aix,  about  the  end  of  1 603, 
at  the  earnest  request  of  his  uncle,  who  having  resigned  to 
him  his  senatorial  dignity,  had,  ever  since  the  beginning 
of  the  year,  laboured  to  get  the  king's  patent.    The  de- 


P  E  I  R  E  S  C.  »5ir 

gree  of  doctor  of  law  being  a  necessary  qualification  for 
that  dignity,  Peiresc  kept  the  usual  exercise,  and  took 
that  degree  Jan.  IS,  1604  ;  on  which  occasion  he  made  a 
most  learned  s()eech,  upon  the  origin  and  antiquity  of  the 
doctoral  ornaments. 

In  1605,  he  accompanied  Du  Vair,  first  president  of  the 
senate  at  Aix,  who  was  very  fond  of  him,  to  Paris ;  whence^ 
having  visited  every  thing  curious,  he  crossed  the  water, 
in  company  with  the  French  king's  ambassador,  in  1606, 
to  England.  Here  he  was  very  graciously  received  by 
kipg  James  ;  and  having  seen  Oxford,  and  visited  Camden, 
sir  Robert  Cotton,  sir  Henry  Saville,  and  other  learned 
men,  be  passed  over  to  Holland ;  and  after  visiting  the 
several  towns  and  universities,  with  the  literati  in  each,  he 
went  through  Antwerp  to  Brussels,  and  thence  back  to 
Paris,  returning  home  in  Sept.  l606,  on  account  of  some 
family  affairs. 

Soon  after  this,  he  made  a  purchase  of  the  barony  of 
Rians,  which  he  completed  in  1607  ;  and  in  the  same  year, 
at  the  solicitation  of  his  uncle,  having  approved  himself 
before  that  assembly,  he  was  received  a  senator  on  the  1st 
of  July.  In  the  following  year  his  uncle  died.  In  1616, 
he  attended  Du  Vair  to  Paris;  where,  in  1618,  he  pro- 
cured a  faithful  copy,  and  published  a  second  edition  of 
**  The  ^cts  of  the  Monastery  of  Maren  in  Switzerland.'* 
This  was  in  defence  of  the  royal  line  of  France  against  the 
title  of  the  Austrian  family  to  the  French  crown  by  right  of 
succession ;  and,  upon  this,  he  was  nominated  the  same- 
year^  by  Louis  XIII.  abbot  of  Guistres  in  Guienne.  He 
rdntained  in  France  till  1623,  when,  upon  a  message  from 
hii  father,  now  grown  old  and  sickly,  he  left  Paris,  and 
arrived  at  Aix  in  October.  Not  long  after  he  presented  to 
the  court  a  patent  from  the  king,  permitting  him  to  con*- 
tiquein  the  function  of  his  ancient  dignity,  and  to  exer- 
cise the  office  of  a  secular  dr  lay  person,  notwithstanding 
that,  being  an  abbot,  be  had  assumed,  the  person  of  a 
churchman.  The  court  of  parliament^  not  assenting  to 
this,  decreed  unanimously,  that,  being  already  admitted 
into  the  first  rank^  he  shoyld  abide  perpetually  in  it;  not 
returning,  as  the  custom  of  the  court  was,  to  the  inferior 
auditory,,  in  which  trials  are  usually  had  of  criminal  cases. 
He.  obtaittctd  also,  a  rescript  from  the  pope,  to  license  (lim 
t<^  be  present  at  the  judgment  of  capital  causes,  as  even  in 
the  higher  auditory  some  select  cases  of  that  nature  w^re* 


256  P  E  I  R  E  S  C. 

eustomarily  heard :  but  he  never  made  use  of  this  lioeneei 
always  departing  when  they  came  to  rote,  without  voting 
himself*  In  1627,  be  prevailed  with  the  archbishop  of 
Aix,  to  establish  a  post  thence  to  Lyons,  and  so  to  Paris 
and  all  Europe ;  by  which  the  correspondence  that  he 
constantly  held  with  the  literati  every  where,  was  much 
facilitated.  In  1629,  be  began  to  be  much  tormented  ^ith 
complaints  ineident  to  a  sedentar}'  life ;  and,  in. 1631,  liav* 
ing  ooQ^leted.  the  marriage  .of  .his  nephew  Claude  with 
Margaret  D'Alries,  a  noble  lady  of  the  county  of  Avignon, 
he  bestowed  upon  him  the  barony  of  Rians,  together  with 
a  grant  of  his  senatorial  dignity,  only  r^erviug  the  func- 
tioD  to  himself  for  three;  years.  The  parliament  pot  agree* 
ing  jbo  this,  he  pt'ocured,  in  1635,  letters^patent  from  the 
king,  to  be  reistored,  and  to  exercise  the  oflSce  for  five 
years  longer,  which  he  did  not  outlive,  for^  being  seized 
June  1637,  with  a  fever,  he  died,  on  the  24th  of  that  month, 
in  his  fifty-seventh  year. 

A  very  honourable  funeral  was  provided  for  him  by  his 
nephew.  Claude,  in  the  absence  of  his  brother,  who  was 
then  at  Paris ;  but  who,  returning  shortly  to  Province, 
hastened  to  perform  the  funeral  rites,  and  to  be  present  at 
the.  obsequies.  He  also  procured  a  blo<:k  of  marble  from 
Genoa,  from  which  a  monument  was  made  and  erected  to 
bis  memory,  with  an  epitaph  by  Rigault.  As  he  had  been 
chosen  in  his  life-time  a  member  of  the  academy  of  the 
Humoristi  at  Rome,  his  eulogium  was  pronounced  by  John 
James  Bouchier,  of  that  learned  socieiy,  in  the  presence 
of  cardinal  Barberini,  his  brother  Autonio,  cardinal  Benti- 
VQglio,  and  several  other  cardinals,  and  such  a  multitude 
of  celebrated  and  learned  men,  that  the  hall  was  scarce 
able  io.cootain  them.  Many  copies  of' verses,  in  Italian, 
Latin,,  and  Greeks  were  recited;  which  were  afterwards' 
printed  together,  with  a  collection  of  funeral  elegiest  in 
forty  languages,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Panglossia.*'  Peiresc 
was,  ill  his  person,  of  a  middle  size^  and  of  a  thin  habit ; 
his  forehead  large,  and  his  eyes  grey ;  a  little  hawk-nosed, 
bis  checks  tempered  withered ;  the  hair  of  his  head  yellow, 
as  also  his  beard,  which  he  used  to  wear  long ;  his  whole 
countenance  bearing  the  marks  of  uncommon  courtesy  and 
aflability.  In  his  diet  he  a£Eected  cleanliness^  and  in  all 
things  about  him  ;  but  nothing  superfluous  or  costly.  His 
clothes  were  suitable  to  his  dignity ;  yet  be  never  wore 
flUkt    la  like  manner,  the  rest  of  bis  house  was  adorned 


p  E  I  R  E  s  G  ayr 

liccoTding  to  bis  condition^  and  very  well  furnished.;  hvtt 
he  neglected  bis  own  chamber.  Insteaci  of  tapestry,  there 
bung  the  pictures  of  his  chief  friends  and  of  famous  men^ 
besides  innumerable  bundles  of  commentaries,  transcripts, 
notes,  collections  JFrom  books,  epistles,  and  such  like  papers* 
His  bed  was  exceeding  plain,  and  his  table  continually 
loaded  and  covered  with  papers,  books,  letters,  and  other 
things  3  as  also  all  the  seats  round  about,  and  the  greatest 
part  of  the  floor.  These  were  so  many  evidences  of  the 
turn  of  his  mind^  which  made  the  writer  of  his  eulogium 
compare  hiin  to  the  Roman  Atticds;  and  Bayle,  consider- 
ing his  universal  correspondence  and  general  assistance  to 
all  the  literati  in  Europe,  called  him  ^'  the  attorney-general 
of  the  literary  republic."  The  multiplicity  of  his  engage-, 
ments  prevented  him  from  finishing  any  considerable  wprk  ; 
but  he  left  behind  him  a  great  number  of  M3S.  oh  local 
history  and  antiquities,  mathematics  and  astronomy,  thia^ 
inedallic  science,  languages^  &c.  Of  the  writings  of  thig 
scholar  there  have  been  published  48  Italian  letters,  ad- 
dressed to  Paul  and  John  Baptist  Giialdo^  in  the  ^^  Lettero 
d'uomini  illustri;"  a  considerable  nurpber  of  letters  among 
those  of  Camden,  and  a  long  and  learned  dissertation  on 
an  ancient  tripod  found  at  Frejus.,  in  the  ^^  M6m.  de  Litei'a'i- 
ture  et  de  I'Histoire,"  by  Desaialets,  in  173 1.  It  is  re- 
markable>  that  though  Peiresc  bought  more  books  thaa 
any  nab  of  his  time,  yet  the  collection  which  he  left  was 
hot  large.  .  The  reason  was,  that  a^  last  as  he  purchased, 
be  kept  continually  making  presents  of  them  to  learned 
men  to  whom  he  knew  they  would  be  useful.  Biit  the  de- 
struction of  a  multitude  of  his  papers  after  his  death,  by 
feome  of  bis  near  relations,  is  mentioned  by  the  learned 
with  indignation  and  regret;  they  were  applied  to  the 
vile  uses  of  heating  the  oven  and  boiling  the  pot.  Gas-  , 
sendi,  another  ornament  of  Finance,  has  given  us  his  life  in 
detail,  in  elegant  Latin,  one  of  those  delightful  works, 
which  e;chibit  a  striking  likeness  of  a  great  and  good  man 
at  full  letigtb,  and  shew  every  feature  and  fold  of  the  dra- 
pery in  the  strongest  and  clearest  light.  ^ 

PELA^GIUS  (the  Heresiarch),  was  born  in  Great  Bri-  - 
tain  in  the  fourth  century,  and  is  said  to  have  been  abbot 
of  the  naopastery  of  Bangor.     His  real  name  is  said  to  be 

i  vita  i  Gassendo,  Ha|piie>  1655,  4to.<^Gen.  Dict/^Moreri.— Bungny'g  Lift 
•fOrotiut,  &c«  X 

Vol.  XXIV.  S 


^58  P  E  L  A  G  I  U  S. 

Morgan,  which  signifying  in  the  Celtic  languages  sea  bom, 
from  MdVy  sea,  and  gan  born,  was  translated  into  IliXayios^' 
i^  Latin  l^elagius.  For  the  greater  part  of  his  life,  he  was^ 
distinguished  among  his  brethren  both  for  piety  and  learn-" 
ing,  -but  towards  the  close  of  bis  life,  he  went  to  Rome,' 
and  began  to  teach  certain  doctrines  in  that  city  abotit  the 
year  400,  which  occasioned  no  small  disturbance  in  the 
church  He  absolutely  denied  all  original  sin,  which  he 
held  to  be  the  mere  intention  of  St.  Augustine  ;  and  taught^ 
that  men  are  entire  masters  of  their  actions,  and  perfectly; 
free  creatures;  in  opposition  to  all  predestination,  repro- 
bation, election,  &c.  He  owned,  indeed,  that  the  natural 
power  of  roan  nee  Jed  to  be  assisted  by  the  grace  of  God,- 
to  enable  him  to  work  out  his  own  saltation ;  but,  by  tfatd* 
grace,  he  only  meant  outward  assistance,  vis.  the  d6c- 
trineB  of  the  law,  and  of  the  gospel.  Though,  when  press*- 
ed  by  those  words  of  St.  Paul,  "  Deus  est  eniiln,  qui  opera-^ 
tur  in  nobis,'*  &c.  he  owiJed  that  it  is  God,  in  effect,  tbalf 
makes  us  will  what  is  good,  when  he  warns  and  excites  us^ 
by  the  greatness  of  the  glory  we  are  to  obtain,  and  by  the 
promises  of  rewards ;  when  he  mak^s  us  love  him  by  re^ 
dealing  his  wisdom,  &c.  These  ar^  Pelagius^s  own  words, 
as  cited  by  St.  Augustine*;  who  confutes  him,  and  shears, 
thatj,  besides  these  exterior  graces,"  there  are  required 
other  real  and  interior  ones.  He  owned,  that  the  will  of 
man  is  indeed  aided  by  a  real  grace ;  but  he  added,  that 
Jhis  grace  is  not  absolutely  nieeessary  in  order  to  live  well  i 
but  that  it  only  helps  us  to  do  well  with  the  more  ease, 
Julian,  one  of  his  adherents,  went  farther  yet ;  and'owned 
that  the  assistance  of  grace  was  absolutely  ■  necessary  t<^ 
enable  us  to  do  perfect  works.  In  effect,  the  grand  doc- 
trine of  the  Pelagians  was,  that  a  man  might  accomplish' 
all  the  commands  of  God  by  the  mere  power  of  nature; 
knd  that  the  gifts  of  grace  were  only  necessary  to  etiable 
him  to  act  well  more  easily,  and  more  perfectly. 

As  the  morals  of  Pelagius  had  long  been  irreproachable, 
he  found  it  easy  to  gain  a  crowd  of  followers ;  and  tbe 
heresy  spread  so  much,  that  it 'became  necessary  for  him 
to  quit  Rome,  in  the  year  409,  going  to  Sicily,  and  accom* 
panied  by  Celestius,  his  chief  disciple  and  fellow-tabourer^ 
and,  as  is  said,  his  countrynlan.  They  continued. in  Sicily, 
till  the  report  of  a  conference,  held  at  Carthage  betweea 
the  orthodox  and  the  donatists,  induced  them  to  go  to 
Africa :  but  Pelagius  did  not  stay  long-there ;  and,  after 


P  £  L  A  6  I  U  S.  059 

,  » 

his  cJepaftune,.  Celestias  being  accused  of  denying  origin* 
nalsin  by  Paulinufr,  was  cpndemned  by  a  council  held  aft 
Carthage  in  the  year  412,  under  Aareliuft,  primate  of 
Africa.  Upon  this,  he  repaired  to  his  friend  Pelagiuty 
who  bad  retired  to  Palestine. 

Here  they  were  well  received  by  John  bishop  of  Jerusa* 
leiii,  the  enemy  of  St.  Jeromi  and  well  looked-  op  by  the 
better  sort  of  people.  Count  Marcellinus,  being  desiroui 
to  know  in  what  their  doctrine,  .which  was  much  talked  of, 
consisted,  appiied  •  to  St.  Augustin,  bishop  of  Hippo,  for 
tnforiaatioil ;  and  Pelagias,  fearing  to  engajge  with.so  for«i 
midable  tan  antagonist,  wrote  the  bishop  a  letter  foil  of 
protestations  of  the  purity  of  his  failh,  and  St  Augustia 
seems  always  unwilling  to  believe  that  Pelagius  had  fallen 
into  terror  until  the  year  414,  when  Pelagius  resolved  tq 
undertake  his  treatise  of  the  natural  strength  of  man,  in 
support  of  his  doctrine  of  free-will;  which,  however,  htt 
iliM  expressed  in  ambiguous  terms,  but  not  so  as  to  de*  > 
teive  either  Augustine  or  Jerome,  who  wrote  against  (liuit 
In  Palestine,  his  doctrine  was  approved  in  a  council  held 
at  Diospolis  in  the  year  415,  consisting  of  fourteen  bisbopK 
Theodore  of  Mopsuestia  was  one  of  Pelagius's  most  power* 
ful  frietids  in  the  east,  a  man  of  profound  erudition  and 
great  reputation  ^  who,  though  he  wrote  zealously  against 
aU  heresies,  fell  into  that  of  Pelagius,  as 'also  of  Nesto^ 
rius.  On  the  other  hand,  the  African  bishops  held  a 
council,  according  to  custom,  in  the  year  416,  at  Car^ 
thage,  and  decided  that  Pelagius  and  Celestius  ought  ta 
be  anathematized,  and  communicat^ed  tbeir  judgment  to 
|he  pope  Innocent  I.  in  order  to  join  the  authority  of  the 
see  of  Rome  to  their  own,  and,  prompted  by  St  Augustine^ 
refute  in  a  summary  way  the  chief  errors  imputed  to  Pela* 
gius,  and  conclude  thus :  '^  Though  Pelagius  and  Celes^ 
tins  disown  this  doctrine,  and  the  writings  produced  against 
them,  without  its  being  possible  to  convict  them  of  falser 
hood;  nevertheless,  we  must  anathematize  in  general 
whoever  teaoheth  that  human  nature  is  capable  of  avoid* 
ing  sin,  and  of  fulfilling  the  commands  of  God ;  as  he 
•hews  himself  an  enemy  to  his  grace."  About  the' same 
time  a  council  was  held  at  Milevum,  composed  of  sixtyr 
one  bishops ;  who,  after  the  example  of  that  of  Carthage^ 
wrote  to  pope  Innoeent,  desiring  him  to  condemn  this 
heresy^  wfaicb^  took  away  the  benefit  of  prayer  from  adults^ 
and  baptism  from  infants.   ^Besides  ti^^se  twQ  synoc^cal 

%  2 


J60  P  E  L  A  G  I  U  S. 

letters,  another  was  written  by  St.  Augastin,  in  the  name 
of  himself  and  four  more  bishops ;  in  which  he  explained 
the  whole  matter  more  at  large,  and  desired  the  pope  to 
prder  Pelagius  to  Rome,  to  examine  him  more  minutely^ 
^ud  know  what  kind  of  grace  it  was  that  he  acknowledged ; 
or  else  to  treat  with  him  on  that  subject  by  letters^  to  the 
end  that,  if  he  acknowledged  the  grace  which  the  chufch 
teacheth,  he  might  be  absolved  without  difficulty.  . 
.  These  letters  were  answered  by  Innocent  in  the  year 
417,  who  coincided  in  sentiment  with  his  correspondents, 
ftnd  anathematized  all  who  said  that  the  grace  of  Grod  ii 
not  necessary  to  good  works;  and  judged  them  unworthy 
of  the  comtnunion  of  the  church.  In  answer  to  the  five 
African  bishops,  who  had  written  to  him  on  his  being  sus- 
pected of  favouring  Pelagianism,  be  sajrs,  ^^  He  caR  uei^ 
ther  affirm  nor  deny,  that  there  are  Pelagians  in  Romte^ 
because,  if  there  are  any,  they  take  care  to  conceal  tbemr. 
selves,  and  are  not  discovered  in  so  great  a  multitude  of 
people.''  He  adds,  speaking  of  Pelagius,  *'We  oaopot 
believe  be  has  been  justified,  notwithstanding  that,  some 
laymen  have  brought  to  us  acts  by  which  be  pretends  to 
baye  been  absolved.  But  we  doubt  the  airthenticity  of 
these  acts,  because  they  have  not  been  sent  us  by  t^e 
council,  and  we  have  not  received  any  letters  from  tjiose 
who  assisted  at  it.  For  if  Pelagius  could  have  relied  on 
bis  justification,  he  could  not  have  failed  to  have  obliged 
his  judges  to  acquaint  us  with  it;  and  even  in  these  acts 
be  has  not  justified  himself  clearly,  but  has  only  sought  to 
evade  and  perplex  matters.  We  can  neither  approve  uor. 
blame  this  decision.  If  Pelagius  pretends  he  has  nothing 
to  fear,  it  is  not  our  business  to  send  for  him,  but  rather 
his  to  make  haste  to  come  and  get  himself  absolved.  For 
if  he  still  continues  to  entertain  the  same  s€lntiments,  what* 
ever  letters  he  may  receive,  be  will  never  venture  to  eK^ 
pose  himself  to  oqr  sentence.  If  he  is  to  be  summoned, 
that  ought  rather  to  be  done  by  those  who  are  n^eareat  to 
bim*  We  have  perused  the  book  said  to  be  written  by  him, 
which  you  sent  us.  We  have  found  in  it  many  propositions 
against  the  grace  of  God,  many  blasphemies,,  nothing  that . 
pleased  us,  and  hardly  any  thing  but  what  displeased  us^ 
and  ought  to  be  rejected  by  all  the  world.'* 

Celestius,  upon  his  condemnation  at  Carthage  in  the 
year  41*2,  had  indeed  appealed  to  this  pope  ;^but,  ins^ad 
of  pursuing  his  appeal^L  he  retired  into  Palestiue.     Pela?  . 


P  E  L  A  G  I  U  S.  461 

gius,  however,  who  had  more  art,  did  not  despair  of  bring-*' 
iog  Rome  over  to  his  interest,  by  flattering  the  bishop  of 
that  city,  and  accordingly  drew  up  a  confession  of  faith, 
and  sent  it  to  pope  Innocent  with  a  letter,  which  is  now 
lost.  Innocent  was  dead ;  and  Zosioius  had  succeeded 
him,  when  this  apology  of  Pelagius  was  brought  to  Rome. 
On  the  first  notice  of  this  change,  C^lestius,  who  had  been 
driven  from  Constantinople,  hastened  to  the  west,  in 
hopes  of  securing  the  new  pope's  favour,  by  making  him 
hiSr  judge,  and  Zosimus,  pleased  to  be  appealed  to  in  a 
cause  that  had  been  adjudged  elsewhere,  readily  admitted 
Celestius  to  justify  himself  at  Rome.  He  assembled  his 
clergy  in  St.  Cleuiem^s  church,  where  Celestius  presented 
him  a  confession  of  faith ;  in  which,  having  gone  through 
all  the  articles  pf  the  Creed,  from  the  Trinity  to  the  resur- 
rection of  the  dead,  he  said,  '^  If  any  dispute  has  arisen  on 
questions  that. do  not  concern  the  faith,  I  have  not  pre« 
tended  to  decide  4;.hem,  as  the  author  of  a  new  doctrine ; 
but  I  offer  to  your  examination,  what  I  have  frooi  the 
source  of  the  prophets  and  apostles ;  to  the  end  that,  if  I 
have  mistaken  through  ignorance,  your  judgment  may 
correct  and  set  me  right."  On  the  subject  of  original  sin, 
he  continued,  '^  We  acknowledge  that  children  ought  to 
be  baptized  for  the  remission  of  sins,  agreeably  to  the  rule 
of  the  universal  church,  and  the  authority  of  the  gospel ; 
because  the  Lord  bath  declared,  that  the  kino^dom  of  bea- 
'  yen  cap  be  given  to  those  only  who  have  been  baptized. 
But  we  do  not  pretend  thence  to  establish  the  transmissioa 
of  sin  from  parents  to  their  children  :  that  opinion  is  widely 
different  from  the  catholic  doctrines.  For  sin  is  not  born 
with  man;  it  is  man  who  commits  it  after  he  is  born:  it 
docs  not  proceed  from  nature,  but  from  will.  We  there-^ 
fore  acknowledge  the  first,  in  order  not  to  admit  of  several 
baptisms;  and  take  this  precaution,  that  we  may  not  de- 
rogate from  the  Creator.*'  Celestius  having  confirmed  by 
word  of  mouth,  and  several  repeated  declarations,  whlit 
was  contained  in  this  writing,  the  pope  asked  him,  whe« 
ther  he  condemned  all  the  errors  that  had  been  published 
under  his  name  ?  Celestius  answered,  that  he  did  con- 
demn them  in  conformity  with  the  senteiice  of  pope  Inno- 
cent, and  promised  to  condemn  whatever  should  be  con^ 
demned  by  the  holy  see.  On  this  Zosimus  did  not  hesitata^ 
to  coddemn  Heros  and  Lazarus,  who  hsnl  taken  upon  then) 
19  be  the  chief  prosecutors  of  the  Pelag;ian  doctrine    Df 


46a  P  E  L  A  9  I  U  S; 

deposed  tkem  from  the  episcopal  office^  and^^KcooimQiii* 
eated  them;  after  which  he  wrote  to  Aurelius,  and  the 
other  bishops  of  Africa^  acquainting  them  with  what  he 
had  done,  and  at  the  same  time  sending  them  the  a^ti  of 
his  synod. 

Soon  after  this,  Zosimus  received  a  letter  from  Praylum 
bishop  of  Jerusalem,  successor  to  John, .  recommending  tp 
^im  Pelagius's  affair  in  affectionate  terms.  This  letter  was 
accompanied  by  another  from  Pelagius  himself,  togethei: 
with  the  confession  of  faith  before  mentioned. .  In  thi4 
tetter  Pelagius  said,  that  his  enemies  wanted  to  aspe^^ie  hi^  :  / 
.  chfiracter  in  two  points:  first,  that  he  refused  ,t9  baptize 
infants,  and  promised  them  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  withr 
9Ut  the  redemption  of  Jesus  Christ;  seoondl}!,  that  he  re* 
posed  so  much  confidence  in  free-will,  as  to  refuse  the  as- 
sistance of  grace.  He  rejected  the  first  of  these  errors,  -a^ 
Oianifestly  contrary  to  the  gospel ;  and  upon  the  article  of 
grace  he  said,  ^'  We  have  our  free-will  either  to  sin  or  nol 
to  sin,  and  in  all  good  works  it  is  ever  aided  by  the  4i^i°4 
assistance.  We  say,  that  all  men  have  free- wilt,  as  w«ll 
Christians  as  Jews  and  Gentiles :  all  of  them  have  it  by 
nature,  but  it  is  assisted  by  grace  in  none  but.ChristiauAi 
|n  others  this  blessing  of  the  creation  is  naked  and  unas* 
sisted.  They  shall  be  judged  and  condemned ;  because 
having  free-will,  by  which  they  might  arrive  at  fai^b,  and 
merit  the  grace  of  God,- they  make  an  ill  use  of  this  liberty^ 
The  Christians  will  be  rewarded ;  because  they,  by  making 
1^  good  use  of  their  free^wili,  merit  the  grace  of  the  Lor<{^ 
and  observe  his  commandments.'*  His  confession  of  faith 
)¥as  like  that  of  Celestius*  On  baptism  he  said,  /<  We 
bold  one  single  baptism,  and  we  assort  that  it  ought  to  be  ' 
administered  to  children  in  the  same  form  of  words  as  to 
adults."  Touching  grace  he  said,  ^*  We  confess  a  free- 
yvill:  at  the  same  time  holding,  that  we  stand  continually 
in  need  of  God's  assistance ;  and  that  those  are  as  weU 
pnistaken,  who  say  with  the  Manicbee^,  that  man  cannot 
Ikvoid  sinning,  as  those  who  say  with  Jovinian,  that>  man 
cannot  sin*"  He  concluded  with  these  words:  ^VSucb^ 
blessed  pope,  is  the  faith  which  we  have  learned  in  th^ 
patholic  church,  the  faith  which  we  have  always  held,  i^nd 
ftill  continue  in*  If  any  thing  contained  therein  shall,no( 
have  been. explained  clearly  enough,  or  not  with  aoffic^nt 
paution,  we  de^iff  that  you  would  correct  it.$  ypu.wbp 
the  faitb^  and  the  see  of  Peter.    If  you  apprpve  of 


P  E  L  A  G  I  U  S.  2S3 

.my  confession  of  faith,  whoever  pretends  to  attack  it,  will 
shew  either  his  ignorance  or  his  malice,  or  that  he  is  not 
orthodox  ;  but  he  will  not  prove  me  an  heretic." 

For  some  time  this  defence  answered  its  purpose,  and 
Zo^imus  wrote  a  second  letter  to  Aurelius,  and  to  all  the 
bishops  of  Africa,  informing  them  that  he  was  now  ^atis^ 
fied  with  Pelagius  and  Celestius*s  confession  of  faith,  and 
persuaded  of  their  sincerity.  Aurelius,  however,'  and  hi& 
.brethren,  were  more  surprised  than  daunted  at  this  letter^ 
and  firmly  maintained  the  judgment  they  had  given,  and 
"which  had  been  confirmed  by  Innocent  I.  At  the  h^ad  of 
their  decrees  they  addressed  a  second  letter  to  pope  Zosi- 
mus,  in  these  terms :  **  We  have  ordained,  that  the  sen-r 
.tence  given  by  the  venerable  bishop  Innocent  shall  subsist^ 
until  they  shall  confess  without  equivocation,  that  the  grace 
of  Jesus  Christ  does  assist  us,  not  only  to  know,  but  also 
,to  do  justice  in  every  action  ;  insomuch,  that  without  it  we 
can  neither  think,  say,  or  do  any  thing  whatever,  that  be- 
longs to  true  piety."  They  added,  "That  Celestius^s 
having  said  in  general  terms,  that  he  agreed  with  Innocent's 
^letters,  was  not  satisfactory  in  regard  to  persons  of  inferior 
understandings;  but  that  he  ought  to  anathematize  in  cleafr 
terms  all  that  was  bad  in  his  writings,  lest  many  should 
believe  that  the  apostolical  see  had  approved  his  errors, 
Vather  than  be  persuaded  that  he  had  reformed  theAn."  The 
]bi$hop  of  Africa  likewise  reminded  pope  Zosimiiis  of  his 
predecessor's  decision,  relattng  to  the  council  of  Dios- 
polis ;  shewed  him  the  artifice  made  use  of  in  the  confes- 
sion of  faith  which  Pelagius  had  sent  to  Rome;  and  refute4 
after  their  manner  the  cavils  of  the  heretics :  and,  as  Zosi- 
mus  had  reprimanded  them  for  having  too  easily  giveii 
credit  to  th^  accusers  of  Celestius,  they  justified  themselves 
at  his  expence  ;  by  shewing,  that  he  himself  had  been  too 
precipitate  in  this  affair.  They  also  declared  plainly,  that 
'this  cause  arising  in  Africa,  and  having  been  judged  there, 
Celestius  could  have  no  right  to  appeal  from  thence,  nor 
the  pope  to  take  cognizance  of  it :  to  which  they  added  a 
protest,  to  prevent  Zdsimusfrom  attempting  to  pronounce 
any  sentence  by  default,  in  favour  of  Celestius  and  Pela- 
gius. 

Zosimus,  either  through  a  persuasion  that  these  heretics 
had  dealt  insincerely  with  him,  pr  finding  it  prudent  to 
yield  to  the  necessity  of  the  occisision,  upon  the  receipt  oif 
this  letter^  issued  out  a  formal  conden^nttion  of  the  Pela- 


26^  P  E  L  A  G  I  U  S. 

giansy  4n4  applied  also  to  Honorius,  requesting  him  0^ 
qause  all  heretics  to  be  driven  put  of  Rome  {  in  compliance 
with  which,  the  emperor  gave  a  rescript  at  Raveona,^ 
April  41^1  directed  to  the  pretorian  prefect  of  Italy, 
who,  in  consequence,  issued  his  ordinance  jointly  with  th^ 
pretorian  prefect  of  the  east,  and  the  prefect  of  Gaul,  pur- 
porting, that  all  such  as  should  be  convicted  of  this  error 
should  suffer  perpetual  banishment,  and  that  all  their  pos- 
sessions should  be  confiscated.  The  pope  also  vigorously 
prosecuting  his  design  to  extirpate  the  friends  of  Pelagius, 
caused  all  the  bishops  to  be  deposed  who  would  not  sub- 
scribe the  condemnation  of  the  new  heresy,  and  drove 
them  out  of  Italy  by  virtue  of  the  laws  of  the  empire.  At- 
ticus,  bishop  of  Constantinople,  likewise  rejected  their 
deputies.  They  were  driven  from  Ephesus  ;  and  Theodo- 
tus  bishop  of  Antiocb  condemned  them,  and  drove  Pela- 
gius  thence^  who  was  lately  returned  from  Palestine,  where 
he  ha^d  taken  refuge  from  the  emperor's  rescript.  We  have 
no  certain  account  of  him  after  this ;  but  there  is  reason  to, 
believe,  that  he  returned  to  England,  and  spread  his  doc- 
trine there;  which  induced  the  bishop  of  Gaul  to  send 
thither  St.  Germain  of  Auxerre,  in  order  to  refute  it. 
However  that  be,  it  is|  certain  that  Pelagian  heresy,  as  it 
is  called,  spread  itself  both  in  the  east  and  west,  and  took 
so  deep  root,  that  it  subsists  to  this  d^y  in  different  sects, 
who  all  go  by  the  general  name  of  Pelagians,  except  a 
more  moderate  part  who  are  called  Semi-Pelagians. 

This  Heresiarcb  wrote  several  things,  anaong  wht9h  are, 
f?  A  Treatise  upon  the^  Trinity;"  "  A  Commentary  on  St. 
Paul's  Epistles,"  which  oddly  enough  has  been  annexeil 
to  those  of  St.  Jerom,  and  was  long  thought  tti  be  written 
by  him,  although  a  decided  Anti-Pelagian;  "  A  Book  of 
Eclogues,  or  Spiritual  Maxim?;"  several  letters,  among 
which  is  one  addressed  to  a  virgin,  named  Demetrias, 
which  is  printed  in  the  works  of  JSt.  je'rom;  several  pieces' 
in  his  own  defence  ;  and  a  (reatise  on  free-will.  The  His- 
tory of  Pelagianism  by  Jansenius^  in  his  treatise  called 
**  Augustine,"  is  thought  the  best.*    ' 

PELL  (John),  an  eminent  English  mathematician,  de- 
scended from  an  ancient  family  in  Lincolnshire,  was  born. 
at  Southwyke  in  Sussex,  March  i,  16J0;  and  educated  in 
crammar-learning  at  the  free-school,  then  newly  founded, 

1  Dopin.— *Ca?e,  vol.  I.^Mosheim  and  Milnet»*Ch.  ^Ist. 


P  E!  L  L.  5?65 

rt  Steyning  in  that  county.  At  thirteen,  he  was  sent  to 
Tjrinity  college  in  Cambridge,  where  he  pursued  bis  stu- 
fdies  with  unusual  diligence,  but  although  capable  of  un-r 
dergging  any  trials,  and  one  of  the  best  classical  scholars 
of  his  ag^,  he  never  offeired  hiniself  a  candidate  at  the 
flection  of  scholars  or  fellows  of  this  cbllege.  After  taking 
the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1628,  he  drew  up  the  "  Descrip- 
tion and  Use  of  the  Quadrant,  written  for  the  use  of  a 
friend,  in  two  books;'*  the  original  MS.  of  which  is  still 
extant  among  his  papers  in  the  Royal  Society ;  and  the 
same  year  he  held  a  correspondence  \vith  Mr.  Henry 
Briggs  on  logarithms.  In  1630  he  wrote  *«  IV^odus  suppu- 
tandi  Ephemerides  Astronomicas  (quantum  ad  motum  soils 
attinet)  paradigmat^  ad  an.  1630  accommodato  5"  and  "  A 
Key  to  unlock  the  Meaning  of  Johannes  Trithemius,  in  his 
Discourse  of  Steganography ;"  which  key  Pell  the  sanie 
year  imparted  to  Mif.  Samuel  Hartlib  and  Mr.  Jacob  Ho'r 
imedae.  The  same  year,  he  took  the  degree  of  master  of 
arts  at  Cambridge,  and  the  year  following  was  incorporated 
in  the  university  of  Oxford.  In  June  he  wrote  "  A  Letter  to 
Mr  Edward  Wingate  oq  Logarithms;"  atid,  OcL  S,  1631, 
**  Cbmmentationes  in  Cosmographiam  Alstedii."  July  3, 
1632,  he  married  Ithaiparia,  second  daughter  of  Mr.  Henry 
Seginolles  of  London,  by  whom  he  had  four  sons  and  foi^r 
daughters.  In  1633  he  finished  his  "  Astronomical  History 
of  Ubservations  of  heavenly  Motior^s  and  Appearances ;" 
and  his  **  Ecl^pticus  Prognostica ;  or  foreknower  of  th^ 
Eclipses ;  teaching  how,  by  calculation,  to  foreknow  and 
foretell  all  sorts  of  Eclipses  of  the  heavenly  lights/'     lA 

1634,  he  translated  ^«  The  everlasting  Tables  of  Heavenly 
Motions,  grounded  upon  the  observations  of  all  times, 
and -agreeing  with  them  all,  by  Philip  Lansberg,  of  Ghent 
in  Flanders  ;'*  and  the  same  year  he  committed  to  writingj^ 
^*  The  Manner  of  deducing  his  Astronomical  Tables  out  of 
the  Tables  and  axioms  of  Philip  Lansbferg."     In  March 

1635,  he  wrote  "A  Letter  of  Remarks  on  Gellibrand'$ 
Mathematical  Discourse  on  the  Variation  of  the  Magnetic 
Needle;  and,  June  following,  another  on  the  same  subr 
ject.  Such  were  the  employments  of  the  first  six  years  of 
Mr.  Pell's  public  life,  during  which  mathematics  entirely 
engrossed  his  attention.  Conceiving  this  science  of  the 
utmost  importance,'  he  drew  op  a  scheme  for  a  mathema- 
tical school  on  an  extensive  scale  of  utility  and  emulatiop^ 
which  ws^s  much  approved  by  Des  Cartes,  Uut  sq  censure^ 


a66  PELL. 

* 

by  Mersenne  in. France,  that  our  author  was  obliged  to 
write  in  its  defence.  The  controversy  may  be  seen  in 
Hooke's  Philosophical  Coliectionsj  and  with  PelPs  ^*  Idea 
of  the  Mathematics.^' 

Mr.  Pell's  eminence,  however,  in  mathematical  know-  ■ 
ledge,  was  now  so  great,  that  he  was  thought  worthy  of  a 
professor'9  chair  in  that  science ;  and,  upon  the  vacancy 
of  one  at  Amsterdam  in  1639,  hit  William  Boswell,  the 
English  resident  with  the  States-general,  used  his  interest, 
that  he  might  succeed  in  that  professorship;  which  was  not 
filled  up  till  above  four  years  after,  1643,  when  Pell  was 
chosen  to  it.  The  year  following  he  published,  in  two 
pages  4to,  *'  A  Refutation  of  Longomontanus's  Discourse, 
De  vera  circuli  mensura,"  printed  at  Amsterdam  in  1644« 
In  June  1646,  he  was  invited  by  the  prince  of  Orange  to 
be  professor  of  philosophy  and  mathematics  at  Breda,  in 
the  college  newly  founded  there  by  bis  highness,  with  the 
offer  of  a  salary  of  1000  guilders  a  year.  This  tie  ac- 
cepted, but  upon  his  removal  to  Breda,  he  found  that  he 
was  re  quired  to  teach  mathematics  only.  His  '*  Idea  ,Ma* 
theseos,"  which  he  had  addressed  to  Mr.  Hartlib,  who  in 
1639  had  sent  it  to  Des  Cartes  and  Mersenne,  was  printed 
'1650  at  London,  12mo,  in  English,  with. the  title  of  '^Ab 
Idea  of  Mathematics,"  at  the  end  of  Mr.  John  Dury's 
^*  Reformed  Library- keeper."  On  the  death  of  the  princ^ 
of  Orange,  in  1650,  and  the  subsequent  war  between  thf 
jCnglish  and  Dutch,  he  left  Breda,  and  returned  to  Eng* 
land,  in  1652;  and,  in  1654,  was  sent  by  Cromwell  as  his 
agent  to  the  protestant  cantons  in  Switzerland,  his  instruc-^ 
iions  being  dated  March  30th  of. that  year.  His  first 
speech  in  Latin  to  the  deputies  of  Zurich  was  on  the  I3th 
of  Jun^;  and  he  continued  in  that  city  during  most  of  his 
employment  in  Switzerlafnd,  in  which  he  bad  afterwards 
the  title  of  resident.  Being  recalled  by  Cromwell,  be  toot 
bis  leave  of  the  cantons  in  a  Latin  speech  at  Zurich,  the 
23d  of  June,  J  658;  but  returned  to  England  sp  short  a 
time  before  the  usurper's  death,  that  be  had  no  opportu- 
nity of  an  audience  from  him.  Why  Cromwell  eraployecl 
him  does  not  appear,  but  it  is  thought  that  during  his  re* 
sidence  abroad,  he  contributed  to  the  interests  of  Charted 
IL  and  the  church  of  England  ;  and  it  is  certain  that,  aftejr 
the  restoration,  he  entered  into  holy  orders,  although  aJt 
an  unusually  advanced  period  of  life.  He  was  ordaine^ 
deacon  March  31,  1661,  and  priest  in  June  following,  by 


PELL.  9tf 

{Sanderson,  bishop  of  Lincoln;  and,  on  the  i6th  of  that 
pipntb,  instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Fobbing  in  Essex^  giveii 
\xim  by  the  king.  On  Dec.  the  5th  foUowingi  h^  brought 
into  the  upper  house  of  convocation  the  calendar  reformed 
hy  him,  assisted  by  Bancroft,  afterwards  abp.  of  Canter-* 
bury.  In  1^63,  he  vras  presented  by  Sheldon,  bishop  o^ 
Loudon,  to  the  rectory  of  Laingdon  in  Essex ;  and,  upon  ' 
the  promotion  of  that  bishop  to  the  s^e  of  Canterbury  in 
%he  next  month,  became  one  of  his  grace's  domestic  chap* 
kins.  He  was  then  doctor  of  divinity,  and  expected,  as 
Wood  tells  us,  **  to  be  made  a  dean  ;  but  being  not  a  per* 
son  of  activity,  as  others  who  mind  not  learning  are,  could 
never  rise  higher  than  a  rector.*'  The  truth  is,  add^ 
Wood,  '^  be  was  a  helpless  man  as  to  worldly  affairs;  and 
bis  tenants  and  relations  dealt  so  unkindly  by  him,  that' 
they  defrauded  him  of  the  profits  of  his  rectory,  and  kept 
bim  so  indigent,  that  he  was  in  want  of  necessaries,  even 
ink  and  paper,  to  bis  dying  day."  He  was  for  some  tim^ 
confined  to  the  King*s-bench  prison  for  debt;  but,  ^^ 
March  1682,  was  invited  by  Dr.  Whistler  to  live  in  tbt 
college  of  physicians.  Here  he  continued  till  June  fol* 
lowing,  when  he  was  obliged,  by  his  ill  state  of  health,  t^ 
remove  to  the  bouse  of  a  grandchild  of  his  in  St.  Margaret'f 
church-yard,  Westminster.  .From  this  too  he  was  agak| 
removed,  for  we  find  that  he  died  at  the  house  (in  Dyo( 
street)  pf  Mr.  Cothorne,  reader  of  the  church  of  St.  Giles's 
in  the  Fields,  Dec.  the  12th,  1685,  and  was  interred  bj 
the  charity  of  Busby,  master  of  Westminster  school,  an^ 
Sharp,  rector  of,  St.  Giles's,  in  the  rector's  vault  undef* 
Ihat  church.  Besides  what  have  been  mentioned.  Dr.  Peli 
was  the  author  of,  1.  ^^  An  Exercitation  concerning  Easter,'* 
1644,  in  4to.  2.  **  A  Table  of  10,000  square  numbers,? 
&c.  1672,  folio.  3.  An  Inaugural  Oration  at  his  entertnf 
upon  the  Professorship  at  Breda.  4.  He  made  grea| 
alterations  and  additions  to  ^^  Rbonius's  Algebra,*^  printed 
at  London  1668,  4to,  under  the  title  of  >^  An  Introduce 
tion  to  Algebra;  translated  out  of  the  High  Dutch  into 
English  by  Xhoiiias  Branker,  much  altered  and  augmented 
by  D.  P.  (Dr.  Pell).''  Also  a  Table  of  odd  numbers,  leaf 
than.  100,000,  shewing  those  that  are  incpmposite,  &.a 
supputated  by  the  same  Thomas  Branker.  5.  His  Contro- 
versy with  Longomontanus  concerning  the  Quadrature  ojf 
the  Circle,  Amsterdam,  1646,  4to.  He  likewise  wrote  a 
Bemonstratibn  of  tb^  2d  liod  10th  bbbks  of  Eutlid;  which 


?6S  PELL. 

piece  was  in  MS.  in  the  library  of  lord  Brereton  iri 
Cheshire :  as  also  Archimedes's  Arenarius,  and  the  great*^ 
est  part  of  Diophantus^s  six  books  of  Arithmetic ;  of  which 
author  he  was  preparing,  Aug.  1644,  a  new  edition,  with 
a  corrected  translation,  and  new  illustrations.  He  designed 
likewise  to  publish  an  edition  of  Apollonius,  but  laid  it 
aside,  in  May,  1645,  at  the  desire  of  Golius,  who  was  en- 
gaged in  an  edition  of  that  author  from  an  Arabic  ma,nu» 
script  given  him  at  Aleppo  18  years  before.  This  appears 
from  the  letters  of  Dr.  Pell  to  sir  Charles  Cavendish,  in 
%he  Royal  Society. 

Some  of  his  manuscripts  he  left  at  Brereton  in  Cheshire, 
where  he  resided  some  years^  being  the  seat  of  William 
lord  Brereton,  who  had  been  bis  pupil  at  Breda.  A  great 
many  others  came  into  the  hands  of  Dr.  Busby  ;  which  Mr. 
Hook  was  desired  to  use  his  ejideavours  to  obtain  for  the 
society.  But  they  continued  buried  under  dust,  and  mixed 
with  the  papers  and  pamphlets  of  Dr.  Busby,  in  four  large 
boxes,  till  1735;  when  Dr.  Birch,  secretary  to  the  Roy^l 
Socibty^  procured  them  for  that  body,  froni  the  trustees  of 
Dr.  Busby.  The  collection  contains  noi  only  Pell's  nia- 
theHiatical  papers,  letters  to  him,  and  copies  of  those  from 
him,  &c.  but  also  several  manuscripts  of  Walter  Warner, 
the  riiathematician  and  philosopher,  who  lived  in  the  reigns 
of  James  the  First  and  Charles  the  First. 

Dr.  Pell  invented  the  method  of  ranging  the  several 
steps  of  an  algebraical  calculus,  in  a  proper  order,  in  sa 
ttiany  distinct  lines,  with  the  number  affixed  to  each  step, 
and  a  short  description  of  the  operation  or  process  in  the 
line.     He  also  invented  some  mathematical  characters.* 

PELLEGRIN  (Simon  Joseph),  an  abb6,  and  an  author 
"by  profession,  of  some  celebrity  at  Paris,  was  borrt  j^t 
Marseilles  in  1663,  and  became  a  religious  of  the  order  of 
Servites.  Being  tired  of  this  mode  of  life,  he  took  some 
voyages  as  chaplain  to  a  vessel.  On  his  return,  he  wrote 
a  poem  called  "An  Epistle  to  the  King  on  the  glorious 
Success  of  his  Arms,-'  which  gained  the  prize  in  the 
French  academy  in  1704.  With  this  Epistle  Pellegrin  had 
sent  an  Ode  on  the  same  subject,  which  proved  the  only 
formidable  rival  to  his  Epistle,  and  for  some  time  divided 
the  opinions  of  the  academy.  This  singular  success  made 
bim  known  at  cQiirt.     Madame  Maintenon  took  notice  of 

1  Atb  Qx^yol.  Lr-^Bios.  Brit.-^Martia'i  5io|;,  P^l9S.T-)HvttOA's  DicUo^aiy^ 


P  E  L  L  E  6  R  I  K.  a^ 

hiai)  and  gained  btm  a  brevet  to  be  translated  into  th0 
Order  df  Cluni.  Peilegrin  subsisted  solely  by  the  prizes 
be  gained  in  several  literary  academies,  and  his  other  lite- 
rary, labours.  He  even  kept  a  kind  of  shop, ,  where  those 
who  wanted  occasional  verses,  as  epigrams,  sonnets,  ma- 
drigals, &c  were  supplied  at  certain  prices,  according  to 
the  number  and  goodness  of  the  lines.  This  trade  growing 
slack,  be  began  to  write  for  the  theatres,  but  here  a  new 
obstacle  arose.  The  cardinal  de  Noailles  insisted  that  he 
should  either  cease  to  write  for  the  stage,  or  to  officiate  at 
the  mass.  He  would  fain  have  had  a  dispensation  on  this 
subject,  but, .the  cardinal  being  inexorable,  he  gave  up 
the  mass,  as  least  profitable.  He  would,  however,  havjs 
felt  che  loss  of  the  latter,  bad  not  his  friends  procured  him 
a  salary  for  writing  the  account  of  the  theatrical  enter- 
tainments in  the  Mercure.  Peilegrin  deserved  to  be  in 
better  circumstances,  for  a  great  part  of  what  he  earned 
so  laboriously  was  distributed  among  his  relations  :  and  hi^ 
disposition  was  singularly  candid  and  modest.  He  was,  at 
the  same  time,  negligent  of  his  appearance,  and  had  an 
ipipediment  in  his  speech  ;  circumstances  which  conspired 
to  plunge  him  in  that  neglect  he  so  severely  experienced. 
He  lived,  however,  to  the  age  of  82  ^  and  closed  this  long, 
life  on  the  5th  of  September,  1745.  His  works  are  very 
various ;  poems  of  all  kinds,  sacred  and  profane  ;  version^ 
of  the  Psalms  and  other  parts  of  Scripture;  comedies, 
operas,  &c<;  the  general  character  of  all  which  is,  that, 
they  are  seldom  excellent  in  their  plans,  and  that  the  ver- 
sification is  almost  invariably  flat  and  tedious.  ^ 

PELLEGRINI.     See  TIBALDL 

PELLEGRINI  (Camillo),  an  Italian  historian  and  an- 
tiquary, was  born  in  1598,  at  Capua,  and  educated  at  the 
Jesuits*  school  at  Naples.  He  entered  into  the  clerical 
order,  but  appears  to  have  passed  his  whole  tinie  in  the 
researches  of  an  historian  and  antiquary,  which  produced, 
1.  "  L'Apparato  alle  Antichita  di  Capua,"  printed  in  1651, 
in  which  he  minutely  describes  all  the  parts  of  Campagna 
Felice,  and  relates  its  history  and  revolutions.  2.  <^  His- 
toria  Principum  Longobardorum,*'  containing  several  his- 
torical pieces  not  yet  published,  illustrated  with  learned 
annotations  and  dissertations.  .  This  was  republished  in  the 
collections  of  Burmann  and  Muratori,  and  with  various 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hict^ 


if^  PELL  t  il  1  N.  i 

additions,  at  Naples,  1749,  by  Sig.  Fr.  Moria  Pratilli.  Pel* 
legrini  died  at  Naples  in  1660,  at  tfae  age  of  sixty-five.  ^ 

*  PELLERIN  (Joseph),  famous  for  bis  collection  of  me- 
dals, and  bis  publications  respecting"  tbem,  was  for  a  long 
time  commissary-general,  and  cbief-clerk  of  the  Frencfai 
tearing.  He  united  tbe  knowledge  of  a  man  of  letters  mtii 
all  tbe  activity  of  a  man  of  business;  but  haying,  afteif 
forty  years  of  service,  obtained  leave  to  retire,  he  thence-' 
forth  gave  himself  up  entirely  to  the  study  of  antiquities^ 
and  wrote  upon  the  subject  after  be  was  blind  with  age^ 
by  means  of  an  invention  described  in  the  last  voiume  of 
his  works.  His  cabinet  of  medals,  which  was  purchased 
by  the  king  in  1776,  was  the  richest  ever  formed  by  a  pri- 
vate individual ;  and  learned  men  of  all  countries  highly 
respected  the  collector  of  so  valuable  a  treasure.  He  died 
|n  August  1782,  at  the  surprising  age  of  ninety -nine.  He 
enriched  the  science  of  medals  by  a  valuable  set  of  works 
on  that  subject,  forming  altogether,  with  the  supplements^ 
ten  volumes  in  quarto,  with  many  plates ;  these  were  pub- 
lished at  different  times  from  1762  to  1778,  and  contain 
judicious  and  learned  explanations  of  the  plates,  which  are 
executed  with  great  exactness  and  beauty.  It  is  to  Pelleriii 
that  we  are  indebted  for  the  firbt  plates  of  medals  perfectly 
representing  tbe  originals  in  every  flaw  and  irregularity  of 
edge  and  impression,  which  is  a  most  capital  improvement, 
and  makes  the  view  of  siich  plates  almost  equal  to  the  coins 
themselves.  • 

*  PELLETIER  (Bernard),  a  chemist  of  considerable  emi- 
nence, was  born  at  Bayonne  in  1761.  He  acquired  the  ru- 
diments of  pharmacy  in  his  father^s  house,  and  afterwards 
studied  the  subject  at  Paris  with  such  constant  application, 
that  at  a  very  early  age  he  was  familiarly  acquainted  with'che- 
mical  processes,  and  even  with  the  exact  state  of  th^  science. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-one  he  published  a  set  of  experiments 
on  the  arsenic  acid,  in  which  be  explained  the  properties 
of  M acquer's  neutral  arsenical  salt,  and  demonstrated  the 
real  nature  of  Macquer^s  process.  In  these  observations  be 
bad  been  anticipated  by  Scheele,  by  Bergman,  by  tbe 
Dijon  academicians,  and  by  Berthollet ;  but  it  was  no  in- 
eonsiderable  merit  in  so  young  a  man  to  have  advanced  aa 
far  in  the  subject  as  these  mastery  of  the  science. 

*  Moieri.— Landi  Hist.  Lit  D'ftalie. 
.  *  DujiL  Hist. — pinkertoo*!  Esiay  oo  Medals,  preface. 


P  E  L  L  E  T  I  E  R.  «7f 

Soon  after,  he  published  several  observations  on  the  crys- 
tallization of  sulphur  and  cinnabar,  on  the  distillition  of 
phosphorus  from  bones,  on  deliquescent  salts,  on  oxymu-^ 
riattc  acid,  on  the  formation  of  ethers,  and  particularly  on 
muriatic  and  acetic  ethers.  His  success  in  these  encou* 
raged  him  to  attempt  the  Analysis  of  the  zeolite,  at  that 
time  a  much  more  difficult  task  than  at  present,  when  the 
mode  of  analyzing  minerals  has  been  reduced  to  a  regular 
system.  In  1785  he  undertook  the  analysis  of  pi umbago, 
a  labour  in  which  he  had  been  antici|>ated  by  Scheele,  and 
which  was  completed  the  year  following,  in  the  course  o^ 
the  celebrated  experiments  made  upon  iron  and  its  com* 
binations,  by  Berthollet,  Monge|  and  Vandermonde.  His 
text  object  was  the  combination  of  phosphorus  with  the 
metals  ;  the  existence  of  which  had  been  merely  pointed 
out  by  Margraif.  To  Pelletier  we  owe  almost  all  the 
knowledge  concerning  the  metallic'  phosphurets  which  we 
s^t  present  possess.  The  next  object  of  his  researches  was 
aurum  Musivum,  a  brownish  yellow  scaly  powder  some^ 
times  used  in  painting.  He  demonstrated  it  to  be  a  com- 
pound of  sulphur  and  the  oxide  of  tin,  and  pointed  out 
several  improvements  in  the  method  of  preparing  it. 

In  1790,  when  the  churches  of  France  were  stript  of 
their  bells,  and  it  was  proposed  to  extract  the  copper  from 
them,  Mr.  Pelletier  pointed  out  a  method  of  scorifying  the 
tin,  which  constitutes  the  other  ingredient,  by  means  of 
the  black  oxide  of  manganese.  His  first  essays  were  made 
in  Paris,  but  be  demonstrated  in  the  foundery  of  Romilly 
that  his  process  succeeded  also  in  the  large  way.  Soon 
after  he  analyzed  the  blue  pigment  manufactured  in  Eng- 
land, and  known  in  France  by  the  name  of  cendres  bleues 
d*Angleterre,  and  gave  a  process  for  preparing  it.  No- 
thing more  was  necessary  than  to  precipitate  copper  from 
nitrous  acid  by  means  of  a  sufficient  quantity  of  lime.  His 
next  set  of  experiments  consisted  in  an  examination  of 
strontian,  and  in  a  comparison  of  it  with  barytes.  They 
confirmed  the  previous  experiments  pf  Dr.  Hope  and  Mr. 
Klaproth.  He  had  formerly  examined  a  small  Specimen  of 
carbonat  of  strontian  without  finding  in  it  any  thing  pe« 
culiar. 

In  1791,  on  the  death  of  Tillet,  he  was  admitted  a  mem- 
ber 6{  the  academy  of  sciences,  and  on  the  abolition  of  the 
academy»  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  original  members  of 
the  national  institute  which  was  substituted  in  its  place. 


r. 

i 


Its  P  E  L  L  E  t  I  E  Ri 

In  1792  be  went  to  La  Fere  to  assist  at  the  trials  of  a  ne^ 
kind  of  gunpowder.  Being  obliged  to  spend  the  greatest, 
part  of  the  day  in  the  open  air,  in  a  cold  raw  day,  hid 
health,  naturally  delicate^  was  considerably  impaired.  But 
be  bad  gradually  recovered  almost  completely,  when  he 
fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  science  to  which  be  had  devoted  the', 
whole  of  his  attention.  He  breathed  at  different'  times^ 
and  during  long  periods,  oxymuriatic  acid  gas.  Tbe  con-^ 
sequence  was  a  consumption,  which  wasted  biro  rapidly^ 
and  at  last  carried  him  off  on  the  2 1st  July  17:^7,  in  thei 
thirty-sixth  year  of  his  age. 

Short  as  the  period  of  bis  life  was,  the  services  which. 
he  rendered  to  chemistry  were  by  no  means  inconsiderable. 
His  analyses  are  always  precise,  and  his  dissertations  writ- 
ten with  that  perspicuity  which  marks  the  clear  thinker^ 
and  the  master  of  his  subject.  His  fondness  for  the  science! 
was  extreme ;  be  continued  bis  labours  to  the  very  last/ 
and  even  on  bis  death-bed  spoke  of  them  with  satisfaction^ 
His  constitution  was  always  weak,  and  his  character  marked 
'Wih  timidity ;  but  his  mind  was  remarkably  active,  and  bis 
conduct  irreproachable.' 

PELLETIER  (Claude  pe),  one  of  the  few  who  have 
been  able  to  unite  attention  to  business^  with  the  love  and 
cultivation  of  letters,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1630,  and  bred 
to  the  law,  but  always  in  strict  intimacy  with  Boileau^ 
Bignon,  Lamoignon,  and  the  other  great  men  of  his  time» 
He  was  first  counsellor  of  the  Chatelet,  then  in  the  parlia- 
ment, afterwards  president  of  the  fourth  chamber  of  re-^ 
quests,  and  next  Pr^vot  des  Marchands."  .  To  this  place  be 
was  nominated  in  1668,  and  signalized  his  situation  therel 
by  building  a  quay  at  Paris,  which  ,still  retains  bis  name.- 
Being  much  approved  in  this  office,  be  was  appointed  in 
1683  to  succeed  the  famous  Colbert  in  that  of  controller- 
general  of  the  finances.  He  held  this  place  only  six  yearsy 
8kfter  which  be  resigned  it,  and  in  16;[)7  retired  from  court 
entirely,  to  lead  a  life  of  meditation  and  devotion.  He 
died  ih  August  1711,  at  tbe  age  of  eighty-one.  Though 
the  life  of  Pelletier  was  so  much  occupied  by  business,  he 
either  produced  or  was  concerned  in  several  publications. 
1.  Extracts  and  Collections  from  the  fathers,  the  eccle- 
siastical writers,  and  from  scripture,  made  with  great  judg- 
ment, in  several  volumes,  1 2mO.    2.  Editions  of  the/'Come» 

I  Mem.  d0  riott,  Nation,  in  Bald>iria*8  Lit,  Journal;  - 


P  E  L  L  £  T  t  E  R.  Uf  3 

Tbec^gus^^*  and  *^ Comes^  Juridicus^*'  of  PeteirPhbow^  Who 
Iras  his  maternal  great  grandfather.  3.  '<  Comes  Seneecutis/* 
and  4.  "  Comes  Rusticus/'  both  in  12mo,  aiYd  writterf  in 
imitation  of  the  former  works  of  Pithoiii,  consist  chiefly  of 
the  thoughtii  of  various  authors.  5.  The  best  edition  of  the 
Body  ofCanoiiLawy  in  Latin,  with* the  notes^of  Pefter^and 
Francis  Pitboa^  in  9  vdts.  fol.  6. 'An  edition  of  the  Obser* 
Vations  of  Peter  Pithou  on  the  Code  and  on  the  Novelliae. ' 

P£LLETIER  (Jaqves),  a  celebrated  French  physician, 
born  at  Mans  in  1517^  was  eminent  also  as  a  schoi^ir,  and 
became  principal  of  the  colleges  of  Bayeux  and  Man»  at 
Paris^  where  he  died  in  1582.  His  writings  have  not  re* 
tained  all  the  estimation  whidh  tiiey  possessed  in  his  ttdje; 
but  th^y  are  fidmerous.  1.  Commentaries  on  Euclid,  written 
in  Latin,  8vo.  2.  <*  De  dimensioiie  circuli,"  Basil.  1563, 
fol.  '  3.^' Disqubitfones  Geometriccb,''  Lugd.  1567^  8vo, 
^itfa  sonie  other  works  of  this  kind.  4;  **  Dialogue  de 
POitografe  ^  prononciacion  Fran^oase,-^  Lyon,  155 5 ^^^vo, 
in  which,  as  may  be  se^n  by  the  title,  he  proposes  to  write 
words  as  th<^y  are  pronounced;  a  theoretical  improvement^ 
bat  attended  with  •  too  many  difficulties  in  practice  to  bo 
itidopted  in  any  country.  Mr.^  James  Elpbinston'  made 
similar  attempts,  with  similar  success,  in  England.  5.  Two 
W  three  collections  of  Very  bad  poetry.'  6.  A  description 
of  Savoy.  7.  A  translation  of  Horace's  Art  of  Poetry.  8. 
A  French  Aft  of  Poetry  written  in*  prose.  He  published 
alao  on  his  own  profe^ort,  9.  A  small  treatise  in  Latin,  on 
the  Plague.  And  10.  ^  Concdrdance  of  several  passages 
in^  Galen^  with  some  detached  treatises,  1 559,  one  vol.  4to. ' 

PELLICAN  (Conrad),  a  learned  German  divine  and 
reformer,  was  born  Jan.  8,  1478,  at  RufFach,  in-  Alsatia. 
His  family  name  was  Kursiner,  or  Kirsner,  but  the  name 
'Pellican,  which  means  the  same  thing  in  Latin  as  Kirsner 
in  German,  and  is  in  neither  Very  significant,  was  given 
him  by  bis  maternal  uncle.  Pellican  began  his  studies  at 
RufFach  in  his  sixth  year,  and  under  an  excellent  master, 
'#ho  inspired  him  with  a  love  for  literature-;  yet  his  diffi- 
culties ^ere  many,  as,  among  other>  hindrances,  he  was 
obliged  to  #rite  down  every  thing  taught  him,  printing 
being  then  in  its  infancy,  and  no  elementary  treatise  bad 
issued  from  the  press.     His  maternal  uncle  already  men- 

1  Mofferi.^I>ict.  Hint 

S  Nicerop,  vol.  XXI.— Diet.  Hist*— Eloy  Diet.  Hist.  de. Medicine. 

Vofc.  XXIV.  T 


if*  P  E  t  L  I  C  A  K. 

tioned,  who  lived  at  Heidelberg,  and  bad  often  been  rector 
of  tbe  university,  hearing  of  the  progress  bis  nephew  mad#  . 
in   his  studies,  9ent  for  bioi  to  that  seminary,  where, he 
applied  to  the  belles  lettres  and  logic  for  about  sixteep 
months,  which  was  probably  as  long  as  his  uncle  could 
afford  to  maintain  him.     He  returned  therefore  in  Sept. 
1492  to  his  parents,  who  were  poor,  and  qould  giv«  Upa 
little  support,  but  got  some  employment  as  assistant  ^ 
a  schoolmaster,  and  had,  what  was  then  of  great  import- 
ance to  him,  the  power  of  borrowing  books  from  the  con« 
vent  of  the  Cordeliers.     His  frequent  visits  for  this  purpose 
brought  on  an  acquaintance  with  those  holy  fathers^  who 
conceived  a  very  high  opinion  of  Pellican,  now  in  his  six- 
teenth year,  and  appear  to  have  found  little  diifficulty  in 
persuading  him  to  enter  their  order,  whi^h  accordingly  be 
did  in  January  1493,  but  against  the  consent  of  bis  rela- 
tions.     He  then  commenced  his  theological  studies,  and  in 
the  following  year  was  admitted  to  tl^e  order  of  subdeappo. 
In  1496,  at  the  request  of  his  uncle,  he  was  sent  to  Tabi|i- 
gen,  and  recommended  to  Paul  Scriptor,  a  very  learned 
professor  of  philosophy  and  mathematics,  under  whc^m  be 
profited  much,  and  wbo*conceived  a  great  affection  for  hif 
pupil.     In  1499,  meeting  with  a  converted  Jew,  who  was 
now  one  of  his  own  order,  Pellican  expressed  his  wish  t6 
learn  Hebrew,  and  with  the  assistance  of  this  Jew  accom- 
plished tbe  elementary  part,  although  not  without  great 
difficulty.     Melchior  Adam   mentions  his  enthusiastic. jojf' 
on  receiving   tbe  loan   of  a  part  of  the  Bible  in  Hebrew. 
Reuchlin,  who  came  to  Tubingen  in  1 500,  gave  Pellicaii 
some  assistance  in  this  language ;  and  with  this,  and  other 
helps,  certainly  very  difficult  to  be  procured  at  that  time^ 
and  by  indefatigable  industry,  he  at  length  acquired  such 
knowledge  of  it,  as  to  be  accounted,  after  Reuchlin,  the 
first  Hebrew  scholar  in  Germany. 

In  1501,  in  bis  twenty-third  ynaff  he  was  ordained  priest,, 
and  the  following  year  he  was  appointed  to  teach  theology 
in  the  convent  of  bis  order  at  Basil,  and  he  likewise  gavj^ 
lectures  on  philosophy  and  astronomy.  After  remaWiing 
here  for  six  years,  be  was  in  1508  sent  to  Ruflieu^h  to  teach 
the  same  branches,  and  had  Sebastian  Munster  for  one  of 
bis  pupils  in  Hebsew  and  astronomy.  In  1511  he  .wiu 
chosen  guardian  of  the  convent  of  Pfortzheim,  where  he 
taught  theology  until  1514,  when  Caspar  Sazger,  provln* 
cial  of  his  order,  engaged  him  as  his  secretary  ^jmd  as  yiis 


P  E  L  L  I  C  A  N.  275 

office  required  his  attendance  on  the  provincial  in  all  his 
journeys,  Peliican  had  many  opportunities  of  becoming  ac- 
quainted with  the  learned  of  his  time,  and  particularly  of 
transcribing  from  the  libraries  whatever  might  add  to  his 
stock  of  oriental  and  biblical  literature,  which  appears  now 
to  have  been  the  fixed  object  of  his  studies.  On  his  return 
frOm  Rouen,  where  he  had  been  to  assist  at  a  chapter,  he 
stopped  three  months  at  Basil,  with  leave  of  the  provincial, 
to  superintend  an  edition  of  the  Psalter  in  four  languages, 
which  Froben  had  then  at  press. 

M elcbior  Adam  is  rather  prolix  *  in  his  account  of  Pelli- 
can*s  journeys  with  the  provincial,  little  of  which  is  interest- 
ing. It  appears  to  have  been  in  1519  that  be  was  ap- 
pointed guardian  at  Basil,  and  where  he  met  with  the  wri- 
tings of  the  illustrious  Luther,  which,  some  say,  converted 
him  to  the  protestant  faith ;  but  it  would  be  more  correct 
to  say  that  they  served  to  confirm  him  in  certain  sentiments 
which  he  had  for  some  time  entertained,  and  was  now  so 
little  afraid  of  avowing,  that  in  1522  he  was  accused  of 
Lutheranism  in  a  chapter  of  his  order.  By  what  means  he 
defended  himself  we  are  not  told,  but  it  was  with  such  suc- 
cess, that  he  obtained  permission  for  some  of  the  ablest  of  the 
students  and  preachers  to  read  the  works  of  Luther.  The 
following  year  the  provincial  Sazger  paying  a  visit  at 
Basil,  the  professors  of  the  university  and  some  of  the  ca- 
nons tendered  complaints  against  Peliican  and  others,  as 
being  Lutherans,  and  contributing  to  the  circulation  of 
Luther's  works.  Sazger  was  for  deposing  them,  but  the 
senate  would  not  admit  of  it,  and  said  that,  if  he  obliged 
Peliican  and  his  friends  to  leave  the  city  for  this  cause, 
they,  the  senate,  would  take  care  to  s,end  every  one  of  the 
order  after  them.  Sazger  took  the  hint,  and  left  Basil, 
where  Oecolampadius  a;nd  Peliican  being  put  into  the  situ- 
ation of  those  professors  who  had  been  their  accusers,  Pelii- 
can entered  on  a  course  of  lectures  on  the  Bible,  which 
formed  the  foundation  of  the  commentaries  he  afterwards 
{published  in  several  volumes  folio,  from  i533  to  1537. 

Peliican  continued  professor  at  Basil  until  1526,  when 
Zuinglius  invited  him  to  Zurich  in  the  name  of  the  senate 
of  that  city,  to  teach  Hebrew.  Although  be  had  been 
for  three  years  explaining  the  Hebrew  Bible,  yet  he  was 

4F  He  H  Qot  altogether  to  blame,  however.    The  life  given  by  Mclchior  wm 
imtttn  by  Peliican  himself,  and  is  upon  the  whole  a  rery  interesting  one. 

T  2 


276  PEL  Lie  A  N. 

modest  enough  to  doubt  his  abilities  for  this  ofBcd^and^wotifd 
have  declined  it  had  not  his  friends  represented  to  him  how 
much  inore  effectually  he  might  promote  the  reformation 
at  Zurich  than  at  Basil,  where  he  was  already  in  some 
danger  from  the  enemies  of  the  new  principles.  Accord- 
ingly he  consented,  and  at  Zurich  threw  off  the  clerickt 
dress  be  had  usually  worn  for  thirty-three  years ;  and,  at 
was  generally  done  by  the  reformers,  entered  into  tb^ 
married  state  with  a  lady,  who  died  ten  years  after  (in  15Z^, 
when  he  married a.second  time).  He  continued  toexecuti 
the  office  of  professor  of  Hebrew  at  Zurich  until  biff  death, 
April  1,  1556,  in  the  seventy-eighth  year  of  bts^age. 

Pellican  was  a  man  of  extensive  learning,  and  j[)artrcti-i^ 
larly  an  able  biblical  critic.  His  skill  in  the  languages^ 
and  his  critical  talents,  made  his  services  of  great  impon* 
ance  in  the  publication  of  various  works.     Amerbach,  the 

f)rinter,  employed  him  on  the  works  of  St.  Augustine  pub* 
ished  in  1506,  in  9  vols,  folio;  and  he  executed  many  trans« 
lations,  particularly  of  the  Bible,  orparttf  of  it,  theChaldee 

{)araphrases,  &c.  His  works  are  said  to  have  been  pub^ 
ished  together  in  7  volumes,  folio;  but,  although  they  may 
amount,  including  his  commentaries,  to  that  number,  there 
IS  no  such  collective  edition.' 

PELLISSON-FoNTANiER  (Paul),  a  French  academi- 
cian, and  a  man  of  genius,  was  descended  from  an  ancient 
and  distinguished  family,  and  born  at  Beziers  in  16^4. 
His  mother,  who  was  left  a  widow  very  young,  brought 
him  up  in  the  protestant  religion,  and  sent  him  toCastres 
to  learn  the  belles  lettres  of  Morus,  or  More,  a  learned 
Scotsman,  who  was  principal  of  a  college  of  the  protestants 
at  that  place,  and  father  of  the  famous  Alexander  More. 
At  twelve  years  of  age  he  was  removed  to  Mbntaubon  to 
study  philosophy  ;  and  thehce  to  Toulouse,  where  he  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  law.  ^e.  acquired  a'  good  knowledge 
of  the  Latin,  Greek,  Spaniel,  and  Italian  languages ;  but 
his  love  for  the  belles  lettres  did  not  make  him  neglect  the 
law,  which  he  studied  so  diligently  as  to  publish,  when  he 
was  not  qutfe  one-and-twenty,  **  A  Commentary  upon. the 
Institutes  of  Justinian,'*  Paris,  1645,  12tno.  Some  little 
time  after  he  went  to  Paris,  where  the  celebrated  Conrart, 
to  whom  he  had  been  recommended  by  the  protestanis  of 
Castres,  introduced  him  to  the  gentlemen  of  the. academy 

1  Melcbior  Adam."— Chaufepie. 


P  E  L  L  I  S.  S  ON,  271 

ffho  asteiiibled  at  bis  hou^ ;  but  Pellisson  soon  returned  to. 
Castres,  tbe  residence  of  bis  family,  and  applied  himself 
to  the  business  of  the  bar.  He  had  excited  the  admiration 
of  all  about  himi  and  was  going  on  in  a  most  flourishing 
way,  when  the  small-pox  seized  him,  and  disfij^ured  his 
countenance  so  much  that  his  friend  mademoiselle  dq 
Scudery  told  him  he  had  abused  the  common  liberty  of 
men  to  be  ugly.  Having  come  to  Paris  a  second  time,  he 
bad  contracted  a  friendship  for  this  lady,  and  for  nianjr 
years,  it  is  said,  they  did  not  fail  either  to  see  pr  write  tq 
each  other  erery  day.  In  1652  he  became  secretary  to  the 
king;  and  the  same  year  read  his  '^  History  of  the  French 
Academy,  from  its  establishment  in  1635  to  1652,"  to  that 
society,  who  were  so  well  pleased  with  it  that  they  decreed 
bim  the  first  vacant  place  in  the  academy,  and  that,  in  the 
meat)  time,  he  should  be  empowered  to  come  to  all  their 
meetings,  and  give  his  vote  as  an  academician;  with  a 
proviiOy  however,  that  the  like  favour  could  not  hereaft^s 
be  granted  to  any  person,  up6n  any  consideration  whatever^ 
This  work  of  Pellisson,  which  has  always  been  reckoned  a^ 
master-piece,  was  printed  at  Paris,  1653,  in.  8vo. 

Fo^iquet,  the  celebrated  superintendant  of  the  finances,^ 
who  well  knew  his  merit  and  talents,  made  him  his  first  clerk 
and  confidant  in  1657  ;  and  Pellisson,  though  niuch  to  his 
injury,  always  preserved  the  sincerest  attachment  to  him* 
Two  years  after,  he  was  made  master  of  the  accounts  a^ 
Montpelicr,  and  had  scarcely  returned  from  that  place  to 
Paris,  when  the  disgrace  of  his  patron  Fouqiret  involved 
him  in  much  trouble,  and  in  1661  he  was  «ent  to  the^ 
Bastile,  and  confined  there  above  four  year^.  Though  a 
very  strict  watch  was  set  over  him,  he  found  means  to  cor- 
respond with  his  friends,  and  even  with  Fouquet  bioiself^ 
from  whom  he  also  received  letters.  He  used  hia  utropst 
endeavours,  and  employed  a  thousand  arts  to  serve  this 
minister ;  and  he  composed  in  his  behalf  three  famous 
pleadings,  which,  Voltaire  says,  ^^  resemble  thgse  of  the 
Roman  orator  thcj  most  of  any  thing  in  the  French,  lan- 
guage. They  are  like  many  of  Cicero^s  orations ;  a  mix* 
ture.of  judicial  and  state  affairs^  treated  with  an  art  vovi 
of  ostentation,  and  with  all  the  ornaments  of  an  affecting 
elo(|Uence."  In  the  mean  time,  the  public  was  so  con- 
vinced of  his  innocence,  and  he  was  sp  esteemed  in  tb^ 
micist  of  his  misfortunes,  that  Tanaquil  Faber  dedicated  his 
fditaon  of . Lacretitts  tp  him;  and. the  very  day  4bat  Imve 


«7S  P  E  L  L  I  S  S  O  N; 

was  given  to  see  him,  the  duke  de  Moiitausier,  and  dtheir 

Persons  of  the  first  distinction,  went  to  visit  him  in  the 
iastile.     He  was  set  at  liberty  in  1666;  and,  two  years 
after,  had  the  honour  to  attend  Louis  XIV.  in  his  first  ex- 
{^edition  against  the  United  Provinces,-  of  which  he  wrote 
e  history.     In  1670  he  abjured  the  protestant  religion,  for 
which,  it  is  said,  be  was  prepared,  during  his  imprisoh- 
ment,  by  reading  books  of  controversy.     Voltaire  says, 
*'  he  had  the  good  fortune  to  be  convinced  of  his  errors^ 
and  to  change  his  religion  at  a  time  when  that  change 
opened  his  way  to  fortune  and  preferOient.**     He  took  the 
ecclesiastical  habit,  obtained   several  benefices,  and  the 
place  of  master  of  the  requests.     The  king  settled  on  him 
a  pension  of  6000  Hvres;  and,  towards   1677,  entrusted 
him  with  the  revenues  of  some  abbeys,  to  be  employed  in 
converting  the  protestants.     He  shewed  great  zeal  in  this 
Work;  but  was  averse  to  harsh  measures.     He  published 
^^  Reflexions  sur  les  differens  de  la  Religion  ;'^  a  new  edi* 
cion  of  which  came  out  in  1687,  augmented  with  an  ^*  Aii- 
iwer  to  the  objections  from  England  and  Holland,*'  in  the 
same  language.     He  employed  also  his  intervals  of  leisure, 
for  many  years,  in  writing  a  large  controversial  voiume 
upon  the  sacrament ;  but  did  not  live  to  finish  it,  and  the 
world  has  probably  lost  little  by  it.     What  he  wrote  on 
religious  subjects  does  little  credit  to  his  pen.     Eved  when 
he  died^  which  was  on  Feb.  7,  1693,  his  religion  was  a 
matter  of  dispute ;  both  papists  and  protestants  claiming 
him  for  their  own,  while  a  third  party  thought  he  had  no 
other  religion  than  what  he  found  necessairy  at  court.     He 
wrote  some  other  works  than  those  mentioned,  lioth  in 
prose  and  verse,  but  they  have  not  been  in  request  for 
many  years.     A   selection,  indeed,  was  published  lately 
(in  1805),  at  Paris,  somewhat  in  the  manner  of  the  com- 
pilations which  appeared  in  this  country  about  thirty  years 
ago,-  under  the  name  of  "  Beauties.''  * 

PELLOUTIER  (Simon),  an  historical  writer,  was  born 
Oct.  17,  1694,  atLeipsic,  but  his  family  were  originally  of 
I^yons.  Being  appointed  preceptor  to  the  prince  de 
Montbelliard's  son,  with  whom  he  spent  the  years  1712 
and  1713,  at  Geneva,  he  had  ab  opportunity  of  atteiKling 
Messrs.  Turretin  and  Pictet'^  theological  lectures  ;  and  M. 
.  Lenfaat,  whose  pupil  he  also  was,  consecrated  him  to'  the 

1  den.  Pict.«*»NiccfM,  vol.  IL  and  X^-JUfift.  Hitt, 


I 

I 


PELLOUTIER.  479 

^rvice  of  the  altar.  He  became  pastor  of  the  French 
•church  at  Berlin,  counsellor  to  the  Upper  Consistory, 
member,  and  librarian  of  the  academy,  and  died  1757,  aged 
sixty-three.  His  <<  Histoire  des  Celtes,''  printed  in  Hol- 
land, 1740,  and  1750,  in  2  vols.  12mo,  was  reprinted  at 
Paris,  1770,  8  vols.  12mo,  or  2  vols.  4to,  and  is  esteemed 
a  work  of  accuracy  and  merit' 

PEMBERTON  (Henry),  a  learned  physician,  mathe- 
matician, and  mechanist,  was  born  at  London,  in  1 694^1 
After  studying  grammar  at  a  school,  and  the  higher  classics 
under  Mr.  John  Ward,  afterwards  professor  of  rhetoric  at 
Oresham  college,  he  went  to  Ley  den,  and  attended^  the 
lectures  of  the  celebrated  Boerhaave,  to  qualify  himself  for 
the  profession  of  medicine.  Here  also,  as  well  as  in  Eng- 
land, he  constantly  mixed  with  his  professional  studies 
those  of  the  best  mathematical  authors,  whom  he  contem- 
plated with  great  effect  From  hence  be  went  to  Paris,  to 
perfect  himself  in  the  practice  of  anatomy,  to  which  be 
readily  attained,  being  naturally  dexterous  in  all  manual 
operations.  Having  obtained  his  main  object,  be  returned 
to  London,  enriched  also  with  other  branches  .'of  scientific 
knowledge,  and  a  choice  collection  of  mathematical  books, 
both  ancient  and  modern,  from  the  sale  of  the  valuable  li- 
brary of  the  abb£  Gallois,  which  took  place  during  his  stay 
in  Paris.  After  his  return  he  assiduously  attended  St. 
Thomases  hospital,  to  acquire  the  London  practice  of 
physic,  though  he  seldom  afterwards  practised,  owing  to 
his  delicate  state  of  health.  In  1719  he  returned  to  Ley- 
den,  to  take  bis  degree  of  M.  D.  where  he  was  kindly  en^ 
tertained  by  his  friend  Dr.  Boerhaave.  After  his  return  to 
London,  he  became  more  intimately  acquainted  with  Dr. 
Mead,  sir  I.  Newton,  and  other  eminent  men,  with  whom 
be  afterwards  cultivated  the  most  friendly  connexions. 
Hence  he  was  useful  in  assisting  sir  L  Newton  in  preparing 
a'liew  edition  of  his  *^  Principia,*'  in  writing  an  account  of 
bis  philosophical  discoveries,  in  bringing  forward  Mr.  Ro- 
bins, and  writing  some  pieces  printed  in  the  2d  volume  of 
that  gentleman'^s  collection  of  tracts,  in  Dr.  Mead's  *'  Trea- 
tise on  the  Plague,*'  and  in  his  edrtion  of  Cowper  on  the 
Muscles,  &c.  Being  chosen  professor  of  physic  in  Gre- 
sbam-college,  he  undertook  to  give  a  course  of  lectures  on 
chemistry,  which  was  improved  every  time  he  exhibited  it, 

I  Diet  HisU 


28Q  P  E  1^  B  E  R  T  O  N. 

and  was  publisned  in  177 1^  b^y  bis  friend  Dr.  Jan^es  WUspo*  , 
In  this  situation  too,:  at  the  request  of  the  college  of  pby-  ,  . 
siciaiis,  .he  revised  and  reforiii^^  their  pbarmacopcsiay  in  ft 
new  ajid  muqh  improved  edition,     After  a  long  and  labo^ 
ripus,  life,  spent  .in  improving  science,    and  assisting  its 
cultivators,  Dr.  Pemherton^died  ip  1771,.  at  seventyrscvea. 
years'ofage.  .  , 

Besides  the  doctor^s  writings  aboverfnentioned,  be  wrote 
numerous  other  pieces^  a^.,,  1.  '*  Epistoli^  ad  Amicuni  de^ 
Cotetiii  iqventis;"  dempnstrating  Cotes's  celebrated  tbeor 
T^ai,  and  showing  how  his  tbeprems  by  ratios  and  Ipga-  . 
ritbiyis  may  be  done  by  the.  circle  and  hyperbola.    2,  ".Ob»r 
servations  on  Poetry,"  especially  the  epic,  occasioned  by 
Gloyer's  "  Leonidas.''     5.  "A  plan  of  a  Free.  State,  witji .. 
a 'King  at  the  head  :"  not  published.  .  4.  "Account  of  tl\€^ 
aiicient  ode  printed  in  the. preface  to  West's  Pindar"-  5* 
"  On  the  Dispute  aboMt  Fluxions;  in  the  2d  vol,  of  Robins* 
works.     6.  "  On  the  Alteration  of  the  Style  and  Calendar-" 
7*  ^^  Oq  reducing  the.  Weights  and  Measures  to  one  stan- 
dard.?    8.,  "  A  Dissertation  on  Eclipses.     9.  "  On  the  . 
Loci.Plani,'*  &c.     His  nupnerous  communications  to  th^ 
Royal  Society, .  on  a  variety  of  interesting  subjects,  extend, 
from,  the  32d  to  .the  62d  vol.,  of  the  Philos.  Trans.     He  alfso 
carried  on  a  lopg  controversy  w^th  Phili^letbes  Cantabri^ 
giensis,  i.  e^  Dr.  Jurin,  in  **  The  Works  of  the  Learned,*! 
\Qh.  for  1737,  1738,  aijd  .1739. 

After  his  death,  many  valuable  pieces  were,  found*  anK)ng- 
his  papers,  viz.  A  short  IJistory  of  Trigonometry,  from 
Menelaus  to  Napier.     A  Comment  on  ^n  English  transla^ 
tion  of  Newton's  Principia.  ,  Demonstrations  of  th^  Sphe^  * 
rics  and    Spherical   Projections,    enough  to    compose  a 
trjeatise  pn  t,hose  subject^r,  ,' A  Dissertation  on  Archimedes^-  ' 
Screw,     Improvements  in  Gauging.     In  a*  given  latitude 
to  iind  the.point  of  the-'Ecliptip,  that  ascends  the  slowest^ 
To  6nd  when  the  Obtique  Ascension  differs  .most  frofn.tUe 
arch  to  which  it  belongs.     On   the  principles:  of  Merca*  . 
tor^s  and  fiddle-latitude  sailing.   .To.  find   the  Heliacal: 
Rising,  of  a  Sta^     To  compiite  the  Moan's  Parallax.     To, 
dete^niine.  the  Course  of  a  Comet  in   a  Parabolic  Orbijt*. 
And  others,   all  neatly  perfor^edr     Op,  the  w^ole,"  Dr^ 
Pemberton  appears  to  have  been  a  ql^ai^  .and  industripus,.  * 
author^.. bpt  his  writings ^are  too  diffuse  and  la^O||red«^     ,      , 

1  Button  and  Shaw'f  AbridfuaeDt  «f  ^f  Pbilof«  TraMaeCionf . 


P  E  M  B  L  E,  281 

Pil^MBLE  (Willum),  a  learned  divine,  was  born,  ac- 
cording, to  FuUer,  in  Sussex,  but  more  probably  at  Ecer-, 
ton,.in  Kent,  in  1591,  and  was  educated  at  Magdalen- 
college,  Oxford,  on  one  of  the  exhibitions  of  John  Baker,' 
of  M^ayB^ld,  in  Sussex,  esq.  Wood  informs  us  that  having 
completed  his  degree  of  hachelpr  by  determination,  in. 
11^13,  \^e  removed  to  Magdalen-hall,  where  he  became  a 
npted  reader  and  tutor,  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  entered 
into  orders,  was  made  divinity  reader  of  that  house,  be* 
came  ^  famous  preacher,  a  well-studied  artist,  ^  skilful 
linguist,  a  good  orator,  an  expert  mathematician,  and  an 
ornament  to  the  society.  '<  All  which  accomplisbmei^tSt'* 
he  adds,  *f  were  knit  together  in  a  body  of  about  thirty- 
two,  years  of  age,  which  had  it  lived  to  the  age  of  man, 
migljt  have  proved  a  prodigy  of  learning.^'  As  be  was  a 
zealous  Calvinist^  be  may  be  ranked  among  the  purit^Q^^, 
bu(  l^e  was  not  a  nonconformist.  He  died  while  on  a  visit 
to  bis  tutor,  Richard  Capel,  who  was  at  this  time  minister 
of  'E^stipgtpn,  in  Gloucestershire,  in  the  thirty-second 
y^ar  of  his  age,  April  14,  1623.  H,is  works,  all  of  which 
we^r^  separately  printed  after  his  death,  wer^  collected  in 
1  vol.  foi.  in  1635,  and  reprinted  four  or  five  times;  bu( 
this  volume  does  not  include  his  Latin  works,  ^^  De  forma- 
rum  prigine ;"  ^'  De  Sensibus  internis,*'  and  ^'  Enchiridion 
Qratoriuau^'  J^isbQp  Wilkins  includes  Pemble*s  Sermons 
in  tbe  list  of  the  best  of  his  age.^ 

,  PENA  (Jo^n),  a  celebrated  matbematiciati,  who  de-r. 
spenxlecl  from  an  illustrious  family  of  Aix,  was.  born  ^t. 
Moustiers,  in  the  diOcesp  of  Riez,  in  Provence,  in  1530« 
He  studied  the  belles  lettres  tender  Ramus,  but  is  said  to 
baye  afterwards  instructed  h^s  master  in  mathematics,  which, 
SjcieiiQe  he  taught  with  great  credit  in  the  royal  college  at. 
Pai^s,  ^e  died  A^g*  23,  1560,  aged  thirty.  M.  Pena, 
left  a  Latin  translation  of  Euclid's  *^  Catoptripa,"'  with  a 
curioqs  preface,  ajud  alsp  employed  his  pen  uppn  that  geo- 
metrician^  other  works^  and  i^pon  an  edition  of  the  ^^  Sphe- 
rica"  of  Theodosius,  Greek  and  Latin,  Paris,  155.8,  4ta,  &c.* 

.  PENGELLY  (Sin  Thomas),  a  learped  j^idge,  was  born, 
in  I^oorfields,  May  16,  1675,  and,  as  the  anonymous  au- 
t^pv  9f  bis  life  says,  was  baptii^d  by  the  name  of  Thomas^ 
app.of.  Xhoi^^^  P^pgelly ;  ^ui  others  have,  suppose^  that^ 
he  was  a  natural  son  of  Richard  Cromwell  the  protector. 

f  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  I.— FttUcr'i  WorOiifs.        ,      «  MorarU««^Dict,  Hitt. 


2$2  P  E  N  G  E  L  L  Y. 

« 

For  this  supposition  we  find  lio  other  foundation  than  tb4t 
Cromwell,  who  lived  very  privately  in  the  neighbourhood, 
bad  known  Mr.  Pengelly  from  bis  youth,  afterwards  kept 
up  a  friendship  with  him,  and  died  at  his  seat  at  Cheshunt, 
in  August  1712.  Mr.  Pengelly  was  brought  up  to  the  bat^ 
and  becoming  eminent  in  his  profession,  was  made  a  ser-^ 
jeant  May  6,  1710;  knighted  May  1,  1719,  and  in  June 
following  appointed  bis  majesty's  prime  Serjeant  at  law,  on 
the  decease  of  sir  Thomas  Powis.  He  sat  as  member  for 
Cockermouth,  in  Cumberland,  in  the  parliaments  called 
in  1714  and  1732.  He  was  made  chief  baron  of  the  ex- 
chequer Oct.  16, 1726,  on  the  death  of  sh*  JefFery  Gilbert; 
and  bis  conduct  on  the  bench  corresponded  with  the  higb 
reputation  he  had  acquired  at  the  bar.  He  died  of  an  in- 
fectious fever,  caught  at  Taunton  assizes,  April  14,  1730. 
He  excelled  in  profound  learning,  spirit,  justice,  iind  ge- 
nerosity, arid  dared  to  offend  the  most  powerful,  if  he 
thought  their  conduct  reprehensible.  He  was  a  florid,  yet 
convincing  orator,  an  excellent  judge,  a  pious  Christian, 
and  an  accomplished,  sprightly  companion.  By  a  humane 
codicil  in  his  will,  dated  in  1729,  be  left  a  considerable 
part  of  his  fortune  to  procure  the  discharge  of  persons  con- 
fined for  debt,  which  was  accordingly  done  by  his  executor 
Mr.  Webb.  There  is  a  copy  of  this  will  published  in  bis 
life,  but  the  name  of  his  residuary  legatee  is  for  some  rea- 
son omitted.  The  anonymous  history  of  Oliver  Cromwell, 
first  printed  in  1724,  has  been  supposed  to  have  been 
written  by  him,  but  this  is  doubtful.  It  has  been  also  at- 
tributed to  Dr.  Gibson,  bishop  of  Londoi^.^ 

PENINGTON  (Isaac),  a  writer  of  considerable  estima- 
tion among  the  people  called  Quakers,  was  the  son  of'  an 
alderman  of  London  during  Cromwell's  time,  who  was  lord 
mayor  in  1642,  and  Appointed  one  of  the  judges  on  the 
trial  of  the  king.  For  this  he  was  at  the  restoration  pro- 
secuted, and  died  in  the  Tower.  ^  Isaac  the  son,  was  bom 
about  1617,  and  in  his  education  is  said  to  have  bad  the 
advantages  which  the  schools  and  universities  of  bis  country 
could  give ;  but  what  school  or  university  had  the  honour 
of  his  education,  is  not  mentioned.  From  his  father's  sta- 
tion, we  are  told,  be  bad  a  reasonable  prospect  of  rising  in 
the  world,  but  chose  a  life  devoted  to  religrion  and  retire- 

1  Some  private  pasiag et  of  the  Life  of  Sir  Thommt  Penfelly,  1733,  Sto.*— 
NobVfSttppkmenttoQraDger*  '  •  .  * 


P  E  N  I  N  G  T  O  N.  28S 

iB€nt;  and,  as  he  has  himself  said,  received  impressions  of 
piety  from  his  childhood.  He  is  represented  by  himself 
and  his  sect,  as  one  who  passed  much  of  the  early  part  of 
bis  life  in  a  state  of  spiritual  affliction,  perceiving  in  him- 
aelf,  and  in  the  world  at  large,  a  want  of  that  vital  religion 
and  communion  with  the  divine  nature,  which  he  believed 
the  holy  men  of  ancient  time  to  have  possessed.  What- 
ever he  read  in  the  Scripture,  as  opened  to  his  under- 
standing,  he  determined  fully  to  practise,  and  was  con- 
tented to  bear  the  reproach,  opposition,  and  suffering 
which  it  occasioned.  It  appears  also,  that  he  met  with 
opposition  from  his  relations,  and,  among  the  rest,  from 
bis  father  ;  but  ha  declares  that  his  heart  was  preserved  in 
tove  to  them  amidst  all  he  suffered  from  them.  On  his  first 
hearing  of  the  Quakers,  he  thought  them  a  poor,  weak, 
and  contemptible  people,  although,  while  his  judgment 
Seemed  to  reject  them,  the  conferences  which  he  occa- 
Monally  had  with  them,  seemed  to  increase  his  secret  at- 
tathmfent.  At  length,  in  1658,  he  became  fully  satisfied 
respecting  them,  partly  through  the  preaching  of  George 
Fox;  and  became  himself  an  unshaken  and  constant  as- 
«erter  of  their  peculiar  tenets,  as  a  minister  and  author. 

He  married  about  1648  Mary  Springett,  a  widow,  whose 
daughter,  by  her  former  husband,  became  the  wife  of  Wil- 
liam Penn.  .  He  resided  on  his  own  estate,  called  the 
Grange,  at  Chalfont,  in  Buckinghamshire.  It  does  not 
appear  that  he  travelled  much  as  a  minister ;  for  of  six  im- 
prisonments which  he  suffered,  during  the  reign  of  Charles 
II.  five  were  in  his  own  county.  The  first  was  in  1661, 
when  the  nation  was  alarmed  on  account  of  the  fifth  mo- 
narchy men,  which  occasioned  much  disturbance  to  the 
meetings  of  Dissenters.  He  was  taken  from  a  meeting 
in  his  own  family,  and  committed  to  Aylesbury  gaol, 
where,  although  a  weakly  man,  he  was  kept  for  seventeen 
weeks  (great  part  of  which  was  in  winter)  in  a  cold  room 
without  a  fire-place,  by  which  means  he  became  unable  to 
turn  himself  in  bed.  In  1664,  he  was  again  taken  out  of 
a  meeting,  and  remained  a  second  time  prisoner  in  the 
same  gaol  for  nearly  the  same  time.  In  1665,  he  was 
taken  up  at  Amersham  as  he  was  attending  the  corpse  of  a 
friend  to  the  burial-ground  of  the  Quakers.  The  concourse 
of  that  people  who  walked  after  it  in  the  street,  seems  to 
have  been  construed  into  a  conventicle,  for  he  was  com- 
mitted to  Aylesbury  gaol  for  one  month  only,  on  the  Con* 


?8*  P  ?  N  I  N  9  T  0  N. 

^  Tenticle-  Act,  in  order  to  baBishment.     1%  is  remarkable 

^hat  the  justice,  because  it  was  not  then  convenient  tq 
4  lend  bim  from  Amersham  to  Aylesbury,  dismissed  him  tn 

i  his  word  to  come  again  the  next  day  but  one,  when  he  ac- 

cordingly came,  and  was  committed  :  as  did  on  the  same 
occasion 'several  other  Quakers.     The  same  year  he  was 
'  arrested  in  his  hous,e  by  a  soldier  without  a  warrant,  and 

.^  carriecj  beforie  a  deputy-lieutenant,  by  whom  he  was  again 

sent  to  his  old  quarters  at  Aylesbury;  and,  though  the 
pestilence  was  suspected  to  be  in  the  gaol,  and  no  crjmQ 
was  laid  tp  Bis*  charge,  he  was  kept  there  till  a  pqrsoi^ 
{  died  of  it.  .  After  about  nine  months*  confinement  be  was 

;  discbargeid ;  but  when  he  had  been  at  home  about  three 

j  weeks,  a  party  of  soldiers  came  and  seized  bim  in  bed^i 

i  carrying  bim*  again  to  prison  at  Aylesbury.     The  coldjj 

\  damp,  and  uhbealtbiaess  of  the  room,  again  gave  him  4 

I  fit  of  illn&ss,  which  lasted  some  D)onths.  At  length  he  was 

brought  by  Habeas  Corpus  to  the  bar  of  the  |Cing*s-bencb, 
and  (with  the  wonder  of  the  court  that  a  inan  should  be  so 
|on.jg;  imprisoned  for  nothing)  he  was  discharged  in  166S« 
ptirihg  one  of  these  imprisonments  his  estate  was  seized| 
I  and  his  wife  and  family  turned  out  of  hU  house, 

♦  In  ,1670,  he  was  imprisoned  a  sixth  time.     He  was  visit- 

*  ing  some  of  bis  friends,  confined  at  that  time  in  Reading- 
gaol ;  on  which  he  was  taken  before  a  justice  and  conQned 
there  himself.     Etiwood  relates,  that  during  this  con6ne<r 
ment,  which  lasted  a  year  and  nine  months,  he  incurred  a 
premupire,  as  did  many  of  the  Quakers.     For  being  from 
time  to  time  examined  at  the  assizes,  it  was  common  to 
tender  them  the  oath  of  allegiance,  which  they  refusing, 
from  their  scruple  to  swear  at  all,  they  became  criminals 
in  thd  view  of  the  law  when  they  went  out  of  court,  how7 
ever  innocent  they  might  have  been  on  their  coming  in. 
It  seems  probable,  that  the  political  principles  of  the  fa; 
ther  had  some  share  in  occasioning  the  sufferings  of  the 
son ;   who,  from  his  writings,  appears  to  have  been  of  a 
meek  and  quiet  spirit.     He  died  at  Goodnestone-courr^ 
Sussex,  in  1679,    being  about  sixty-three  years  of  age. 
Ellwpod  says,  that  his  disposition  was  coii^rteous  and  ^m- 
hle;  his  ordinary  discourse  cheerful  and  pleasant,  neither 
morose  nor  light,    but  innocently  sweet,   anid  tampered 
with  suph  a  serious,  gravity,  as  rendere^d  his  conversatioi^ 
both  delightful  and  profitahle.      His  pumeipys  wntibgt 
wercf  collected  into,  o^e  Yo}^mct  (blip^  and  published  1681  \ 


i 


P  E  N  1  N  G  T  ON.  S85 

lePterwftrds  reprinted  in  two  volumes  4to,  and  next  in  4  vols. 
tvQ,  Some  select  pieces  have  also  been  reprinted,  and 
lately^  tome  of  bis  letters,  179^,  in  octavo;  niany  of  them 
ire  dated  from  Aylesbury.  They  breathe  a  spirit  6f  ge- 
nuine philanthropy,  but,  being  deepiy  tinctured  with  tnys* 
ticism,  have  been  more  sought  for  by  such  as  are  fond  of 
that  species  of  writing,  than  by  other  readers.  * 

PENN  (William),  afterwards  sir  William  Penn,  knt. 
kdmiral  of  England,  and  one  of  the  conimanders  at  the  tak- 
ing  of  Jamaica,  was  born  at  firistol  in  1621,  of  an  anciei^t 
family.  He  was  addicted  from  his  youth  to  maritime  affairs; 
&nd  before  he  had  reached  his  thirty-second  year,  went 
throogh  the  various  promotions  of  captain ;  tear-admirat  of 
Ireland ;  vice-admiral  of  Ireland ;  admiral  to  the  Straits ; 
Vice-admiral  of  England ;  and  general  in  the  first  Dutch 
war,  and  commander  in  chief  under  the  duke  of  Vork,  ih 
the  signal  victory  over  the  Dutch  in  1665,  on  which  oc- 
casion he  was  knighted.  On  his  return  he  was  elected  into 
parliament  for  the  town  of  Weymouth  ;  in  1660,  commis- 
sioner of  the  admiralty  and  navy,  g(dvern6r  of  the  fort  and 
town  of  Kinsale,  vice-admiral  of  Munster,  and  a  member 
of  that  provincial  council.  He  then  took  leave  of  the  sea, 
but  still  continued  his  other  employments  till  1669 ;  when, 
through  bodily  infirmities,  he  withdrew  to  Wanstead  in 
"Essex,  and  there  died  in  1670.  Though  he  was  thus  en- 
jgaged,  both  under  the  parliament  and  king,  he  took  no 
part  in  the  civil  war,  but  adhered  to  the  .duties  of  his  pro- 
fession. Besides  the  reputation  of  a  great  and  patriot 
officer,  he  acquired  credit  for  having  improved  the  naval 
service  in  several  important  departments.  Qe  was  the  au- 
thor of  several  little  tracts  on  this  subject,  some  of  whicb 
are  preserved  in  the  British  Museum.  The  monument 
erected  to  his  memory  by  his  wife  in  Radclilfe  church,  Bris- 
tol, contains  a  short  account  of  his  life  and  promotions. 
But  in  Thurloe*s  State  Papers  there  are  minutes  of  his  pro- 
ceedings in  America,  not  mentioned  on  his  monument, 
which  he  delivered  to  Oliver  Cromwell's  council  in  Sept. 
1655.  He  arrived  at  Portsmouth  in  August,  and  thence 
Wrotfe  to  Cromwell,  who  returned  him  no  answer:  and, 
"^Bpolihis  first  appearing  before  the  council,  he  was  commit- 
ted to  the  Tower,  for  leaving  his  command  without  leave, 

to  the  hazard  of  the  army;  but  soon  after  discharged.* 

'  '  '  ' 

^    ^  Pemi's  and  Elhrood's  Tfistinonief!,  prefixed  to  liisATOr^.      ,| 
"^  'Biog.  Brit,— CUrkson's  Life  of  TViiltam  PeoD.' 


2S6  P  E  N  N. 

PENN  (WiLUAM),  the  son  of  the  preceding^  was  bom 
in  the  parish  of  St  Catherine,  near  the  Tower,  of  London^ 
Oct  14,  1644.  He  was  sent  to  school  at  Chigwell  in  Es-* 
sex,  which  was  near  his  father^s  residence  at  Wanstead ; 
and  afterwards,  in  his  twelfth  year,  to  a  private  school  on 
Tower^hill ;  and  he  had  also  the  advantage  of  a  domestic 
tutor.  Penn  relates,  in  a  conference  he  had  with  some 
religious  persons  on  the  continent,,  that  '^  the  Lord/*  as  he 
expresses  it^  **  first  appeared  to  him  about  the  twelfth  year 
of  his  age ;  and  that,  between  that  and  the  fifteenth,  the 
Lord  visited  him,  and  gave  him  divine  impressions  of  him« 
self.'*  Wood  informs  us,  that  during  the  time  of  Penn's 
residence  at  this  school  at  Chigwell,  ^'  being  retired  in  a 
chamber  alone,  he  was  so  suddenly  surprized  with  an  in-? 
ward  comfort,  and  (as  he  thought)  an  external  glory  in  the 
room,  that,  he  has  many  times  said  how  from  that  time 
he  had  the  seal  of  divinity  and  immortality ;  that  there  was 
a  God,  and  that  the  soul  of  man  was  capable  of  enjoyidg 
bis  divine  communications."  It  appears,  that  before  this 
time,  he  had  been  impressed  by  the  preaching  of  one 
Thomas  Loe,  a  quaker,  but  no  particulars  of  the  <;ircum* 
stance  are  known  ;  it  is  however  incidentally  mentioned^ 
that  it  Was  by  the  same  person  that  be  was  afterwards 
confirmed  in  his  design  of  uniting  himself  with  that  sect 

In  1 660,  he  was  entered  a  gentleman-commoner  at  Christ- 
church,  Oxford ;  where,  although  he  is  said  to  have  taken 
great  delight,  at  the  times  of  recreation,  in  manly  sports^ 
he,  with  some  other  students,  withdrew  from  the  national 
forms  of  worship,  and  held  private  meetings,  where  they 
both  preached  and  prayed  among  themselves.  This  gave 
great  offence  to  the  heads  of  the  college,  and  Penn,  at  the 
age  of  sixteen,  was  fined  for  nonconformity ;  but,  having 
theii  a  degree  of  that  inflexibility,  where  he  thought  him-« 
self  right,  which  he  shewed  on  subsequent  occasions,  he 
not  only  persisted  in  his  religious  exercises,  but  in  his  zeal 
joined  a  party  who  tore  i;i  pieces  the  surplices  of  every 
student  whom  they  met  with  one  on :  an  outrage  so  fla- 
grant, that  he  was  expelled  from  the  college. 

On  his  return  home  his  lot  was  not  more  easy.  His  fa<* 
ther,  observing  his  delight  to  be  in  the  company  of  so*^ 
ber  and  religious  people,  such  as  in  the  gay  and  licentious 
reign  of  Charles  IL  was  more  likely  to  prevent,  than  to 
promote,  his  rising  in  the  world,  endeavoured  by  severity 
to  divert  him  from  his  purpose.    Penn,  as  he  relates  liim« 


P  E  N  N.  287 

9dfy  was  whipped,  beaCeOi  and  finally  turaedoutof  doors, 
in. 1662.   The  father,  however,  either  relenting,  or  hoping 
to  gain  his  point  by  other  means,  sent  his  son  to  Paris,  in 
company  with  some  persons, of  quality   who  were   tra- 
velling that  way.      In   France  he  continued  some  time^ 
and  returned  so  well  skilled  in  the  language,  and  in  the  em- 
bellishments of  a  polite  behaviour,  that  he  was  joyfully  re- 
ceived by  his  father.   During  his  residence  in  Paris  he  was 
assaulted  in  the  street  one  evening  by  a  person  with  a 
drawn   sword,   on  account  of  a  supposed  affront ;    but, 
among  other  accomplishments  of  a  gay  man,  he  had  be- 
come so  good  a  swordsman  as  to  disarm  his  antagonist.     la 
one  of  his  writings  he  very  rationally  condemns  this  bar- 
barous practice,    reflecting  how  small  a  proportion   the  I 
omission  of  a  piece  of  respect  bears  to  the  loss  of  life ;  | 
which  in  this  case  might  have  been  consequent  upon  the 
rencounter. 

After  his  return  from  France,  he  was  admitted  of  Lin- 
coln's Inn,  with  the  view  of  studying  the  law,  and  continued 
there  till  the  memorable  year  1665,  when  the  plague  raged 
in  London.     In  1666,  his  father  committed  to  him  the  care 
of  a  considerable  estate  in  Ireland,  which  occasioned  him. 
for  a  time,  to  reside  in  that  kingdom.     At  Cork  he  was 
informed,  by  one  of  the  people  called  Quakers,  that  Tho- 
mas Loe,  whose  preaching  had  affected  him  so  early  in  life^ 
was  shortly  to  be  at  a  meeting  in  that  city.  To  this  meeting 
he  went.     It  is  said  that  Loe,  who  preached  in  the  meetings 
began  his  declaration  with  these  words :  ^*  There  is  a  faith 
that  overcomes  the  world,  and  there  is  a  faith  that  is  over- 
come by  the  world.**     The  manner  in  which  Loe  eplarged 
upon  this  exordium  is  not  known  ;  but  the  effect  was  the 
conviction  of  young  Penn,  who  afterwards  constantly  at- 
tended the  meetings  of  the  Quakers,  notwithstanding  all 
obstacles.    The  year  after  his  arrival  in  Ireland  he  was, 
with  many  others,  taken  from  a  meeting  at  Cork,  and  car- 
ried before  the  mayor,  by  whom  he  was  committed  to  prU 
son;  but  was  soon  released,  on  application  to  the  earl  of 
Orrery.     This  was  his  first  imprisonment,  at  which  time  he 
was  about  twenty-three  years  of  age;  and  it  tended  to 
strengthen  the  ties  of  his  union  with  a  people  whom  he 
*  believed  to  suffer  innocently.     His  father,  understanding 
his  attachment  to  the  Quakers,  remanded  him  home  ;  and 
tl|oagh  there  was  yet  no  great  alteration  in  his  dress,  yet 
his  serious  deportment  evincing  the  religious  state  of  his 


288  P  E  N  N. 

mind,  confirmed  the  fears  of  his  iatfaer,  and  gavtft  6ccas!<Hli 
to  a  species  of  conflict  between  them  not  easily  descrifaled* 
The  father  felt  great  affection  for  an  accomptish^d  and 
dutiful  son,  apd  ardently  desired  the  promotion  of  his  tern*- 
poral  interests,  which  he  feared  would  be  obstructed  l)y  thi^ 
Way  of  life  he  had  embraced.  The  son  was  sensible  of  the 
duty  he  owed  to  his  parent,  and  afflicted  in  believing  that  he 
eould  not  obey  him  but  at  the  risk  of  his  eternal  welfarie.  At 
length  the  father  Wauld  have  compounded  with*  the  son, 
and  suffered  him  to  retain  the  simplicity  of  his  manners  to 
fitll'othersj  if  tre  would  Consent  to  be  uncovered  before  the 
khig,'  the  duke  (afterwards  James  II.),  and  himself.  Pbnn 
desired  time  to  ct!>n$ider  of  this  requisition ;  and  having 
iemplbyed  it  in  fksting  and  supplication,  in  order,  as  he 
conceived,  to  kiiow  the  divine  will,  he  humbljj^  signified  td 
hiK  hxhet  that  he  corfld  not  comply  with  it.  Afteir  thi^,  th6 
father  being  utterly  disappointed  in  his  expectations,  could 
no  fon^el"  endure  the  sight  of  his  son,  and  ^'second  time 
llrove  him  from  his  family.  In  this  seclusion  he  comforted 
farmis^If  with  the  protnise  of  Christ,  to  those  who  teav^ 
fcotfse  dr  parents  for  his  sake.  His  support,  outwardly,  wai 
tlre*charity  of  his  friends,  and  some  supplies  privately  fent 
him  by  Ijis  mother ;  but,  by  degrees,  his  father,  becoming 
bontinced  of  bis  integrity  by  his  perseverance;  permitted 
bim  to  Veturn  to  the  family  ;  and,  though  lie  did  riot  give 
kim  open  countenance,  he  privately  used  his  interest  to  get 
him  released,  when  imprisoned  for  his  attendance  at  the  ^ 
Quakers'  meetings; 

Irt  16i58,  he  first  appeared  both  a,s  a  minister  arid  ari 
Author  among  the  Quakers.  We  shall  riot  pretend  t6 
gi^e  the  titles  of  all  his  numerous  tracts,  tirs  first  pVece 
has  this  title,  which  is  very  characteristic  of  the  man : 
**  Truth  exalted,  in  a  short  but  sure  testimony  gainst  aB 
those  rfeligions,  faiths,  and  worships,  that  have' been  formed 
and  followed  in  the  darkness  of  apostacy;  and  for 'that 
glorious  light  Which  is  now  risen  and  shines  forth  in  the  life 
and  doctrine  of  the  despised  Quakers,  as  the  alone  good 
old  way  of  life  and  salvation ;  presented  to  princes,  priests, 
and  people,  that  they  may  repent,  believe,  and  obey;  By 
William  Penn;  Whom  Divine  love  constrains,  in  an  holy 
cdntehipt,  to  trample  on  Egypt's  glory,  not' fearing  the 
king^s  wrath,  having  beheld  the  majesty  of  tim  who  is  invi- 
sible." The  same  year,  on  occasion  of  a  flispute  with  Tho- 
mas Vincent,  a  Prgjfbytcrian.    Penn  wrote  Ms  •*  Satidy 


P  E  N  N.  Ma 


loiiiidatk)!!  shakin ;  which  ooctsioned  biiii  to  be  imprbonedf 
a  second  dme  in  the  Tower  of  London^  where  be  remaiDedf 
abotti  seven  months;  and  from  whieb  he  obtamed  his  re*: 
kfase  abo^  6j  anotber  book  entitled  **  Innooency  with  hei 
open  faee,'^  in  which .  be  vindicated  himself  from  the 
thsagei  which  had  beeo  east  on  bifm  for  theiormer  treatise. 
In  the  Tower  abo  be  wrote  his  faxdoua  ^^  No  Gross  no 
Grown/'  or  ratfaeri  probably^  tbe  first  edition  of  it»  of 
which  the  title  was  different  It  may  be  esteencied  bis 
master^piece^  and  contains  a  strong  picture  of  Ghris^t 
^«  morality*  The  copnplete  title  is,  ^^  No  Gross,  no 
Grown ;  a  Diseotijrse,  shewing  the  nature  and  discipline 
ef.the  llojy  Cross  of  Ghrist;  and  that  the  denying  of  Self^ 
and  daily  bearing  of  Gbiist^s  Gross,  is  the  alone  w^y  to 
tke  R^t  and  KMi^dam  of  God»  To  which  are  added,  the 
living  and  dying  testimoniea  of  many  persoojs.  of  fame  and 
learniflg,  botb  of  ancient  and  modem  times,  in  fa/vour  of 
tbis  treatise^'*  It  baa  gone  ibroogb  several  editions,  and 
bas  been  laAely  tranalated  into  Freneh«  After  fats  release^ 
be  again  visited  keiand,  where  bis  time  was  employed^  m^ 
enlj  in  hi$  iiithev's  business,  but  in  bis  own  function  as  si 
mi4iister  among  dae  QaalpeKs,  and  in  applieations  to  the 
government  fbir  tbeiar  relief  from  suffering;  ini  which  appli* 
cation  he  succeeded  so  well,  as  to  obtain^  in  1*670,  an  order 
of  council  for  their  general  release  from  prison.  Thor  same 
year  be  returned  to  London,,  and  experienced  that  aoffering 
fron»  which  his  influence  bad  rescued  bis.  finendis  in  Ire« 
bmd.  The  Goafventicle^ci  came  out  this  yeu-,  by  whieh 
tbe  meetings  of  Dissenters  were  forbidden  under  severe 
pena/itiee.  The  Quakers,  however,  believing,  it  their  reli« 
gioui  duty,  eontinoed  to  meet  as  usual ;  af  d  when  some* 
ttmea  forcibly  kept  out  of  their  meeting-houses^  ihey  as^ 
sembted  ds  near  to  tbeoa  as  tbey  could  in  the  streiet.  Ait 
one  of  these  open  and  public  meetings  in'  Grecechurcb* 
s^eet^  Peaa  preached,  for  wbicb  be  wa&>commitiied  to 
Kewgate^  bis  third  imprisonment  ^  and  at  t:be  next  sesaioa 
at  tl^  Old  Bailey^  togeiber  with  William  Mead,,  woi'.iii* 
dic^ted  for  ^^ being  present  at^  and  preaching  to  kn  uadaavful^ 
seditious^  and  riotous  assetefaiy/'  He-  plealded  hia  own 
Cause,^made  a  long  and*  vigoroua  defence)  though  mon^^eed 
and  iH  tc^oted  by  the  recorder^  and  was' finally  acquitted 
by  the  jury,  wbo  first  brought, in  &.  verdict)  of  ^<  Guilty  of 
•peaJiing  in  Graeeehurch^s<)reet  ;^'  and  when  that  was  not 
afdtoitted,  ^  verdiet  of  ^  Not  guiky.'*  He  was,  never tbe». 
Vol.  XXIV.  U 


290  P  E  N  N- 

Ies8|  detained  iii  Newgate,  and  the  jury  fined.  Tbe  trial 
was  soon  after  published,  under  the  title  of  ^' The  Peofile'9 
ancidnt  and  just  liberties  asserted,  in  the  Trial  of  WiUiaoi 
Penn  and  William  Mead,  at  the  Sessions  held  at  the  Old' 
Bailey  in  London,  the  1st,  3d,  4th,  .'and  5th  of 'September, 
167a,  against  the  most  arbitrary  procedure  of  that  Court.^ 
This  trial  is  inserted  in  his  works,  and  at  once  affords  a, 
proof  of  ills  legal  knowledge  and  firmness, .  and  of  the  op- 

?ression  of  the  times.  The  pretence  for  the  detention  of 
enn  in  Newgate  was  for  his.  fines^f*  which  were  imposed  oti 
bim  cfor  what  wks,  called  contempt  of  c6urt :  but  he  i/^aar 
liberated  by  his  father's  prirately  paying  these  fines.  .  His 
paternal  kindness  now  seems  to  have  returned,  and  flowed 
abundantly;  for  he  died  this  year,  ftiUy  reconciled  to  his 
sou,  ,and  left  him  in  possession  of  a  plentiful  estate :  it  isf 
said,  about  1,500/.  per  annum.  Tenn,  in  his  ^^No  Gross,' 
ho  Crown,'*  p.  473,  edit  xiii.  1789),  bas  collected  ^ome  of 
bis  father's  dying  expressions ;  among  which'  we  find  tbia 
remarkable  one,  in  the  mouth  of  a  man  wbo'had  so  much 
opposed  the  religious  conduct  of  his  son  :---«^  Sou  William^ 
let  nothing  in  this  world  tempt  you  to  wrong  your.  C6n- 
science :  I  charge  you,  do  nothing  against  your  conscience; 
So  wi)l  you  keep  peace  at  home,  wh^cfa  will  be  a  feast  to 
you  in  a  day  6f  trouble."  .     .  .       i 

.  Near  this  time  he  held  a  public  dispute  at  Wycombe,  in 
Buckinghamshire,  with  a  Baptist  teacher,  concerning- the 
universality  of  (he  divine  light.  He  also,  wrote  a  letter  ta 
the  vice-chancellor  of  Oxford,  on  account  of  the  abuse 
which  his  friends  suffered  there  from  the  junior  scholars. 
And  during  his  residence  this  wiater  at  Penn,  in  Buckings- 
hamsbire,  he  published  his  *^  Seasonable  Caveat  against 
Popery,*'  though  it  was  the  religion  of  tbe  queen  and  of  the 
heir- apparent.  This  has  been  brought  to  prove  the  unrea«- 
«pnableness  of  the  clamour  that  was;  aftervvards  raised 
against  bim,  that  he  favoured  Popery:  an  aspersion  to 
ivhich  Burnet  gave  some  ear,  but  which  Tiilotsbn  retracted. 
Near  the  close  of  the  year,  he.  was  led  to  his  fourth  impris- 
onment. A  seijeani  and  soldiers  waited  at  a  meeting 
Vtitil  he  stood  up  and  preached ;  then  the  seijeant  arrested 
tiim,  and  he  was  led  before  the  lieutenant  of  the  Tdwer^ 
by  whom,  on  the  act  for  restraining,  nonconformist^  from 
inhabiting  in  corporations,,  he  was  again  con^mitted^  for 
six  miontfas,  to  Newgate;  During  his  confinement,  •  lie 
wrote  sereral  treatises^  and  also  addressed  tbe  pairliaot^ent^ 


ft  E  N  Ni.  «9l 

^Jbtch  WIS  then  about  £o  take  meatures*  for  enforcing  4b€ 
Conventicle  Act  with,  greater  seveiity.  Shortly  after  the 
ireleaseofPeoD  from  this  imprisoDineDt,  he  travelled)  in.  the 
exercise  of  his  mioifttry,  in.  Holland  and  Germany.,  j^eyir 
particulars  of  this  jpur^iey  ve.  preserved ;  but  it  is  a,lliuied 
to^n  the  account  of  .a  subsequent  one  which  he  plublished. 

in  1672,  be  married  Gulielma  Maria  Springett,  whose 
rather  having  been  killed  at  tbe  siege  of  Bamberi  in  the 
civil  wars,  and  her  mother  having  married  Isaac  PeniqgtQti 
of  CbaUbnt,  Bucks,  in  his  fiimily  (which  was  a  plaqe.of 
l^neral  resort  for  Quakers  in  that'oou^ty)  Guliel^ma  bad 
her  education,  and  probably  became  acquainted,  with 
Penn.  After  bis.marriage  he  resided  at  Rickmansworth, 
in  Hertfordshire.  The  same  year  he  wrote  several  contro* 
versial  pieces ;  and,  among  the  rest,'One  against  IVtuggleton. 
In  this  employment,  about  ibis  time)  be  seems, to  baye 
spent  much  of  bis  leisure  In  1674,  be  ventured,  to  write 
to  the  king,  complaining  of  the  severity  of  some  justices, 
and -Others,  to.  the  Quakers  ;•  and  some  time  after,  he  pre- 
sented to  the  king,  and  to  both  houses  of.  parliament,  a 
Ibook  entitled  >VThe  continued  Cry  of  the  oppressed  ^  for 
J^istice ;.  giving  .an  .account  of  the  cruel:  and  unjust  pro- 
ceedings against  the-  persons^  ,and  estates  of  many  of  the 
people  called^  Quakers^"  In  1675  he;  held  a  public  dispute 
near  Rickmansworth,  with  the  famous  Richard  .Baxter*  •. 

In,  1677,  in  company  .with  ^Geprge  ¥oj^  and  Robert 
Barclay,  he  again  set  sail  on  a  religious  visit  to  the  Conti* 
nenL  He  travelled  by  Rotterdam,  Leyden,  apd  Ha^rlepi, 
to  Amsterdam,  at  which  place,  bearing  of  a  persecution  of 
the  Quakers  at  Dantzick,  he  wrote  to  tbe  king  of  Poland 
an  expostulatory  letter  on  their  behalf.  He  .then».  after 
aoQie  further  stay  ,at  Amsterdam,  proceieded  by  Ospabrug 
to  Herwerden>  or  Herford,  the  residence  of  the  princess 
Elizabeth,  daughter,  of  the  king  of  Bohjemia,  ,^d.  grand- 
daughter of  James  L  .    .  . 

it  may  not^be  amiss  to  mentipa,  tnat  tjae  m^nqer  in  which 
the  ministers  of  the  people  called  Quakers/tranrel  in^he 
husiness  of  their  ministry  is  simply  this  *m  Having  a  vie^ 
of  the  country, in  which  they  believe  themselvea4iTinely 
required  to  niinister,  they  prpcejBid  from  place  vtp ;  place, 
according  as  their  minds  feel  disposed,  by  the  touches  of 
the  same  influence  which  they  conceived,  to  have,driS.w|i 
|bem  from  their  habitations.  Their  employment  is  visiting 
^  meetings,  and  often  the  families  of  their  friends  ^  a^d 

'^ "■  • '   ■  ■ '  u:2      >     •      •     . 


ftom^times  appdintifig  UMihrd  pMtt  irieetkgii  lor  Ite-irtfer^ 
ttiatioti  ef  peF9<»ns  ef  'O^et  docietlces,  whom  'iilafo  they  Visit, 
fit  their  dirty  dr  incliiiiMlon  kiftftd  th^m.  Tbi»  seems  to  tei¥^ 
b«6en  the  case  with  Penli  and  his  eomfNfr^tomi  whose  pnii- 
*  cipal  busiaeds  at  Herv^erdea  wa^  iti-  liisitiyig  the  prihces* 
and  her  family.  I^ie  ri^eiT^  thefll  wi^H  gi*eikt  rtodiHfe^, 
and  they  remained  fi^t  day»  at  hertowtf,  iti  wfaieh  iimp 
Ibey  had  many  ^ligio^te  i^p6rtfmitfe^>  botb  fer  worship 
tod  conf&c^nte^  with  her  and  iii  ber  bdto^,  trne  of  which 
was  open  to  theiul^abirtaDts  d^the  t^wti.  Oh  keai4nj^  iter- 
werden,  b^  to^l  4  eiremt  in  Gfef^marty,  l>y  OAi*iM,  Prttnc* 
fort^  Ghri>she}m,  Maiibeim,  Merrtas,  Ocloghe  (eaHcid  by 
bim8etfCui|ei>>)  Mulbein^  Wesd^  Cte^,  atidNim^uen; 
and  re^raed  t^  Amstterdani  io  less  than  a  fftohtb  after  h'^ 
had  left  it.  Aft^fr  sts^ying  ^kbout  three  days^  h'6  again  left 
tt,  and  went  by  fiorn>  Woreiim,  fiarfin^en,  L^feehwardebj 
LippenhiiS)  Gf oningen,  Embden,  and  Bi^6n,  to  his  bospi- 
table  frieiid  the  princess  Elizab^h  at  Berw^den^  whence, 
after  anbdiet  stay  ef  about  (avtv  d^ys,  ^  ^i^^ofid  circah 
brought  hirfn  to  Aimsterdahti ;  and^  fi^din  lioHi^nd  he  f^ttirnelf} 
borne,  by  Harwich  tiid  London,  tobfs  wife  and  ^famify  sit 
Weraai^ngfrui^st,  in  Strss*^x.  We  eefnd^udes  the  iiirratitis  of 
hh  joutfiey  in  theise  \vprdi :  <•  t  had  tbtit  erettitig  i^it.  of 
liit^  reiurh)  a  siveet'oMibting  atAongthem,  rn  #fafdh^(S6d** 
blesfiied  power  iinade  to  tritly  glad  t^getht^r :  and  I  c*rn  sayi 
truly  blessed  are  tbey'trtk)  feiwi  cheerfully  give  tip  *to  serve 
tbe  Lord.  Great  ^>H  be  ^tbe  ihereiase  ^ti6  giroiVtb  of  th^it 
treacittrey  wbick  i»hatl  nev^cil^.  1?6  Plim  that 'was,  and  ts^ 
aad  is  to  cohie;  the  ^^ririA,  h^}'  Uess^,  righteous, 
powerful,  andfaitbftrt  Ofee;  btgtery,  'hoiioAr,  tod  praise, 
dociiln<i6n,  and  a  kingdom,  fbr  i^Vet  and  evtir.  Amen."-*-** 
Jtlainy  remarkable  ^ircit^ina(fetnce^  otiettrlh  bis  aifccon'nt  oTtfie 
j^^urney,  partietilbi^  tbei^eflf^ood  sensibility  and  cohlfritidti 
^4811^  eirinefed  by  the  j^ihbdsa,  aftild  by  ber  iWend  stnii 
companion^  Anna  Maria,  countess  of  Hdn^si  Baft  ive  mmtt 
refer  tc^Ptenti'sbWn  kbcbdMtv^'Wbic4l  is  in  Vh  wotkst,  and 
ako^fepariE^lji^  ^taiYt.  At  l^etim^ofMs  t^ttrrti,  and  be« 
ibvehifei  ejfrterirtg  6i>  ttiis  jWney^,  hi*  re^d^bce  was*tWeJr- 
loiiighurst,  in  j^ssex^  an  n&stsite,  "probably,  of  his  wife*^; 

Ab4fut  the  tiknfe  of  bis  return  -frbro  the  tsbntinexit,  Wft 
feietvds  the  Quakers;,  ainofi^  b^er  tnethods^  cised  at  thH 
time  to  liarass  tbcHin,  #er6  vexed  bj  Idws  wliiefb  bad  been 
ttiade  agadni9t  Papists,  and  peniihies  of  twenty  pound's  'i 
moiitbjor  tvro-^third»of  tb^ijr  estates  (Stat.  &i  wid  i^a  Mir.) 


^«bf  Qwdbin  ciiencji  H9i»s^  of  P«i4(iaoa^ot,i  audi  Wns  (wioei 
4ilM»«d  ta  tpeak  cm  tfaeir  l»elialf|  kl  ii|[  cq<l(aM(t^|  probaUj; 
^  tti^ .  CosKQoag,  fof  a  bitt  for  Ibe  jfeii^  Of  the  Quakers  sqqi^ 
ilM  pMsed  tbut  bD«f9 ;  bul|  before  it  b^  p«a«Qd  tbe  Qtb?v 
Imtifi^,  it  was  set  atidle  fa^  a  prai?9gAti(Hi  of  patHafloefit 
,  In  l<SBi>  king  Cbarios,,  in  ^ofi9«|era|tiQia  ^  the  «ervic8a 
«f  bit  faib^r^  •  Se  adnMraii,  «iid  Qif  a  d§bt  due  lo  him  frQBft 
ibo^owaat  his  deatki.wJudi  ib»t  ext^^t^aat  tnwar9hba4 
vo  olfaer  raeam  «f  payings  ^ranteil  to  Peao  a  provio^^  iff 
Vorth  America^  lying  on  ite  W«4t  ai^e  .Of  tbe  I>eUwitre» 
called  ihe  Now  Nelberia^da ;  bttft,  on  this^  Qc<|aBipfi^  dono*« 
pnaated  by  tbe  king»  Jo  tespect.lo  the  gratH^ee^  PenuiyU 
vnmtu  PeoB  teon  after  publisdml  W  aepoMnt  of  the  pto^ 
vidoe^  vvith  tbe  kUig'a  potent,  det^^ibing  the  coup  try  aad 
iteipiiiKlOoe,  a)nd  ptfapoftitigoany  terois of  Bettlemeot  to  such 
aa  onight  be  incUhed  to  go  tbitboif.  Ho  ai^o  ^nt  a  tetter 
to  ffaie  nattTie  Indians^  tfiforming  ibom  of  bit  dewe  to  bojld 
bid  possessioB,  not  only  fay  ibe  king's  grants  but  with  their 
ponseot  awd  leve^  acknowledging  the  iDJiuHioo  wbicb  bad 
beeif-done  them  by  EordpeHoai  arid  assuring- tbem  of  btl 
poaicsable  inteotiioiidi  He  fthea  drew  up»  in  twenty-foot 
ertieles^  ^'The  ffandaniefttal  ConstittttiOfi  of  Paansyl* 
▼jiiija ;''  and  tbe  Mbiring  year  bo  pnbUsbed  the  '^  Frame 
of  G<M»ernflMmt  of  PennayUaoia*''  This  baying  all  tbe 
attraetloni  of  a  popoltMP  forib,  and  pvofoinirig  ulhlimited 
freedom  to  all  religbus  SO.cts;  and,  wbat  wa^^  mofd  of  aU 
agreeable  to  them,  an  emancipation  from  the  expenees  of 
an  eslabltshed  religion,  mapy  single .  pf^fsons,  end  som^ 
fiuniliei;,  went  to  the  new  province.  They  sooa  begon  to 
clear  and  imfiiof  e  their  lands^  and  to  build  ^  city,  wbi^h 
Peooi  keying  in  view  the  priomple  of.  brotherly  Ioto^ 
which  is  the  strength  of  civil  society^  ni^med  Pbiladelphioi 
CiomniimoBers  irere  abio  appointed  to  treai^  !l^itb  the  In<f 
dians;.a]id|  in.l6i%  he  v&iMl  bis  dewly-acqoired  terri<^ 
•toiy.  At  this  time  be  parsed  about  two  yei^rs  in  the  pro<t 
viace,  adjusting  its  ipterior  concerns^  and  ef.i»^li^ing  a 
frickidly  correspondence  with  bis  neigbbMrs ;  but  fojund  iti 
at  tbe  same  time,  necessary  to  vindicaie  biotself,  in  a  spi^ 
riled  letteri  from  .die  accusation  of  ambition  and  die  desire 
of  irealtk  Tbe  fbUowing^  y^tet,  1693,  be  gave  a  more  full 
description  of  Pesuisylvaiiia,  in  *^  A  Leuer  axldressed  to  the 
Goiteiiaee  ^f  the  Free  Society  of  Traders  to  that  province^ 
residing  in  Lmukn/^     Ho.j||&n):ionsi^bat  two  general 


39«  FE^N  N. 

assembliigs'tiad  been  beld;  and  mtb  i^och  concord  and  :dif^ 
patchy  that  they  sat  but  three  weekft,  and  at^eaatt  seventjr 
laws  were  passed,  without  one  dissent  in  any  materiat 
point.  He  also  informs  the  traders,  tlmt  the  assembly^ ha<l 
presented  him  with  an  impost  on  certain  goods  imparted 
and  exported;  which  impost,  after  bis  acknowledgmenta 
of  their  afFectioti,  he  bad  freely  remitted.  He  also  says, 
after  mentioning  the  establishment  of  com*ts  of  justice,  that 
to  prevent  law- suits,  three  peace-makers  htA  beeii  ch^seti 
by  every  co>inty-court,'in  the  nature  of  common  arbrtratorii; 
Before  he  left  tbe  provin(;e,  he  addressed  an  epistle  of 
caution  to  his  friends  of  the  same  religious  persuasion  set^ 
tied  in  it;  feminding  them  of  the  conspicuous  station  iit 
which  they  were  then  placed  ;  being  transplanted  from  op* 
pression,  not  only  to  liberty,  but  to  power ;  and  beseech-*'^ 
ing  them  to  improve  the  opportunity  which  God  had  noW 

{)ut  into  thei^  bands.  Having  thus  settled  his  infant  co;^ 
ony,  hereturned  to  his  wife  and  family  in  England  iu'lS84; 
Not  many  months  after  the  return  of  Penn  from  faia 
colony,  Charles  11.  died,  and  the  respect  which  Jan^es  H;^ 
bore  tolhe  late  admiral,  who  had  recommended  his  son  t0 
bis  care,  together  with  that  monarch's  personal  acquaiflt^^ 
ance  with  Penn  himself,  procured  for  him  a  free  access  at 
court.  He  therefore,  made  use  of  the  opportunity,  thus 
afforded  him,  of  soliciting  relief  for  his  persecuted. firiendi^ 
tbe  Quakers,  fifteen  hundred  of  whom  remained  prisoners 
at  the  decease  of  Charles  II.  All  this  was  ineritorioiis  j 
but  the  r^st  of  Penn^s  conduct  seems  not  quite  consistent; 
The  nation,  at  this  time,  was  justly  alarined,  as  welt  know^ 
ing  the  king's  inclination  to  popery;  but  Penn's  bi6gra«> 
phera  teli  us,  that  he  had  no  such  fears.  He  bad  long  been 
intimate  with  the  king,  and  had  given  credit  to  the  protesi^ 
tatioiis  which  James  had  repeatedly  made,  of  his  intention 
to  establish  liberty  of  conseience.  On  his  accession,  there^ 
fore,.Peiltt  took  lodgings  at  Kensington;  and  his: ready 
s^nd  frequent  reception  at  court,  drew  on  him  the  suspicion 
of  being  himself  a  Papist '  Burner,  as  was  hinted  before,' 
so  far  leaned  to  this  opinion,  as  to  mention  it  in  bis  biso* 
tory,  and  to  declare  that  Penn  was  intimate  with  Petre 
the  Jesuit,  and  employed  by  James  IL  in  H6liahd,'*]h 
1686.  Burnet  also  adds  the  following  description  of  Pernios 
character:  **  He  was  a  talking  vain  man,  who  had. long 
been  in  the  king's  favour.  He  bad  sudi  an  opinion  of  his 
own  faculty  of  persuading^  that  he  thought  none  coiild 


suail '  befoi^  4l^  though  he  was  siiigtilar  in  that  opbion ; 
fbrlie4Mi3  a  tedious  luscious  way,  that  was  dot  apt  to  over- 
<toaaea  inaii*s  reason,  though  it  might  tire  his  patience.'* 
Burnet,  therefore,  was  evidently  no  friend  to  Peun.  But 
miich  of  this  t^diousness  and  egotism  may  'be  proved  from' 
P«nn*s  works.  TUlotson  bad  the  same  suspicions  as  Bur- 
net ;  and  having  mentioned  them  publicly,  Penn,  by  let- 
ter, inquired  of  him,  if  he  had  really  spread  the  report  of 
his  being  a. Papist?  In  this  letter  Penn  has  these  words, 
ampng  others :  **  I  abhor  two  principles  in  religion,  and 
pity  them  that  own  them :  obedience  upon  authority,  with- 
out conviction  ;  and,  destroying  them  that  differ  from  me  for 
God^s  sake/'  Tillotson,  in  reply,  mentions  the  ground  of  his 
suspicion ;  namely,  that  he  had  lieard  of  Penn's  correspond- 
ing with  some  persons, at  Rome,  and  particularly  with  Jesfuits  j 
but  professes  his  particuli^r  esteem  of  Penn's  parts  and  tem-^ 
per,  and  says  not  a  word  of  his  intimacy  «^tb  Petre,  who  was 
in  England  ;  which,  had  it  subsisted,  as  both  were  public 
fiaen  at  court,  Tillotson  must  have  known.  In  reply,  Penri 
declared; that  he  held  no  correspondence  with  any  Jesuit,' 
priest,  or  regular,  in  tbo  world,  of  the  ^Lomish  communion^ 
and  «v.en  that  he  knew  not  one  any  where ;  declaring  him^ 
eelfto  be  a  Christian  whose  creed  was  the  Scripture.  In 
conclusion,  Tillotson  declared  himself  fully  satis6ed, .  and^ 
as  in  that  case  he  had  promised,  he  heartily  begs  pardon 
.of  Penn.  The  correspondence  may  be  seen  at  length  in 
Penn's  Works*.  In  this  year,  1686,  he  published  <<A 
PerjBuasive  to  Moderation  .to  Dissenting  Christians,  &c» 
bumbly  submitted  to  the  kinjg  and  his  great  council ;"  sooa 

*       /  '      '  • 

*  Theq«estioaofPemi*«iQcliiiati<Mi  Tbe  king,  by  admittiog  him  At  court, 

to  popery  is  scarcely  worth  contend*  and  flattering  and  caressing  him,  bad 

Ifig;  but  bir  friends  who  have  iaboared  turned  Che  pialn  meek  qojier  into  a 

this  poin^  so  mino^y,  seem  much  less  downvigbt  man  of  !the  world. '  Perhaps 

successfbl  in  TiBdicating  his  consist-  in  all  the  annals  of  courtly,  trick  and 

imcyin  other  matters.  .That  Peon  was  artiac#  there  caonbt  be  found  an  ia- 

not  a  papist  is  admitted  ;.  hot  he  xe-  stance  more  striking  than  Penn's  in- 

joiced  in  that  toleration  of  king  James  terview  with  the  president  and  fellows 

'  If.  the  object  of  which  was  the  exten-  of  Magdalen  college,'   as   related  ii( 

fioo  of  popery  and  papists  into  all  our  Wilmot*s  Life  of  bishop  Hough.    The 

Siblic  eitablishmenls,  schools,  and  se-  fellows  seem  indeed  to  have  £pU  the 

ioarjes,  that  it  might  ultimately  be  mortification  of  applying  to  Peon,  a^ 

the  predominant  reliigion.     If  Penn  did  a  mediator  with  the  king^  but  it  is  to 

,  not  see  tbia^Kmsequenceof  king  James!*s  their  honour  that  none  of  his  artful 

measures,  he.  most  have  been  the  dupe  bints  prevailed,  and  that  they  left  him 

ofa  man  of  far  less  capacity  than  him-  with  the  same  inclination  to  sufiWr  ia 

*U^'i  and  the  truth  appears  to  have  the  cause  of  oonscifnce,  which  bad 

^9  that>he.»a«  the  dope^  either  of  the  been  the  boast  of  him  and  his  sect, 
i,  or  of  his  own  vanity  and  interest.  ^ 


\ 


%H  1^  E  N  N^ 


pardon  $  wbipfa  wm  fotiow^  ^e  Oiext;  y«»r)  ^^jr  .^m  sias^ 
peiiabG^  of  tbie  petial  laif^.  P^i^n  presented  at)  fuld^resA  of 
Ibe  Quakers  on  thi$.  occasion.  He  alsp  weote  a*  boc^  ^li 
#€ca3i<>n  of  ^e  ol^e€^ip0$  rawed  i^gAinst  tbe  repeal  <>f  peo»l 
laws  and  ^est;  rad,  ibe  clamour  ftgaia^t  hipa  eo»tkmMi(^ 
be  w^  i)rg0d  tp  i^ttidtcat#  himiielf  from  i^  by  one^^f  hm 
friends,  Mr.  Popfie^  mareiary  to  tbe  Pkuitei^ooTofiiQe^ 
V^bijsh  be  <&1  in  «*longf»ply«  ^a|;ed  16^.  But  %e  bi4 
How  t;o  cope  with  inore  powerful  opponf  nts  tbai)  4ruoiottr<« 
Tbe  revoiuiiion  took  pUcOr  i^nd  an  ia4imal(&  ^f  Jav^es  i«as  of 
eouQse  a  auspected  pevtoo*  As  bo  was  walkv^  ,h)  Wbke^r 
ballf  be  was  ^Ofsmoned  befem  ibe  .eoimoili  tfa^  sitting! 
and,  iboof^  votfaiag  wU  proved  mgsimi  )uIb»  be  Ym»  boiml 
|o  ^appear  ibe  &tU  day  of  tbo:  fol^wing  tor ff^i  hu%  bekig 
continued  1^  ^be  neist  'on  (the  ^ame  bail,  ho  was.  thiaa  dia^ 
okarged  in^ipiso  oooi^:  notbang^tHig  laid  to  kis  obarg^» 
In  i£e  beginning  of  1^90^  lie  f99»  again  broiigbt  befiofo 
tbe  couBciJ,  and  aAouiod  of  ^inreapoodiQg  wi^b  Ja»«iSt 
fhey  required  baU  ^f  ^afi  ^la^fore;  but  ke  ^a^poaM  ^ 
^be  king  kinsaei^  wbo>  $fier  a  long  oontoeaeO)  inclined 
to  acquit  kioi ;  neirartkeless,  M  tbe  iosi^aoe  of  aoipe  of  ike 
oounctl^  be  ¥Mt»»i5eooad:  Mmekoki  a  wbite  ro  baU^  <biufi  #( 
length  disekafgerf,.  <Sk¥)ii  after  lijbifw  io  ike  ^%ini»  year,  be 
wa3  <chaM|red  i^iib  odfaering  to.  die  ^ngwee  of  tbe  killgdoaq^ 
but  proo?  ^aUjtti^  be  was  ia^m  cfeased  b^  ibe  coiu^  of 
King^^beocb.  fieiog  now»  a^  be  tbofight;^  ^  likerty^  -bt 
prepared  to  go  Again  io  PenQsyl^Mia»  and  pubUsbed  pm^- 
poaals,for  «iiotk^  ^dttiiemwt  tberis ;  bilt.^ii  toy^e  wal 
prevented  by  another  accusation,  supported  by  the  oath 
df  otife  Ifl^IKat^  Fulte^  (a  man  wl^m  tbe  parimnkem  after- 
wards declared  tp/he  a  cheat  and  impostor) ;  Mpon  wbiicb  ^ 
warrant  was  granted  lor  arresting  kim,  and  he  uMpmiAy 
js^seapied  it,  at  hi^  retufu  ft-om  the  burial  of  George  Fo^. 
Hitherto  he  kad  sucoessfuUy  defended  kimself;  but  noiw^ 
Hot  choosing  to  expose  his  character  to  tbe  oaths  of  a  pnfO^i 
Sigate  man,  he  withdrew  f«>0Qi^  public  notiice,  tUl  tbe  k^tier 
part  of  1693  ;  when,  through  the  aiediation  of  bis  frteaFdi 
jat  court,  he  was  once  more  adoditted  to  plead  b!s  own  clause 
before  the  king  and  council ;  and  he  so  levaooed  kis  kuio«r 
cence,  that  he  was  a  foprth  time  acquitted.  He  e^aptoy^ 
himself  in  his  reUrements  in  writing.  Tbe  most  geoeralljr 
known  production  of  hfs  'seclusion^  bears  the  ti«ie  ^ 
Fruits  of  Solitudoi  in  Reflections  and  Maxims  relatiog 


€t 


■ 


PENN* 

to  4M  Msdiict of  4mi»m  life;**  And  «nt>tter'iiot' ks9  valued 
^f  hi9  met  it  bk  ^<  Key,  Ac.  to  discern  the  diiFereiice  be^ 
tween  ibeiselifiofi  .prole^aed  by  ibe  peeple  cnUed  Q»aker$» 
m4  ^e  pervei^itty  &c.  ef  ihetr  eiWermries,  Ac/* :  wbiob 
baft  :gfme  #mnigh,  ttpnabe  editions  at  least    Not  long  afteir 
liiiB  «estoliation  to  #ocfttfty,  he  loal  Ms  wile,  which  affected 
tarn  so  misbhi  that  he  seid  all  bis  other  troubles  were  nth* 
tbtegiflkeefiipatisoe  of  ibis;  e«dlbe  published  a  short  tuQ^ 
counts  ber  cfaarioter^  dybig^expresMons^  tod  pioua  end. 
T'he'foUowi'fig  year,  be  s^^peared  as  the  eulogist  of  George 
FoUi  ta  m  loeg  fMefece  to  Fex*8  Jouitiai,  then  fmblished* 
Ttbe  pr^iee,  giiriiig  a  aummary  account  of  .the  people 
wbeoi  Fox  bad  been  ae  nraob  the  ineaos  of  imiting,  has 
beetfi  aevAml  times  primed  s^paralelyv  under  tbe  title  of 
f <  A  l>vief  AcoemH:  of  tbe  rise  and  .progtess  of  the  people 
caUed  42uakera/*     It  has  passed  through  mftay  edit^otw  in 
^a^sbi  two  in  French^  and  has  been  translated  into  Ger-» 
nan  hy  A.  -F.  Wenderbern*    Tbe  same  year  he  travelled 
a»ia  minialer  in  aoove  of  tbe  western  counties  $  and.  in  the 
liei^  me  find  bim  tbe  public  ad^rocate  of  the.  Qoafcers  to 
perliettient,  before  wbooi  a  bQI  waa  then  dqieodiirg  for 
4beir  eese  in  die  case  of  oatbt^     In  tbe  early  pkrt  of  i  696^ 
be  flMirried  a  aecond  wife^  and  soon  aifoer  lost  his- eldest  son^ 
S^ageitt  3Pemi,  who  appi^ars,  from  the  character  given 
to  Uin  by  bis  father^  to  have  been  a  Itopefvil  atid  pioiis 
yeswg  frnTO)  just  ooomig  of  age.    Tbe  same  year  he  added 
eee  ^nere  to  bis  abort  tracts  despriptifre  of  Quakerism, 
under  tbe  title  of  ^'Prioiiti^e  Christiufiity  revived,"  &c. 
and    now  began   bis   paper  controversy  with  the  noted 
Qewge  Keidiy  who  from  a  champion  of  Qoakerismi  and 
Umb  itttilnate  «f  Barclay,  bad  become  one  ef  its  violent  op^ 
pouents.     Keitb'a  severest  sract  accuse   Penn  and   fail 
btwlbr^  irf^hstsm.     in  Ifidf,  a  bill  depending  in  parUa« 
ttiBiMt  egaiost  blaspfaeasy,  be  presented  to  the  House  of 
QeeT%  ^  A  Caudoe  requiaite  in  the  coasideratioH  of  that 
Bill;**  u^erefai  beedvimd  that  the  teitii  .migbt  besode^ 
fitted^  as  to  prevent  malidoos  prodecutiona  under  that  pre-^ 
leace.   BkitdMe  bill  was  dropped.  ,  In  169^^  be  travelled  as 
m>  preaicber  in  Ireland^  and  the  following  winter  resided  at 
Briatol.     la  1699^  he  again  sailed  for  bis  pnmuce,  with 
las  wile  and  fkmilyv  intending  to  inake  it  bis  future  resi« 
den^e^  but^  during  bis  abvmcei  an  attempt  was  made  \o 
Undermine  proprietary  goverlimeot^,  tinder  colour  of  ad* 
wneieg  <the  4itig*s  piefogaitive.   A  bUl  for  libe  purpes^waa 


29fi  PE  NiN: 

brought  into  pafliMient,  biit  the  tneii^tt're  vihM  po^pobed^ 
ttntil  his  return,  at  the  intercession  of  his  frieiidi ;  who 
atso  gave  him  early  infonnatibn  of  the  hostiie  pt^eparatibns^- 
amd  be  arrived  in  England  the  latter  part  of  1701.  After 
his  arrival,  the'  measure  was  laid  aside,:  and  Penn  once 
more  became  welcome  at  court,  by  the  death  of  king  Wil« 
Ham,  and  the  consrequent  accession  of  queen  Anne.  Oti 
this  occasion,  he  resided  once  more  at  Kensington,  and 
afterwards  at  Knightsbridge,  till,  >ia  1706,  be  removed  to 
a  convenient  house  about  a  mile  from  Brentford.  Next 
year  he  was  iuv-olved  in  a  law-suit  with  the  executors  of  a 
person  who  had  been  bis  steward ;  and,  though  many 
thought  him  aggrieved,  his  cause  was  attended  with  such 
circuniisUtnces,  as  prevented  his  obtaining  relief,  and  he 
was  driven  to  change  his  abode  to  the  rules  of  the  Fleet,' 
until  the  business  was  accommodated;  -which  did  not  hap^ 
pen '  until  the  ensuing  yean  It  was  probably  at  this  time, 
that  he  raised  6,600^.  by  the  mortgage  of  his  province. 

After  a  life  of  almost  constant  activity  and-  employment^- 
he  found,  at  the  age  of  sixty-five,  that  the  infirmities  ol 
age  began  to  visit  him,  and  to  lessen  his  abilities  for  tra<^ 
veiling  with  his  wonted  alacrity;  yet,  in  the  y«ar  1T09, 
be  visited  the  west  of  England,  and  some  counttea  nearer 
bis  residence  in  the  metropolis.  But  at  length,  in  1710, 
finding  the  air  near  the  city  not  to  agree  with  bis  declining 
constitution,  he  took  a  handsome  seat  at  Rushcombj  near 
Twyford,  in  Berkshire,  at  which 'he  continued  to  reside  to 
the  time  of  his  decease.  In  171 2,  be  had,  at  distant  tindesj 
three  fits,  thought  to  be  of  the  apoplectic  kind.  The  last 
of  these  impaired  his  understanding  and  memory,  so.  much 
as  to  render  him  unfit  for  public  action  afterwards.  His 
friend,  Thomas 'Story,  an  eminent  Quaker^  who  had  beea 
the  first  recorder  of  the  corporation  of  Pfaiiadelphia,  made 
bim  annual  visits  after  this  time,  to  his  death.  In  17 IS 
and  1714,  he  found  him  cheerful,-  and  able  ta  relate  past 
transactions,  but  deficient  in  utterance,  and  recollection 
of  the  names  of  absent  persons.  In  1715,  bis  ibemory 
seemed  further  decayed  ;  but  both  in  this,  and  the  foriiier 
year,'  Story  relates,  that  he' continued  to* -utter  in  the 
Quakers*  meeting  at  Aeading,  short,  but  sound  and  sen- 
sible expressions.  This  year  he  also  tried,  but  without 
benefit,,  the  effect  of  the  waters  at  Bath.  In  ]7.i€,  'he 
aeemfed  glad  to  see  his.  friend,  and  at  parting  with  him  an^ 
another,  he  said,  **  My  ;iove  is  with  you»    The  .I^ord  pr&p' 


P  E  N  N.  99$ 

serre  jtm,  and  renmember  me  in  tbe  everbttiag  coVtoMt.** 
In  Uify  -lie  scarce^  knew  fab  old  acquaintan^)  or  could 
i9alk>  without  leading.  His  decease  was  on  the  .30th. of 
Jiily>'17l8,  and  his. interment  the  5tb  of  the  next, ii^ontb, 
at'iordan,  near  BeacenafieAdy  Bujckioghamshire.  Without 
attempting  to  draw  up  ar^ular.ofaaracterof  WiUiam.PenUp 
it  must  be  evident  from  bis  woAs,  that .  he  was  a  iban  (d 
abiiitiea;  aodyfnom  his  conduct  through  iife,  that,  he  was 
a  man:of  tbe'^pnsest  cohscieooe.  This,  without  acqedlng 
to.biftoptiiioo8  iu  religioo,  we  are  perfectly  willing  to  allow 
smd  to  dadare  J  i 

.P£NNANT  (Thomas),  an  eminent  traveller,  naturalist^ 
and  antiquary,  was  born  June  14,  1726*,  at  Downing,,  in 
Flintshire,  the. seat  of  his  family  for  several  generations. 
He  .was.  the  son  of  David. Pennant,  and  his  mother  was  tbe 
daagliter.of'Riofaard  MyttonQf..HaUtoo..^  He  was  educated 
first:  *  at  ^;Wrexham,  then  .at  Mr.  Croft^s  school  at  Fulbam, 
and  .last  at  .Ctueen's.and  O^Lel .  colleges,  Oxford,  where, 
however,  he  took  no  degcee,  but  was  qompliooented  with 
diat-vf : LL. D«  in  the  year  1771,  long  after  be  bad  left  the 
university.  ....  j 

A  present  of  the  ornithology  of  Francis  Willougbby, 
made  to  him  at  the  age  of  twelve,  gave  him  a  taste,  for  that 
fitudy^  andta  love  for  natural  history  in  general,  which  be 
afterwards  pursued  with  j  constitutional  ardour,,  and  great 
reputation ;  to  such  small  matters  do.  men.  of  talents  some* 
times  owe  their  prevailing  bias,.  In  1746-7,  he  made  a 
toiur:  into:  Com wall^  where  he  contrapted  a  strong  passion 
fox  minerals  and  fossils.  The  first  production  of  bis  which 
appeared  tu  pnot,  though  unknown  to.himself,  was  an  abr 
ataract  of  aletter  which  be  wrote  to  his  uncle,  John  Mytton, 
esq«  on  an  earthquake  which,  was  felt  at  Downing,  April  2« 
dl7.i&0;  ,: This. appeared'!^  tbe  Philostopbical  Transactions. 
Inrl7^4,  be  wtts. elected  a  fellow*of  tbe  Society  of  Antir 
quaries,:  an  booonr?  which  he  resigned  in  1760.;   Accord;^ 

*  «To,pra?eQt  al)  disputes  about  to  Miss  Jenny  Parry,  of  Merton,  in 

ttie  place  and  time  of  my  birth, "  be  it  this  pdrish;  who,  to  her  dying  day» 

fcntWn  thai^I  wflia  bum  .<m  Juife  14,  .  nerer .  failed   tefling  »e,   <*  Ab,  y(^ 

1736,  old  style,  in  the  room  .bow  called  rogue  !  I  remember  you  when  you  had 

the  yellow  room ;  that  tbe  'celebrated  '  not  a  shirt  to  your  back.*' 

Itri.  Clayton,  of  ahrewsbnry,  ushered  Pennsat's  Hist,  of  Whitefgnd 

fa^  intO'-the  wwld,  %od  delivered  me  ,      :    .        ^^^  Holywell. 

'  ^.']^>je  aepouDt,  now  altered  in  some  jmrts,.  was  drawn  up  for  the  last  edition 
pi  this  Dictionary.— A  very  elaborate  life  lias  lately  been  published^  by  Mir. 
<nkiiist>n,  in  S'rols.'  etO.^>i«8ee  also  Bior.  Brit.<*-^nd  Life  prefixed  to  bit  Wori», 

a'las,  3  Toll,  folio. 


3«0  PEWNAN.T. 

!i>g  40  fais  own  aceosmt^  Iki^  foreti|^  at  this  fime  ipm  snialk 
^^I  bad)^'  sajsJae^  ^'married  a  most  amiahlewtrwUyVi^f 
circoinstances  M^ere  very  narrow,  my  worthy  father;  btiog 
dlive,  and  i  vainly  thought  my  faappihesi  wcnsid  h^^VB  bteh 
^^manent,  and  that  I  never  ahould  hame  he&k  called  aga^n 
lirom  my  tetire^tient  to  amuse  myself  in  toWn^  or  to  be  of 
toe  to  the  society.'* 

Pt«vk>U8  to  thii  resif^tion,  however^  m  1754^  be  viaitM 
Ireland  ;  \m%  such  was  the  oonviviality  of  .the  eouiitry)  that 
fate  jooTQal  proved  as  meagpre  ^s  his  ent^rtahmreot  was 
plentiful,  '*  so  it  never  was  a  dish  fit  to  bb  offered  to  tfas 
|>uUick.'-  In  1756,  be  published  in  the  ^'.  Philosophical 
Transactions/'  a  paper  on  severai  coralloid  bodies  he  had 
4:oiiected  at  Coali]rrook-dale,  in  Shropshire*  In  17i7,  aft 
the,  instance  of  the  ceiebratcd  Linnssu^^  he  was  elected  df 
the  Royal  Society,  at  Upsal,  which  he  calls  the  first  and 
greatest  of  his  Kterary  honoun/*  He  kept  «p  a.corre«- 
«pondence  with  Linnaeus,  till  age  and  infittfiities' obliged 
the  latter  to  desist. 

In  i 761,  he  began  his  << British  Zoology,"  wfaidh^  wiicfa 
completed,  consisted  of  132  plates  on  imperial  paper,  att 
engraved  by  Mazel.  Edwards,  the  celebfated  omithor 
logist,  conceived  at  first  a  little  jealousy  on  this  attemipl^ 
lynt  it  very  soon  subsided,  and  they  contracted  a  great  tti^ 
tamacy,  which  ended  only  with  the  death  of  Mr.  Edward 
He  devoted  the  profits  of  the  '*  Bntidi  Zoology"  to  the 
'Welsh  charity  school,  in  Gray's  inn-bne,  London,  and 
supported  the  far  greater  part  ol  the  e^enoe ;  but  he  lost 
Considerably  by  it,  and  the  school  did  ndt  gain  so  much  as 
it  might  if  the  work  had  been  printed  in  a  quarto,  instead 
4>f  a  large  folio  siee.  But  he  confesses  be  ivas  at  that  time 
inexperienced  in  these  affairs. 

In  1765,  he  made  a  abort  tiowe  to  tiie  epnlinent,  whirls 
lie  enjoyed  the  company  of  the  celebrated  Bttfbii,^  who 
publicly  acknowledged  his  &vouraUe  sentiments  of  Mtk 
Pennant's  studies  in  the  fifteenth  volume  of  his  ^^  Natural 
.iHistory."  They  had  afterwards  a  dispute  on  branches  o^ 
their  respective  studies,  but,  adds  our  author,  ^^  our  blows 
were  light,  and  I  hope  that  neither  of  us  felt  atiy  material 
it^ary."  At  Ferney  he  visiteql  Voltaire,  who  happeJ>ed  tp 
be  in  gdod  humour,  and  was  very  entett^ining ;  bfft  in  his 
'attempt  to  ^peak  English^  satisfied  the  visitors  that  he  ^as 
perfect  master  of  the  oj^ths  and  curses  wb^ch  disgrace  ihi^ 
language. 


PENNANT*.  301 

'  Dtfriog  iHAb  tour,  Mr.  Pennant  visited  Itlso  bistron  Halter, 
the  two  Gesneriy  the  poets,  and  Dr.  Trew,  a  venerable 
patron  of  natural  history,  who  resided  at  Nuremberg.  At 
the  Hague,  he  met  with  Dr.  PaHas,  and  this  meeting  gave 
the  to  hn  "  SjmopMs  of  Quadrupeds,'*  and  the  second  edi* 
tion,  tinder  the  name  of  the  **  History  of  Quadrupeds,''  a 
work  received  by  the  naturalists  of  different  parts  of  Europe 
in  a  manner  uncommonly  favourable.  Mr.  Pennant  had 
proposed  this  plan  ^o  Pallas,  but  owing  to  the  latter  being 
promoted  at  the  court  of  Petersburgh,  it  ultimately  de« 
▼olved  on  himself.  In  1767,  after  his  return,  he  was 
elected  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society.  In  1768,  his  British 
Zoology  was  published  in  two  volumes,  8vo,  and  the  book* 
teller  gave  Mr.  Pennant  \00L  for  permission  to  do  so,  which 
he  immediately  vested  in  the  Widish  charity-school. 

In  1769,  he  added  a  third  volume,  in  octavo,  on  the 
reptiles  and  fishes  of  Great  Britain.  In  the  fifty-eighth 
▼oiume  of  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  was  published 
his  account  of  a  new  species  of  Pinguin,  brought  by  cap* 
tain  Macbride,  from  the  Falkland  islands.  In  the  same 
year,  in  conjunction  with  sir  Joseph  Banks,  and  Mr.  Leten^ 
who  had  been  a  governor  in  one  of  the  l>Qtch  islands  in 
the  Indian  ocean,  he  published  twelve  plates  of  Indian 
Zoology,  but  chat  work  was  afterwards  discontinued.  In 
the  spring  of  this  year,  he^acqaired  one  whom  he  calk  ^ 
treasure,  Moses  Griffith,  to  whom  the  public  are  indebted 
for  numberless  scenes  and  antiquities,  and  who  accom- 
panied Mr.  Pennant  in  all  his  journeys  except  that  of  the 
present  year,  which  was  his  first  tour  into  Scotland.  "  I 
had,**  says  he,  **th«  hardiness  to  venture  on  a  journey  ta 
the  remotest  part  of  North  Britain,  a  country  almost  as 
little  known  to  its  southern  brethren  as  Kamtschatka.  I 
brought  home  a  favourable  account  of  the  land.  Whether 
it  will  thank  me  or  ho  I  cannot  say,  but  from  the  report  I 
have  mad«,  and  shewing  that  it  might  be  visited  with  safety^ 
H  has  ever  since  been  inondit  with  southern  visitants."  This 

J  ear,  also,  be  was  elected  fellow  of  the  Royal  Academy  at 
)rontheim. 

In  1770,  he  published  103  additional  plates  to  the  Bri- 
tish Zoology,  with  descriptive  additions  ;  and  in  1771,  he 
|irinted,  at  Chester,  his  **  Svnopsis  of  Quadrupeds,**  irt 
erne  yoluine,  8vo.  In  May  of  the  same  year,  he  was  Ho- 
notfred  bV  the  university  of  Oxford,  with  the  degree  of 
doctor  or  laws,  conlferred  in  full  convocation.    About  th^ 


MB  PENNANT. 

close  of  the  year^  be  gare  to  the  public  his  ''Tomr  itt 
Scotland,"  in  one  8vp  volunae^  oroameDted,  as  all  h^  works 
are,  with  plates.  A  candid  accoui;it  of  that  country  was 
80cb  a  novelty,  that  the  impression  was  instantljr  bought 
up,  and  in  the  next  year  another  waa  printed,  and  a&;  soon 
sold.  In  this  tour^  as  in  all  the  succeedinir,  he  laboured 
earnestly  to  conciliate  the  aflFections  of  the  two  nation^  so 
wickedly  and  studiously  sc^t  at  variance  by  evil^desigiiiqg 
people;  and  he  received  several  yety  flattering  letters  on 
the  occasion.  In  the  Philosophical  Transactions  of  this 
year,  he  has  an  (Recount  of  two  new  species  of  tortoises..     ; 

On  Allay  18,  1772,  he  began  the  loo^st^of  his  journey^, 
in  our  island.  This  was  his  ^'  Second  Tour  in  Scotland^ 
and  Voyage  to  the  Hebrides.*'  "My  success,"  he  ob- 
serves on  this  occasion,  ^^  was  equal,to  my  hopes :  I  pointed 
out  every  thing  I  thought  would  be  of  service  totbexoun- 
try :  it  was  roused  to  look  into  its  advanti^es ;  societies 
have  been  formed  for  the  improvements  of  the  fishieries, 
and  for  founding  of  towns  in  .proper  places :  ,to  all  whicb^ 
I  sincerely  wish  the  most  happy  event;  vast  sums  will, be 
flung  away;. but  incidentally  numbers  will  be  benefited, 
and  the  passionsof  patriots  tic)£led«  I  confess  that  my  own 
vanity  was  greatly  gratified  by  the  compliments  paid  tome 
in  every  corporated  town.  Edinburgh  itself  presented  me 
with  its  freedom,  and  I  returned  rich  in  civil  honours."    .  . 

In  1773,  be  pablishe^  the.  8vo  edition  of  "Genera. of 
Birds,'*  and  performed  a  topr  through .  the  north  of  Eng* 
land,,  where  his  companion  Mr.  Griffith  made  a  great 
many  drawings  of  antiquities,  &c.  several  of  which  were 
afterwards  used  by  Mr.  Grose,  in  his  <*  Antiquities  of  Eng* 
land,"  In  this  tour  he  contracted  'an,  acquaintancfi  ..with 
Mr.  Hutchinson,  the  historian  of  Durham,  in  a  singular 
manner,,  which  we  shall  give  in  his  own  words :  ^^  I.  was 
mounted  on  the  famous  stones  jn  the  church^yard  of  Pen«-^ 
rith,  to  take  a  nearer  view  of  them,  and  see  whether  the 
drawing  I  had  procured,  done  by  the  rev.  Dr.  Tod,  had  the 
least  foundation  in  truth."  Thus  engaged,  a  person. of 
good  appearance,  looking  up  at  me,  observed  ^^  what  fine 
work  Mr.  Pennant  had  made  with  those  stones.^'  I  saw  he 
|iad  got  into  a  horrible  scrape ;  so,  unwilling  to  make  bad 
worse,  I  descended,  laid  bold  of  his  button,  and  told  hiai> 
*<.!  am  the  man  !"  /After  his  confusion' was  over,  I  'made ^ 
short  defence^  shook  bim  by  the  hand,  and  we  Uecame 
from  that  moment  fast  friends."    An  account  ofbiurtof 


pt;k  n  a  Jiir  sos 

(bis  }&tirriey,  Mr.  Pennant  left  in  m8ni]9<;ripfy  HloStrBled 
Witb  drawings  by  Mr.GrliBth.  Mr.  Pennant  performed  all 
his  joarneys  on  horseback,  and  to  that  be  aitdbnted.bis 
healtby  old  age.  He  considered  the  absolate  resijcnatibn 
of  one^s  person  to  the  luxury  of  a  carriage,  to  forebode  a 
▼ery  short  interral  between  tbat^  andthe  vehicle  which  is 
to  convey  us  to  our  last,  stage. 

-  In  1774,  he  published  a  third  edition,  with  additional 
plates,  of  his  *}  Tour  in  Scotland,^*  in  4to,  and  his  Voyage 
to  the  Hebrides  in  the  same  size.  In  the  same  year,  he 
visited  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  journeyed  through  various  parts 
of  England.  In  1775,  appeared  his  third  and  last  volnme 
(^  the  ^'Tour  in  Scotland,*'  perfomied  in  1772.  These 
tburs  have  been  translated  into  German,  and  abridged  inr 
French.  In  1777,  he  published  a  fourth  volume  of  the 
*^  British  Zoology,'*  containing  the  vermes,  the  crustacecus 
and  iestaceotts  ^nimah  of  our  country. 

After  several  journeys  over  the  six  counties  of  North 
Wales,  in  which  be  collected  ample  materials  for  their 
history,  he  published  the  first  volume  of  them  in. the  form 
of  a  tour  in  1778;  and.  in  1781,  the  second,  under  the  title 
of  **  A  Journey  to  Snowdon."  In  the  same  year  a  ,new 
edition  appeared  of. his  *' Synopsis  of  Qaadr upefds,"- in 
2  vols.  4to,  with  considerable  improvements.  The  liberties 
which  the  country  gentlemen,  in  the  character  of  deputy*. 
Ueiitenahts,'  and  inilitia-officers,'  now  and  then  took  with 
their  fellow*subjects,  urged  him  about  this  time  to  publish 
**  Free  Thoughts  on  the  Militia  Laws." 
/  In  this  year,  1781,  he  was  elejcted  an  honbrairy  member 
of  the'society  of  Antiquaries  at.  Edinburgh.  In  tte  Philo- 
•opbicfti  Transactions  of  the  same  year,  was  published  his 
history 'of  the  Turkey^  which  he  made  appear  was  a  bird 
pleeuliar  to  America,  and  unknown  before  the  4iscQvery  of 
that  continent :  also  a  paper  on  earthquakes  felt  in  Flint-* 
ibire.  In  1782,  he  published  his  "Jodmey-ftom  Chester 
lb  London."  In  1783,  he  was  elected  a  miember  ^of  the 
Societas  Physiographica,  at  Lund,  in  Sweden.  In  17B4> 
appeared  his  "  Letter  from  a  Welch  Freeholder  to  his  Re^ 
presentative."  The  same  year  he  published  his  **  Arctic 
Zoology,-  two  volumes,  quarto,  containing  the  classes  of 
quadrupeds  and  birds.  This  work  gave  occasion  to  bis 
being  honoured,' in. the  year  179^^1,  by  being  elected  mem r 
ber:  of    the  American  Philofophiual  Society '  at .  PWla- 

delpbia.    ,  :/  :  ii 


SM  t  K  K  N  A  N  T. 

In  M»j  ]r7  94,  fa&  was  deciei  membeir .  of  the  fiayni 
Aeademy  of  Sciences  at  Stockbolfli.;  ancl  in  J^nuaiy  llSi^^ 
an  bonorapy  member  of  the  Edinburgli  Socictjr  for  pm^ 
noting'  of  uainral  koo«ledgc ;.  of  the  Sbciety  of  Asniqiia-t 
vie»  at  Pevtb ;  and  tiope  Agnculiural  Socitty  at  Odiasn^  in 
Hampslure.  In  i797^  be  publisii«d.  a  Sappleinent  to  tile 
Arctic  Zoology.  As  in  1777^  be  bad  again  narfiedi  htt 
dfacofitinued  lifs  temrt  until  tbe  spving^  lilBI^  whitn  .be-  vi- 
sited tbe  dockyardf,  and  tra^itlled  by  brad  ffem  Ba^tfo^ 
following  die  coast  tor  the  Landla^cndL 
'  Besides  tbese  greater  works,  of  eeraflMhor,  he  att  seirerii 
times  gttTe  the  public  seme  tribes,  which  he  eoliect^d  some 
years  ago,  and  printed  foe  the  amusenient  of  his  frieadii^ 
shirty  eopies  at  a  pvivute  ptess^  Tbe  prindpai'  wba  hitt 
^  History  of  tbe  Patagoniaaa  ;^*  wipiefa,  wkb  seihe  etfaenl^^ 
he  gave  to-  the  pobiic,  along  wkbbia  ^^Xitarary  lifa/^:  ^ 
In  1790,  he  published  bis  ^*  Aceowit  of  Lmdodv'^  tto 
antiquities  of  wbioh  be  had  studied  with  gi^BJtimi&tktiiMU  Of 
this  work  be  saysy  ^^^  I  had  so  o£te»  walked  sdoNMit  ihei^e^ 
yal  pans  of  London^  'with*  my  note4iai^  in  toy  faan<^  that 
I  could  not  help  formiRgconskieKableeoliectiioaa  a#iliatf^ 
rials.  Tbe.  publk  veeeii«ed  this  work  wiib  cbe^utaMist  avi^ 
dky.  It  went  through  thvee  lanrge  impiisssiQiis  in  sdbadf 
two  years  and  a  baH/'  Maay  addbtioiM'  wete  wade  ta»  tfal| 
second  edition.  ;.  ." 

In  1793,  be  published  hi^  Hfe,  under  «fae  indiioMest  tidai 
ef  <<  Tbe  Li^emry  Life  of  tJm  kte  Thomas  IPeriiianty  £a^; 
by  himself."  In  the  advertkeaieiit  be  states^  febat/tbe  tir^ 
aaination  of  bis  aatfaorial  esctftence  took  fAfice  aa  Mctreb  1, 
1791.  He  came  to  life  again,  bowewer^in  1197,  andfMibf^ 
Kshed  «^Tbe  History  of  tbe  pasqsbea  of  Whiiefof^  and 
Holywell ;''  and  in  the  last  year  of  bis  Ufe,  he  gave  «b# 
public  hia  ^*  View  of  Hindostan,"  2  itob..  4«e^  tot  whielf 
he  thus  aecount^:  ':*  A  few  yeavs  aigo>  i  gsew  fmi  of  im^ 
ginartf  iowrs,  and  determvned  on  one  la  €liiae»  inofe  seited 
to  my  years^  Okore  genial  then  that  lo  the'  frozen  nonb*  i 
sdH  found,  or  fancied  that  I  founds  aih|ii>^S'  to  direct  «y 
pen^  I  determined  on  aToyage  to  India,^  fonoed  ewacetij^ 
on  the  plan  of  the  introdnetion  to  tim^  Arctic  Zeolegy^ 
which  comoiences  at  auch  pa»t^  pf  tfae^M^Mth'  as  ac«  aceea* 
sible  Co  mortala«  From  Londoit'  1  follow^  the  eeasia^a^tttfaera 
to  part  of  our  Iskuid,  and  fit)Oi>  Calais,  along' the' oataine 
8bore»  of  Europe,  Afeica,  .and  Asia,  ^iV  Vhvfo  attained! 
those  of  New  Guinea.    Respecting  these  I  have  caileqjMdl 


F  E  N  N  A  N  T»  $o# 

frv€ffy  ifi|6rioitiotv. possible  frofn  books  anci^t^  i(n4  iqo^ 
^ern  ;  from  tt^e  most  autbeqtic^.  and  ffom  living  traveller^ 
g>i  tbjS  mofC  respectable  characters  of  my  time*  I  i^ingU 
PAtijral  history^  accounts  ot'  the  .coasts,  climates,  and  every 
tbing  wbich  I  tbougbt  could  instruct  or  amus^.  They  are 
jffritt^a  ott  imperial  quarto,  and,  when  bound,  make  a  fQlid 
of  no  inconsiderable  size  :  and  are  illustrated,  at  9.  va^t  ^y» 
pence,  by  prinu  taken  from  booksy  or  by  charts  and 
maps^  and  by  drawings  by  the  skilful  hand  of  Moses  Grif«- 
fiib,  and  by  presents  from  friends.  With  th^  bare  pos*- 
sfbiitty  of  tbe  volume  relative  to  India,  none  of  these  booka 
are  to  be  printed  in  my  life^time ;  but  to  resto^myshelv^s^ 
the  amusement  of  my  advancing  age.''  Of  these  inaniih 
fciripjta  there  were  in  all  twenty«*two  .volumes  oHgiciaUy ; 
but  Mr.  Pennaiftt,  as  we  have  roentioued,  printed  in  bis 
}ife^tifne  that  which  relates  to  India.  We  may  add,,  in  his 
l^wn  wordsi  f^  Happy  is  the  age  that  could  thus  beguile  its 
Deetiitg  jbours,  withoiiit  injury  to  atiy  one ;  andy  with  th^ 
addition  of  years^  continue  to  rise  in  its  pursuits.'' 
r  His  useful  life  at  last  terminated,  Dec.  16^  1798,  when  ba 
left  a  private  character  in  all  respects  irreproachable^  as  a 
900,  husband,  and  father.  He  had  great  public  spirit,  and 
fooctered  himself  eminently  useful  in  his  county.  In  his 
political  principles  he  was  a  whig  of  the  old  school.  His 
fortune,  as  w^l  as  time^  was  liberally  devoted  to  learned 
psniuits.  He  mwrried  first,  in  1759,  the  sister  of  the  late 
Thomas  Falconer,  esq,  of  Cheater,  and  of  Dr.  Falconer  of 
Bath,  by  whom  he  had  a  son,  David,  and  a  daughter ;  and 
tecoodly,  in  1777,  to  miss  Mostyn,  sister  to  the  late  sir 
&oger  Moatyn,  who  survives  him. 

^  ¥^w  men  have  so  unceasingly  devoted  themfeielves  to  th^ 
pfomotion  of  useful  knowledge.  Or  published  so  many  vo* 
iumes,  especially  on  subjects  of  natural  history;  Hia 
iiw)fks  have  been  so  generally  read,  and  are  in  such  .high 
esteem  with  the  public,  that  it  would  be  unnecessary  in 
diis  place  to  enter  into  their  respective  merits.  It  is  ael* 
dom  that  works  so  expensive  run  through  so  many  editions ; 
bat  Mr.  Pennant  had  the  happy  art  of  relieving  the  dullest 
subjects  by  ei|livening  and  amusing  digressions -.-and  his 
tours  and  bis  account  of  London  are  distinguished,  by  a 
fund  of  anecdote,  an  easy  familiarity  of  style,,  and  that 
pleasant  turn  for  research  which  engages  the  reader^s  atp 
tention  because  it  agreeably  refreshes  his  memory,  and  sup«i> 
{dies  hnn  with  information  at  a<  small  expeiice  of  trouble. 
Vot.XXIV,  X 


$0*  r^  E  N  N  A  N  T- 

{D^  lobtkson  said  of  him,  when  some  objeetions  vrtre  • 
inade  to  his  tours,  that  "  be  had  greater  variety  of  inquiry 
than  almost  any  man  ;  and  has  told  us  more  than  perhaps 
pt\e  in  ten  thousand  could  have  done,  in  the  time  that  he 
took.'^  In  1800,  bis  Son  published  the  third  and  fourtb 
volumes  of  <<  The  Outlines  of  the  Globe,*'  the  title  which 
Mr.  Pennant  gave  to  bis  imaginary  tours,  and  wbicb  were 
the  continuation  of  his  "  View  of  HindoStan."  Thi« 
work  was  accompanied  by  an  elegant  tribute  to  his  memory 
by  his  affectionate  Son,  who  also  published,  in  the  follow- 
ing  year,  Mr.  Pennant's  last  work,  left  by  him  nearly  fi<* 
liished  for  the  press,  entitled  ^'  A  Journey  from  London  to 
the  Isle  of  Wight,"  4to. } 

PENNI  (John  Francis),  a  native  of  Florence,  where  b« 
was  born  in  1488,  was  called  II  Fttttate,  or  the  Steward^ 
from  having  been*  intrusted  with  the  domestic  concerns  c^ 
Kapbael,  and  soon  became  one  of  his  •prHici|>al  assistants; 
He  more  than  any  other*  helped  him  in  the  execution  of 
the  cartoons  of  th^  Arazxi;  and  in  the  Loggie  of  the  Vati^^ 
can  painted  the  histories  of  Abraham  and  Isaac.  After  the 
death  of  his  master  be  executed  the  fresco  of  the  corona* 
tion  in  the  stanza  of  Constantine*  The  upper  part  of  the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  a  work  of  Raffaellesque  grace, 
at  Monte  Lupi,  in  Perugia,  is  ascribed  to  him,  thougti 
Vasari  gives  it  to  Perino  del  Vaga:  the  under*  part  witk 
the  Apostles  is  painted  by  Julio.  Of  the  works  which  \m 
performed  alone,  no  frescoes,  and  so  few  oil-pictures  re^ 
main,  that  they  may  be  considered  as  the  principal  raritiea 
of  galleries.  Facility  pf  conception,  grace  of  •execution^ 
and  a  singular  felicity  in  landscape,  are  mentioned  as  hik^ 
characteristics.  Penni  wished  much  to  unite  himself  with 
his  coheir  Julio,  but  being  coldly  received  by  him  at 
Mantua,  went  to  Naples,  where  bis  works  and  pripcipleA 
might  have  contributed  much  toward  the » melioration  of 
style,  had  he  not  been  intercepted  by  death  in  1528,  ior 
bis  fortieth  yean  He  left  at  Naples,  with  his  copy  of  the 
Transfiguration,  a  scholar  of  considerable  merit,  LiofHtnh. 
Malaies$€Lf  or  Grazia^  of  Pistoja.  He  had  a  brother  Luca% 
who  having  a  close  connection  with  Perino  del  Vaga,  wfaa 
bad  married  his  sister,  worked  with  that  master  (seeP£R<t^ 
^iTO)  for  some  years  at  Genoa,  Lucca,  and  other  cities  «f 
Italy,  with  great  credit.     Afterwards  be  went  to/limgland^ 

J  Literary  Lifs— Hlstpry  of  Whiteford.;— Outlines  of  tbe  GloVe. 


trtd  wiasi  employed  by  king*  Henry  VITI;  for  wtiom  he 
painted  severaV designs;  and  was  also  engaged  by  some  df 
the  merchants  of 'London  ;  but  at  last  be  almost  entirely 
quitted  t^e  pendl/  devoting  all  his  time  and  application  t6 
engraving,  as  some  say,  but  Mr.  Fuseli  maintains  that  b4 
«nly  famished  designs  for  engravers.*  .         '" 

-  PENROSE  (Thomas),  an  English  poet,  was  the  son  6t 
the  riev.  Mti  Pet)K>se,  rector  bf  Newbury  in  Berkshirei  a 
ittmn  of  high  character  and  abilities,  descended  from  an 
aaeient  Cornish  (ami ly,  who  died  in  1769.  He  was  bora 
in  1743,  and  being  intended  for  the  church,  pursded  hiik 
studies  at  Christ-churchy  Oxford, '  until '  the  summer  of 
1762,  when  his  eager  turn  for  the  naval  and  military  pro* 
fessidn  overpowering.his  attXchoient  to  his  real'interest,  he 
laft  bis  college,  i  and  embarked  in  the  unfortunate  expedi<i 
idoo  againsi  Nova  Coldnia,  in  South  America,  under  tb# 
cOmmaad'of  captain  Mac  Aamara.  -  The  irsue  was  fatal;  the 
dive,  thettargest  vessel,  was' btiriU,  and  although  th# 
Ambuscade  escaped  (on  board  of  which  Mr.  Penrose,  acting 
as^lieutenant  of  marines,  was  wounded),  yet  the  hardships' 
which  he-  afterwards  sustained  in'a  priee  sloop,  in  whicb 
lie  was  stationed,  utterly  ruined  his  constitution/ 
.  -Returning  to  England,  with  ample  testimonials  of  bit 
gallantry  and  good  behaviour,  he  finished  at  Hertford-col* 
lege,  Oxford, : his  course  of  studies;'  and  having  takeh 
cvders,  accepted  the  curacy  of  Newbury,  the  income  of 
which,  by  the  voluntary  subscriptions  Of  the  inhabitants; 
was  considetuble  augmented.  After  he  had  continued  in^ 
tibat  station  about  trine  yearrs,  it  seemed  aS'  if  the  clouds  Of 
disappointmem,  whiteh  had  hitherto  overshadowed  his  pro^ 
fpects,  and  tinctured  his  poetical  essays  with  gloom,  wertf 
elearing  away  ;  for  he  Avas  then  presented  by  a  frietid,  who 
Jtnew  his  worth,  and  honoured  his  abilities,  to  the  rectory 
of  Beckington  and  Standerwick,  in  Somersetshire,  wortli 
near  500/.  per  annum.  This  came,  however,  too  late ;  for 
the  state  of  Mr.  Penrose's  health  was  tiow  such  as  left  little 
liope>  except  in  the  assistance  of  the  waters  of  BristoK 
Thither  be  went,  and  there  he  died  in  1779,  aged  thirty* 
•ix.  In  1768  he  married  miss  Mary  Slocook  of  Newbury^ 
by  whom  he  had  one  child,  Thomas,  who  inherits  bis  fa« 
dber*«  genius,  taste,  and  personal  worth.  He  was  edd- 
<;ated  at  Winchester  and  New-college,  Oxford,  of  which 
he  is  now  B.  C.  L^ 

>  PilkiiigtoD,  by  Fottliif 
X  2 


'  « 


,-■  •  I 

.  Mr.  Pj^nme  vras  retp«<^  fior  bis  elctensi vie  eniditton;^'  ajk 
'iisired  for  bis  eloq^enc^  and  equally  beloved  and  esteemed 
for  bis  social  qualities.  By  the  poor^  towards  whom  bm 
(Was  libeml  to  bis  utmtist  ii[bility,  he  i/»as  venerated  in  th« 
btgbest  degree.  In  oriitory  and  composition  ^is  talents 
were  great.  Hrs  pencil  w%m  as  i;eady  as  bis  pen,  and  on 
fi^bl^ct^  of  humour  bad  tmcommon  merit.  lu  178 1  a  eol- 
jkction  of  bis  '^Poems'*  was  published  by  bis  fnend  anl 
jee^Iatipn  James  Peter  Andrews,  esq.  wboprefixed  theabove 
ftccouDt  of  Mr.  Penrose.  They  are  dist^guisbed  hj  ez^ 
quisite  ft»ding^  and  taste.  Hie  thoughts  ar^  pathetic  ao4i 
pati^ral,  and  bcr  seems  possessed  of  a  great  portion  of  die 
fire  a0d  feetiiig  of  Collins.  Siicb  poems  as  '^Tbe  Carousal 
sfOdin/'  ^  Madness''  and  «'The  Kield  of  Battle,'*  af« 
ainong  tbe  rare  prodiiptioris  of  modern  genius.  'That  thesd 
l^aems  are  so  litde  k|iow»  is  unaeccmiiiable.  Mr.  Penrose 
pvblisbed  two  oeeasioiial  smroioos  of  considerable^  merit.  * 
.  PENRY  (JoBK),  or  AP  HENRY,  coomoidy  known  by 
^is  assumed  name  of  Martm  Miar^prdkie^  or  Mar^priesi^ 
ivas  bora  iii  151^9  la  Wales,  and  stodied  first  at  Peter* 
bpuse,  Caipbridge,  of  wbith  be  was  A.  B.  in  1584,  and 
afterwards  at  Oxford,  in  which  latt^  university  be  took  tbc^ 
degree  i>f  master  of  arts,  and  was  ordained  a  priei^  After- 
wards, mating  with  some  dts^tisfinetion,  as  it  is  said,  and 
being  yeiry  warm  in  his  tem)>er,  be  changed  his  religion, 
and  became  an  Anabaptist,  or  ratber  a  Brownist  He  was 
|iencefor#sird  a  viruleot  eftcmy  to  the  church  «f  England; 
a«d  the  bierarcby  df  liiat  communioa,  as  appears  usuffi^ 
(pieittly  by  bis  coatse  Itbell,  In  wbicsb  be  has  sbewO' bis 
apleeii  to «  gi'eat  degme#  At  length,  after  be' had  con- 
cealed himself  Sot  aome  yeaarst  be  was  apprehended  at 
^ixoprtey^  afid  triisd  aa  tbe  KingfsnBench,  befiore  sir  John 
Popham,  chief  •justice  jmd  the  rest  of  the  judges,  wfaieii 
be  Mias  iitd^Mid  and  condenmed  for  Mouy,  fer  papema 
^ndr  kl  bis  pockety  purpoitiilg  to  be  a  petition  to  the 
qUeen^  and.  was  eJtecttt!Ddl,  acicOiMliBg  to  J^uller,  ^t  r^SlX, 
Thomas  Wateptogs,  in'l$93.  .1)1  appears,  that  some  vio- 
laHceHM/as  put  upon  the  laws,  even  as  they  then  stood,  tb 
jfem  a  c8pitaI\accnsatioQ  4^iost  him.  For  .bils  libels  .hS 
cduld  nott  be  accused,  the  legal  time  Sot  such  an  accusal 
tioo  baring  elapsed,  befdre  be  was  taken :  itbe  piapers  i^oa 

^  Poems  a<  above.    The  editor  of  the  last  edition  of  Johiuoa's  Poets  was  r^ 
IvetaHily  oUi5«4  lo  omit  Fcof  ose^  from  being  iuia1>le  to  procure  a  copf  • 


-  », 


FEN  RT.    . 


M9 


jfcbich  be  was  coDTidted^  contained  only  an  impUed  dcniak 
of  tUe^  queen^ft  absolute  authoriijf  to  make^,  eoact»  decneeji 
and  ordain  laiv9;.and  impliad,  merely,  by'  aFOiding  la  usa 
tbosei  termS)    according  i  to  the  veiy .  y(ford$ .  o(  th^  lord'^^.; 
keeper  PuckeViiig.    His  execotion. was  therefore  in, a  higb, 
degree  unjust.  >  His  chief  publications  kre,;  \i  '^  Martin 
Mari-prelatfi^'^l^  tract,  that  gave  so  nisich  offence*. -S^ 
'^ Theses   MarttniansB,''   dvo.  .   3.  >^  Avvievr  .of  publioke 
Wants, and  Disorders  ia,  the  serrtce  of  God,  ir>  a  PeiUioa 
ta  the:  high  court  of  Pariiement/'  15HS^  Svo*     i.  ^^^Ain 
Exhortation  to  the.  Govtcnora  and   People  of 'Wales,  to 
labour  earnestly  to  havetbe/preacbingof  the  GospelpiaiUod  ^ 
aoDoiig  thenii^'t  15B<8,iBvxK  ('5.  ^^Reformation  no   Knenrifi  ^ 
to  hex  Majesty  and  the  Statc^'M^i^Q,  4to.  *^6»  V  Sir  8i-   -^^^^-'^-'^ 
B|on.Syttod^s<Hue<and  Cry  Cor:.tbe  Apprebehsion  of  ypun^ 
Martin  Mar«-prtest,  with  Martin's  Echo,'!  4to.     ^^^'^j^^'^^^j  ,r 
these^  s^nd  sqo^«othersy  i^crre  full  i  of  low  sourril^y^  ^^^  im'w^^'ll!^ -» 
petulant  satire.    .Several  tnacts,  equally  scorriio^gp.  werp/w«^Vyv:^x^^j 
published  ag^ns.t  turn;  as,."  Papfe  witli  a  Hatchet,  or  a  f^'y*^'-^  -z^/*-- 
Gqaotry  Cuffe  for  the  Idiott  Martin  to  hpld  vfaii^  PeaceV* '^''^''^'^''^J' 
^  A'  Whip  fpr  aiv  Ape,,  or 'Mariixi  displaiedj"  and  Qther^^  of  ' 

tlie:aaine  kind.     In  the  conifositipn  of  these  paasphietSs 
\st  is  said  to  have  bad  ^he  assistance  of  John  Udal),  John 
Field,  and  Job  <  Throckmorton^  who  pubhshed  their  Joini 
efitisions  at  a  private  printing  press.     Pcnry  was,  a  man  dl 
iooie  learning  and  zeal  for  religipo,  but  in-  his  notions  of 
government,  both  of  church  and  state,  appears  to  hava 
adopted  more  wild  theories  than-  ever  his, successors,  whas 
in  power,  atteropj^^d  to  carry  iiito  practice*    His^saateace^ 
however,  was  liaju^t,  and  the  enemies  of  th^  hierarchy . 
have  therefore  found  it  qo.  difficult  matter  to  place  Joho 
Pei^ry  at  the  head  of  their  list  of  martyrs.^ 
PEPANUS.     See  DEMETRIUS. 
'  PEPUSCH  (JoHiH  CuRisTOPHBst),  one  of  the  greateef 
theoretic  musicians  of  modern  timed,  was  ^iorn  at  Beriitf 
about  1667,  and  became  so  early  a  proficient  oa  the  bai^ 
fiehord,  that  at  the  age  of  fourteen  he  was  sent  for  ta 
court,  and  appointed  to  teach  the  prince,  father  of  the- 
l^feat  Frederic  king  of  Prussia^    About    170Q,  he  cama 
over  to  England,  and  was  retained  as.a  performer  at  Druryi^ 
lane,  and  it  is  supposed  that  he  assisted  in  composing  ttie 

1  Brook*».  Lives  of  the  PqritaDt«-i*Scryp«*t.  Lile  af  GrMal,  ,p.  4«— Lifc>  at 
Wbitsif^  p.  28d.  ^^.  343.  346.  40^.— Atli.  Ox.  vol.  1.-^See  an  cxcelleDt  ol»ar 
l4r«B  llartiA  if «r*pr»Uit  la  |l*|ifMlf»s  ftaantls  of  Asthsrt,  vsk  \M, 


Sio  P  E  P  U  S  C  H. 

Operas  which  were  performed  there.  In  1 707  he  had  acquirei) 
English  suflBcient  to  adapt  Motteaux*s  translation  of  the 
Italian  opera  of  ^*  Thomyris^'  to  airs  of  Scarktti  and  Bo« 
nonciuiy  and  to  new-set  the  recitatives.  In  1709  and  1710, 
several  of  his  works  were  advertised  in  the  first  edition  of 
the  Tatters^  particularly  a  set  of  sonatas  for  a  flute  and 
bast,  and  his  first  book  of  cantatas.  In  1713  be  obtained, 
at  the  same  time  as  Crofts,  the  degree  of  doctor  of  music 
at  the  university  of  Oxford.  And  soon  after  this,  upon 
the  establishment  of  a  choral  chapel  at  Cannons,  he  was 
employed  by  the  duke  of  Chandos  as  maestro  di  capella ; 
in  which  capacity  he  composed  anthems  and  morning  and 
evening  services,  which  are  stiil  preserved  in  the  Academj: 
of  ancient  music.  In  1715  he  composed  the  masque  of 
**  Venus  and  Adonis/*  written  by  Cibber;  arid  in  171,6 
."The  Death  of  Dido,"  by  Booth,  both  for  Drury-lane. 
These  pieces,  though  not  very  successful,  were  more  fire- 
quently  performed  that  any  of  his  original  draniatic  com- 
positions. In  1723  he  published  an  ode  for  St.  Cecilia's 
day,  which  he  had  set  for  the  concert  in\York~buildings. 
In  1724  be  accepted  an  offer  from  Dr.  Berkeley  to  accom- 
pany him  to  the  Bermudas,  and  to.  settle  as  professor  <>f 
music  in  his  intended  college  there;  but,  the:  ship  ia 
which  they  sailed  being  wrecked,  be  returned. to  Loudoih, 
and  married  Francesca  Margarita  de  TEpine.  This  person 
was  a  native  of  Tuscs^ny,  and  a  celebrated  singer,  who 
performed  in  spine  of  the  first  of  the  Italian  operas  th4t 
were  represented  in  England.  She  came  hither  with  one 
Greber,  a  German,  and  from  this  connection  became  dis- 
tinguished by  the  invidious  appellation  of  Greber's  Peg. 
She  continued  to  sing  on  the  stage  till  about  1718 ;  when 
having,  at  a  ^modest  computation,  acquired  above  xAfi 
thousand  guineas,  she  retired  from  the  theatre,  and  aftet- 
wards  married  Dr.  Pepusch.  She  was  remarkably  tall, 
and  remarkably  swarthy;  and,  in  general,  so  destitute  o£ 
personal  charms,  that  Pepusch  seldom  called  her  by  any. 
other. name  than  Hecate,  to  which  she  is  said  to  have 
answered  very  readily. 

}  The  change  in  Pepusch^s  circumstafices  by  Margarita^s 
,' fortune  was  no  interruption  to  his  studies :  he  loved  music, 
and  he  pursued  the  knowledge,  of  it  with  ardour.  At  the. 
instance  of  Gay  and  Rich,  he  undertook  to  composeV  or 
iratheV  to  correct,  the  music  for  **  The  Beggar's  OpenC'V 
His  rep.atation'was  now  at  a  great  height^  add  in  1737.; Kc. 


P  E  E  U,  §  O  H.  811 


>       I  r 


W98  chosen  organist .  of  the  Cbarter'^bouse;  and  retireij. 
with  his, wife,  to  that,  venerable  mansion.  The  wife  clira 
in  1740,  before  which  he  lust  a  sop,  bis  only  cbild;  so 
that  be  bad  no  source  of  delight  left,  but  the  prosecution 
of  his  studies,  and  the  teaching  of  a  few  favourite  pupils, 
who  attended  bim  at  his  apartments.  Here  be  drew  up 
that  account  of  the  ancient  genera,  which  was  read  before 
the  Royal  Society,  and  is  published  in  the  *^  Philosopjiical 
Transactions**  for  Oct..  Nov.  and  Dec.  1746;  and,  soon 
.after  the  publication  of  that  account,  he  was  chosen  a  fel- 
low of  the.  Royal  Society. 

He  died  the  20tb  of  July,  1752,  aged  eighty-five;  and 
was  buried  in  the  chapel  of  the  Charter- hoiuse,  where  a 
tablet  lyitb  au  inscription  is  placed  over  hitn. 
^  As  a  practical  musician,  though  so  excellent  a  harmonist, 
be  wasposses^ed  of  so  little  invention,  that  few  of  his  com- 
positions were  ever  in  general  use  and  favour,  except  one 
of  his*  twelve  cai\tatas,  '^  Alexis,**  and  his  airs  for  two  flutes 
or  violins,  consisting  of  simple  easy  themes  or  grounds 
>vitb  variations,  each  part  echoing  the  other  in  common 
divisions  for  the  improvement  of  the  band.  Indeed,  tbougb 
only  one  cantata  of  the  two  books  be  published  was  ever 
much  noticed,  there  is  considerable  barmonical  merit  in 
^bem  all;  the. recitatives  are  in  general  good,  and  the 
counterpoint  perfectly  correct  and  masterly.  Among  all 
the  publications  of  Pepusch,  the  niost  useful  to  musical 
students  was,  perhaps,  bis  correct  edition  of  CorellL*s  so- 
natas and  concertos  in  score,  published  in  1732.  He 
treated  all  other  music  in  which  there  was  fancy  or  invehr 
tion  with  sovereign  contempt.  Nor  is  it  true,  as  has  beeq^ 
asserted,  that  ^f  be  readily  acquiesced  in  HandePs  superior 
^lerit.**  Handel  despised,  the  pedantry  of  Pepusch,  and 
]^epuscb,  in  return,  constantly  refused  to  join  in  the  gene* 
ral  chorus  of  HandePs  praise. 

The  sole  ambition  of  Pepusch,  during  the  last  years  of 
bis  life,  seems  to  have  beep  the  obtaining  the  rejiutatioci 
of  a  profound  theorist,  perfectly  skilled  in  the  music  of 
the  ancients;. and  attadhiog  himself  to  the  mathematician 
Se  Moivre  and  Geo.  Lewis  Scot,  who  helped  him  to  calcu« 
late  ratios,  and  to  construe  the  Greek  writeris  on  music,  be 
bewildered,  himself  and  some  of  his  scholars  with  the  Greek 
jgenera,  scales,  diagrams,  geometrical, arithmetical,  and  har« 
monical proportions,  surd  quantities,  apotomes,  lemmas,  and 
«very  thing  concerning  ancient  harmonics,  thai  waa  dack^ 


n^iiitelligiblei  and  foreign  to  cbmnion  ami  useful  practice. 
But  with  all  his  pedantry  and  ideal  admiration  of  ibe  muste 
bf  iht  ancients,  he  certainly  had  read  more  books  on  tb^ 
theory  of  modern  music,  and  examined  more  curious  com- 
positions, than  any  of  the  musicians  of  his  tinie ;  and 
though  totally  devoid  of  fancy  a^d  invention,  he  was  al^le  to 
correct  the  productions  of  his  contemporaries,  and  toassi^ 
teasohs  for  whatever  i)ad  been  done  by  the  gi^c^a'test  master* 
who  preceded  him.  But  when  he  is  called  the  most  learned 
musician  of  his  time,  it  should  be  said,  in  the  music  of  tfa^ 
^xteenth  century..  Indeed,  he  had  at  last  sudi  a  partiallt]^ 
for  musical  mysteries,  and  a  spirit  so  truly  antiquarian,  ^at 
he  allowed  no  composition  to  be  music  but  What  was  ^Id 
and  obscure.  Yet,  though  he  fettered  the  genius  of  his 
Scholars  by  antiquated  rules,'  he  knew  the  mechanical  lawf 
of  harmony  so  well,  that  in  glancing  his  eye  ^er  a  score, 
he  could  by  a  stroke  of  his  pen  smooth  the' wildest  and 
most' incoherent  notes  into  melody,  and  make  them  aub« 
inissive  to  harmony ;  instantly  seeing  the  supet^ous  or 
deficient  tlotes,  and  suggesting  a  bass  fi-om  which  tbete 
X  tvas  no  appeal.  His  **  Treatise  on  Harmony'*  has  lately 
been  praised,  as  it  deserves,  in  Mr.  Shield's  valuable  **  In*- 
troduction  to  Harmony.**     '  .;  ,  .  r 

His  admirable  library,  the  most  curious  and  codaplete  iti 
scarce  musical  authors,  theoretical  and  practical,  was  dis- 
persed after  his  death.  H6  bequeathed  a  considerable  " 
part  of  his  best  books  and  manuscripts  to  Keln^rj  an  oM 
Oerman  friend,  who  played  the  double-'bass  in  tile  theatres 
ind  concerts  of  the  tim6;  some  to  Traver^  and' these  *and 
the  rest  were  at  last  sold,  dispersed,  and  embefisi^led^  in  % 
^banner  diflicuU  to  describe  or  Understand.  ^ 

PEPYS  (Samuel),  secretary  to  the  admiralty  in  the 
reigns  of  Charles  H.  and  James  II.  and  an  eminet^  bene^ 
factor  to  the  literature  of  his  country,  was  a  descendant  of 
tlie  ancient  family  of  the  Pepys's  of  Cottenbam  in  Cam« 
bridgesbire,  and  probably  the  son  of  Richard  Pepys,  Mvho 
was  lord  chief  jtistice  in  Ireland  in  1654.  -  He  was  boro, 
according  to  Collier,  in  London;  but  Knight,  in  this  par- 
ticular a  better  authority,  says  he  was  born  at  Brampton  in 
]^unti|)gdonshire,  and  educated  at  St.  Paul's  scbboK 
Thence  he  was  removed  to  Magdalen-colleg6»  Cambridge, 
liow  Ipn^'he  remained  here,  we  are  not^  told,  but  it  ap^ 


P  E  P  Y  S:  SW 

bj  €he  college-books,  Ibat  on  June  26,  1660,  he  was 
^sreated  M.A.  by  proxy,  he  bqing  then  on  board  of  strip  als 
focretary  to  the  navy.  He  appears  to  have  been  related  ii> 
general  Montague,  afterwards  eaK  of  Sandwich,  who  first 
introdaced  bim  into  public  business,  and  employed  hidi 
£rst  in  various  secret  services  for  Cliarles  II.  and  then  ii^ 
secretary  in  the  expedition  for  bringing  his  majesty  froiti 
Holland.  His  majesty  being  thus  restored,  Mr.  Pepys  wak 
immediately  appointed  one  of  the  principal  officers  of  thfe 
liavy,  by  the  title  of  clerk  of  the  acts.  In  this  employment 
be  continued  \intii  167.3;  and  during  those  great  events, 
the  plague,  the  fire  of  London,  and  the  Dutch  war,  the  care 
of  the  navy  in  a  great  measure  rested  on  him  alone. 

In  this  last-mentioned  year,  when  thie  king  thought  pi'o- 
({)er  to  take  the  direction  of  the  admiralty  into  his  own 
bands,  he  appointed  Mr.  Pepys  secretary  to  that  office, 
jwbo  introduced  an  order  and  method  that  has,  it  is  said, 
formed  a  model  to  his  successors.     Important,  however, 
a^  bis  services  were,  they  could  not  screen  him  from  the 
-malevolence  of  party-spirit;  and  happening,  in  1684,  to 
be  concerned  in  a  contested  election,  this  opportunity  was 
iaken  by  his  opponent  to  accuse  him  of  being  a  Papist, 
which  the  house  of  commona  inquired  into,  but  without 
^finding  any  proof. .  This  we  learn  from  the  journals  of  tbe 
bouse.     But  Collier  informs  us  that  he  was  confined  in  the 
Tower  for. some  time,  and  then  discharged,  no  Accuser 
appearing  against  him  ^.    After  his  release,  the  king  made 
•M^  alteration  in  the  affairs  of  the  admiralty,  by  putting  the 
.  inrboie  power  and  execution  of  that  office  into  commission ; 
^nd  tbe  pubJic  was  thus,  for  some  years,  deprived  of  Mr^ 
Pepys's  services  as  secretary.     He  was  not,  boweyier,  un» 
lempioyed ;  fpr  be  was  commanded  by  his  majesty  to  ac- 
company lord  Oartinputb  in  his  expedition  against  Tangier : 
'^and  at  tbe  same  time  be  bad  an  opportunity  of  making  ex-« 
leursions  injbo  Spain,  as,  at^  other  times,  he  had  already 
jdone  into  Fraiice,  Fianden,  Holland,  Sweden,  and  Den- 
.  marie..    He  also  sailed  firequently  with  the  dukeofYorl^ 
into  Scotland,  and  along  the  coast  of  England. 

In  April  1684,  on  bis  return  from  Tangier,  and  on  the 

*  By  Grey's  debates  it  would  ap-  ofploU  and  aecasttions  were  fabricated 

i^U  that' Mr.  Pepys  was  accused  of  to  amme  tbe  pobUc.    The  only  aiUck 

^yingsfiDt  iafpimatioB  to  the  Prcoafa  oq  Mr  Pepys's  character,  ip  modem 

fBoort  of  the  state  of  the  Bavy :  a  thiog  times,  is  in  Harris's  *'  Lifeof  CharlesI  t.>» 

^H^f^jjUe,  «t  ,apy  tiine  I  b||l  perhaps  mnit  m  si|cl|.  a  collection  of  c^umnrf 

pff  h\  iliid  belicTetii,  when  i^ll'  manner  teeips  not  at  *U  out  of  place. 


314  P  E  P  Tf  S. 

i 

re*ass£iinption  of  the  office  of  lord-highradmiral  of  EnglanJ 
by  Cbaries  II.  Mr.  Pepys  was  again  appointed  secretary^ 
]and  held  that  office, during  the  whole  of  Cl^arles's  and 
James's. reigns.  During  the  last  critical  period,  he  restricted 
himstflf  to  the  duties  of  his  office,  and  never  asked  or  ac- 
cepted  any  grant  of  honour  or.proiit,  nor  meddled  with  any 
afiair  that  was  not  .within  his  province  as  secretary  of  the 
admiralty.  In  Charles's  time  he  procured  that  useful  be- 
nefaction from  his  majesjty,  for  placing  ten  of  the  mathe- 
matical scholars  of  Christ's  hospital^  as  apprentices  to  mas- 
ters of  ships.    .      . 

On  the  accession  of  William  and  Mary,  he  resigned  hij^ 
office;  and,  in  1690,  published  hiis  "  Memoirs"  relating 
to  the  state  of  the  .royal  navy  of  England  for  the  ten  years 
preceding  the  revolution  ;  a  well-written  and  valuable  work. 
Be  appears  to  have,  led  a  retired  life  after  this,  sufFeriag 
very  much  from  a  constitution  impaired  by  the  stone,^  for 
which  he  had  been  cut  in  his  twenty-eighth  year.  About 
two  years  before  his  death  he  went  to  the  seat  of  an  old 
naval  frientd,  William  Hewer,,  esq.  at  Clapham,  in  Surrey, 
where  he  died  May  26,  1703,  and  was  interred  in  the  same 
vault  with  his  lady,  whp  died  in  1669,  in  th^  church  of  St. 
Olave,  Hart-street,  this  being  the  parish  in  which  he  lived 
during  the  whole  of  his  employment  in  the  Admiralty. 

He  appears  to  have  had  an  extensive  knowledge  of  naval- 
affairs,  and  to  have  always  conducted  them  with  the  greatest 
skill  and  success.  Even  after  his  retirement  he  was  con- 
.suited  as  an  oracle  in.  all  matters  respecting  this  grand  de- 
fence of  the,  nation ;  and,  while  in  office,  was  the  patron 
and  friend  of  every  man  of  merit. in  the  service.  But  he 
was  far  from  being  a  mere  man  of  business  :  his  conversa* 
tion  iand  address  bad  been  greatly,  improved  by  travel,  and 
be  was  qualified  to  shine  ix\  the  literary  as  well  as  the  poli- 
tical circles.  He  thoroughly  understood  and  practised  mu- 
^ic  ;  was  a  judge  of  painting,  sculpture,  and  architecture; 
and  bad  more  than  a  superficial  knowledge  in  history  ai^ii 
philosophy.  His  fame.,  indeed,  was  such,  that  in  1684  be 
was  elected  president  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  held  that 
honourable  office  for  tvyo  years.  To  Magdalen  College, 
Cambridge,  he  left  that  invaluable  collection  of  MS  naval 
.memoirs,  of  prints,  and  ancient  English  poetry,  which  has 
«o  oft^n  beenconsulted  by  poetical  critics  and  commenta- 
tors, and  is  indeed  unrivalled  in  its  kind.  One  of  its  most 
fipgular  curiosities  is,  a  collection  of  English  balla4»i  in 


P  E  P  Y  S.       .  5i« 

five  large  folio  volumes,  begun  by  Mr.  Seldeiii  and  carried 
down  to  the  year  1700. .  The  '^  Reliques  of  ancient  English 
Poetry,"  published  by .  Dr.  Percy,  are  for  the  most  part 
takea  from  this  collection.  His  nephew,  John  Jackson^ 
esq.  of  the  Temple,  was  Mr.  Pepj's's  heir  to  his  personal 
property.  .It  ought  not  to  be  omitted,  that  among  other 
instances  of  his  regardfor  the  advancement  of  knowledge, 
be  gave  sixty  plates  to  Ray^s  edition  of  Willougbby's  **  His- 
toria  Piscium,*'  puUisbed  in  1686.^ 

PERAU  (Gabaiel  Louis  Calabre),  a  Frtoch  author, 
whose  character  was  not  less  fssteemed  for  its  candour  and 
iDode^,  than  his  writings  for  their  neatness  of  style. and 
4;xactnes8  of  research,  is  most  known  for  his  continuation, 
of  the  "  Lives  of  illustrious  men  of  France,'*  begun  by 
D'Au.vign£,  but  carried  on  by  him,  from  the  thirteenth 
Volume  to  the. twenty-third.  He  also  wrote  notes  and  pre-: 
faces  to  several  works.  His  edition  of  the  works  o^  Bossuet 
was  the  best,  till  they  were  published  by  the  Benedictines 
of  St.  Maar;  and  he  was  author  of  an  esteemed  life  of  Je- 
rpme  Bignon;  in  J2mo,  1757.  He  died  in  March  1767, 
at  the  age  of  sixty-seven  •.  -      -  . 

.  PERCEVAL  (JoHijr),  fifth  baronet  of  the  family,  and 
first  earl  of  Egmoht,  was  born  at  Barton,  in  the  county  of 
York^  July  12,   1663,  and  received,  his  education  at  Mag- 
dalen, college,  .Oxford.      On  quitting  the   university,  in 
June  1701,  he  made' the  tour  of  England,  and  was  ad-, 
mitted  F.R.  S.  at  the  age  of  nineteen.     Upon  the  death  of 
king  William,  and/the  calling  of  a  new  parliament  in  Ire- 
land, he  went  over  with  the  dukie  of  Ormond,  and  though 
not  of  age,  was.  elected  for  the  county  of  Cork,  and  soon 
after. appointed  a  privy-counsellor.       In.  July  1705,   he 
began  the. tour  of  Europe,  which  he  finished  in  October^ 
1707;  and  returning  to  Ireland  in   May   i70S,>  was  again 
representative  for  the  county  of  Oork.  In  1713,  be  erected 
a  lasting. moitument^  of  his  charity,  in  a  fr^e^sphobl  at  Bur-, 
ton.     On  the  accession  of  George.!.,  he  was  advanced  to 
tbe.'peerage  of  Ireland  by  the  title  of  baron  Perceval,  in 
1715^  and  viscount  in    172^.     In  the  parliament  of  1722, 
and  .1727,  he  ,waa  member  for  Harwich,  in  Es^iex,  and  in 
1728  was  .chosen  recorder  of  that  borough.     Observing^ 

I  Coltier^s  Dictionary,  Soppleoiept  to  vol.  f IL-^Cole'g  MS.  Athenae  in  Brit.' 
Mas.— Granger.— Knight's  Life.of  Colet. — Noble's  Memoirs  of  Cromwelt^  vol.  J. 
pi  437.— >Niehol8*s  Bewyer. 
■'- ,  f  X>ie(.  Hist.— ^Nforoiogie  pour  aan^e  1769. 


5ie  PERCEVAL. 

by  the  clecay  of  a  beneficial  commerce,  tbat  multitudes  inca-: 
pable  of  finding  employment  at  home,  mightbe  rendered  set**- 
Ticeable  to  their  coutitry  abroad,  he  and  a  few  others  iappUed 
to  the  crown  for  the  grant  of  a  district  of  land  in  Ame* 
rica,  since  called  Georgia,  which  they  proposed  to  people 
with  emigraats  from  England^  or  persecuted  Protestants^ 
from  other  parts  of  Europe,  by  means  of  private  contribu- 
tiod  and  parliameiltary  aid.  The  charter  being  granted^ 
in  June  1732,  Lord  Perceval  was  appointed  first  president^ 
wd  the  king  having  long  experienced  his  fidelity  to  bis 
person  and  government,  created  him  earl  of  Egoiontin 
Nov.  1733.  Worn  out  by  a  paralytic  decay,  he  died 
May  1,  1748.  His  lordship  married  Catherine,  daughter  oC 
sir  Philip  Parker  ^  Morley,  by  whom  be  had  seven  chil-*  .^ 
dren,  who  all  died  before  him,  except  his  eldest  son .  and  ^ 
successor,  of  whom  we  shall  take.some  notice^ . 

The  first  earl  of  Egmoot,  according  to  Mr.  Lodge^  f^P*^s. 
pears  to  have  been  a  man  of  an  exemplary  character,  botb. 
in  public  and  private  life,  and  a  writer  of  considerable 
elegafice  arid  acuteness.     He  published,   1.  f' A  Dialogpoei 
between  a  member  of  the  church  of  England  and  a  Protest* 
tknt  Dissenter,  concerning  a  repeal  of  ahe  Test  Act,*'  \1%%. 
^*  ^^  The  Question  of  the  Precedency  of  th^  Peers  of  Ire«^; 
land  in  England,^  1739.     Part  only  of  this  bfK)k  waa  writ«  .. 
ten  by  the  earl  of  Egmont;  which  was  in  consequence  of  a  / 
mhmorial  presented  by  his  loitlship  to  bis  majesty  "Nov*^,^ 
1733,  upon  occasion  of  the  solemnity  of  tlie  marriage  o£. 
the  princess-royal  with  the  prince  of  Orange*    %.  ^  {fc^-^  , 
marks  upon  a  scandalous  piece,  entitled  A  brieFacednot<]f  - 
the  c^ses  that' have  retarded  the  progress  af  ti^^^lony^ofj. 
Georgia, V   1743.     His   lordship  puMished   iHSvefaV  9tlier< 
tracts  about  that  time,  relating  to  .the  colony;  aW  maitf. 
letters  and  essays  upon  moral  subjcicts,  in  %  paper  callea. :; 
^^  The  Weekly  Miscelb^ny.^  His  Lords^i^  alsofoirmied  a  coU  . 
Jection  of  the  '^'Livesand  Characters  of  eminent  men  in  . 
i^rtgiand,  from  very  ancient  ta  very  modem  timet.'*.    Thi^  : 
ICi'ppis  appears  to  have  had  the  use  of  this  collection,  when  . 
employed  on  the  Biographia,    It  is  in  the  possession  of 
loi^d  Ardiiiil.    The  earl  of  Egmont  wrote  a ;  cowderabl^ 
pan  of  a;  i^enealogical  history  of  his  own  faadiily,  which  waa  ] 
liftervvafcls  enlarged  and  methodized  by  Ander^pn^  authgk  • 
of  the  Royal  Genealogies;  and  by  Mr.  Whiston,  of  the 
Tally  Court.     This  book,  which  was  pjfint^d  by  the  seoond 
earl  of  Egmont,  is  ^n^itledi  *^  A  genealogical  Htsrtory  of  the 


P  E  R  C  E  V  A  C.  %l> 

^ouse  of  Ivery/*  aod  is  illustrated  by  a  great  nqmber  of 
portraits  and  plates.  *^  It  was  not  inteoded  for  sale ;  but  a 
tew  copies  are  got  abroad,  and  sell  at  a  very  high  price. 
Lord  Orford,  in  the  first  edition  of  his  <'  Royal  and  Noble 
Authors,'*  attributed  *^  Th^  great  Importance  of  a  religious 
Life,''  to  this  noblemao,  which,  however,  was  soon  disco-* 
Tered  to  be  from  the  pen  of  Mr.  M^lmotb.^ 

PERCEVAL  (John),  second  earl  of  Egmont,  and  son  t6 
the  preceding,  was  born  at  Westminster,  Feb.  24,  1711;  and  ' 
after  a  learnect  education  at  home,  and  the  advantages  of  tra- 
VeUingi  was  chosen  in  1731  (though  then  under  age)  a  bur- 
gess for  Harwich;  and  on  Dec.  31, 1741,  unanimously  elected 
rqiresentative  for  the  city  of  Westminster ;  as  he  was  in 
'1747  for  WeobTy  in  Herefordshire.  In  March  1747,  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  lords  of  the  bedchamber  to  Frederick 
prince  of  Wales,  in  which  station  he  continued  till  the 
death  of  that  prince.  In  1754,  he  was  elected  a-membeir 
•f  "parliament  for  the  borough  of  Bridgwater,  in  the  county 
ofSomersiet;  and  on  Jaiiuary  9,  ns5^  was  sworn  one  of 
the  lords  of  his  majesty's  most  honourabte  privy-council. 
He  was  likewise  appointed  one  of  the  privy-council  upon 
she  accession  of  his  present  majesty  to  the  throne;  and 
wai  again  elected  in  April  1761,  for  the  borough  of  II- 
chester,  in  the  county  of  Somerset,  but  was  next  day  re- 
chosen  for  the  borough  of  Bridgwater,  for  which  place  he 
«iAde  his  election.  Oh  May  7,  1762,  his  lordship  was 
culled  up  to  the  house  of  peers  in  Great  Britain,  by  the 
title  of  lord  Lovelapd  Holland,  baron  Loveland  Holland, 
<^;£itmofe,  iii  the  county  of  Somerset,  two  of  those  baro* 
fkifsA  ^bich  were  forfeited  by  attainder  of  Francis  viscount . 
L6ve(,  iii  the  1st  of  Henry  Vll.  On  Nov.  27,  1762,  the 
Jiitirg  Was  plesised  to  appoint  him  one  of  the  postmasters- 
genetal,  in"  the  i*6om  of  the  terl  of  Besborough ;  but  this 
m  ie^l^ned^n  S(Sp't  l6',  1763,  in  consequence  of  being  ap- 
|>dfnted  fiirst  lord 'df  the  admiralty,  which  office  he  resigned 
«bb  in  £Nept;i7(r6.  Bis  Lordship  died  at  his  house  in 
Patf  Itfall,  Bee.  4,  1770,  and  was  biiried  at  Charlton,  in 
Kittt.' 

%f.  <!!6i^e  oharactertsles  this  nobleman  as  *'  a  fluent  and 

plfiftiSlbte  debater,  warm  in  his  friendship,  and  violent  in  his 

^^iihilt]^;^*    Lord  Orford,  after  mentioning  some  of  his  foi- 

M^\  iinioti^  vi^Kich  was  a  superstitious  veneration  for  the 

'    >  t)64ce^  Petrasc^Walpo1e*t  Koyal  mod  Noble  Aatbprfi  bj  Pari:. 


St8  P  E  R  C  E  V  A  t. 

feudal  systepai  says,  that,  with  all  tHese/'  he  bad'  stsaong 
parts,  great  knowledge  of  the  history,  of  this  couivtry,  and 
was  a  very  able,  thpugh .  not  an  agreeable  orator.  Hit 
domestic  virtues  more  than  competi^ated  for  sonrie  singun 
laricies  that  were  very  innocent:  and  had  he  lived  in  the 
age  whose  manners  he  emulated^  his  spirit  would  have 
maintained  the  character  of  an  ancient  peer  with  as  tnueb 
dignity,  as  his  knowledge  would  have  effaced  that  of  others 
of  his  order.  .  ? 

As  a  writer,  he  deserves  most  credit  for  a  very  able  and 
celebrs|ted  pamphlet,  long  attributed  to  lord  Bath,  entitled 
*^  Faction  detected  by  the  evidence  of  facts ;  containing^^ 
an  impartial  view  of  Parties  at  home  and  aflFairs  abroad.*^ 
Of  this  a  fifth  edition  was  published  in  1743,  8vo.     Thd 
following  also  are   said   to   have  been    written   by  him: 
1.  ^^  An  Exa^mination  of  the  principles,  and  an  inquiry  into 
.the  conduct  of  the  two  brothers  (the  Duke  of  Newcasrid 
And  Mr.  Pelham),"  1749.  2.  "  A  sedbnd  series  of  facts  and^ 
arguments"  on  the  same  subject,  1749.    S.  *^  An  occasional 
Letter  from  a  gentleman  in  the  country  to  his:frietid  m 
.  town,  concerning  the  Treaty  negociated  at  Hahati  in  tbc^ 
year.  1743,"  1741*.     4.  "Memorial  soUcititjg  a  grant  of  ibc: 
whole  island  of  St.  John,  in  the  gulph  of  St.  Lawrence. 
This  was  not  published,  but  copies  were  given  by  the  aa*- 
thor  to  ministers  and  some  members  of  both  houses.     Lord 
Orford  says,  that  its  object  was  to  revive  the  feudal  sysi^ 
tem  in  this  island.     5.  "A  Proposal  for  selling  part  of  the 
J^orest  Land  aqd  Chaces,  and  disposing  of  the  produce  to<>> 
wards  the  discbarge  of  that  part  of  the  national  debt  due  to 
the  Bs^nk  of  England  ;  and  for  the  establishment  of  a  Na^ 
tipnal  Bank,  &c."  1763!,  4to.* 

PERCEVAL  (Spencer),  second  $on  to  the  preceding^ 
by  his  second  lady,  was  born  in  Aqdley  Square,  Nov.  1, 
176:;.  His  infancy  was  spent  at  Charlton,  the  seat  of  his - 
family,  in  Kent,  where  he  went  tfaipugh  the  first  radi^- 
diments  of  learning,  and  also  contracted  an  early  attacln 
ment  for  the  youngest  daughter  of  the  late  Sir  ThomM  - 
Spencer  Wilson,  hart,  who  afterwards  became  his  wife^ 
From  Charlton  he  removed  to  Harrow,,  where  be  success- 
fully prepared  himself  for  the  university.  At  the  proper 
age  he  entered  of  Trinity  College,-  Cambridge,  where  tbe 
present  bishop  of  Bristol,  Dr.  William- Lort  Mauaell,.  y9m- 

1  WftVo^^'s  Royal  and  Noble  Authors^  edit  in  hif  workf|  and  in  ^fOt  |»J 
PaTk.-^eoiiiAsVP«eni|;». 


F  E  R  C  E  V  A  L;  $19 

bis  tutor.  There  unwearied  application  and  splendid  abi- 
lities led  him  to  the  highest  academioal  honours.  In  1782- 
be  obtained  the  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  on  the  I6tti 
of  December  of  the  following  year  was  admitted  of.  Lin« 
coin's  Inn  ;  where,  after  performing  the  necessary  studies^ 
be  was  called  to  the  bar  in  Hilary  Term  17S6.  He  com- 
menced, his  professional  career  in  the.  Court  of.King'a 
Bench,  and  accompanied  the  Judges  tbrough  the  -Midland 
circuit.  His  chief  opponents  were  then  Mr.  (now  Sir  S.) 
RomiUy,  Mr.  Clarke,  .and  Mr.  serjeant  Vaughan;  and, 
notwithstanding  a  degree  of  modesty,  which  at  that  period 
almost  amounted  to  timidity,  he  displayed  encouraging 
promises  of  forensic  excellence,  on  some  of  the  firsc.  trials 
on  which  he  was  retained,  particularly  that  of  George 
Tbomas,  of  Brackley,  Northamptonshire,  for  forgery.  In 
this  case  he.  was  retained,  for  the  prosecution ;  and  had  the 
honour  of  contending  with  Mr.  Law,  since  Lord  Chief  Jus-^ 
tiee  Ellenborough*  This  trial  eiccited  much  public  atten- 
tion ;  and  the  ability  evinced,  by  Mr.  Perceval  increased  the 
number  of  his  clients.  .  His  advancement  was  ndw  both  re- 
gular and  rapid.  In  Hilary  term  1 7 SI 6,  be  obtained  a  silk 
gown,  and  became  the  leading  counsel  on  the;  Midland 
circuit,  not  only  in  point  ofrank,  but  also  in  quantity  of 
business.  He  was  soon  after  appointed  counsel  to  the  Ad-^ 
tftiralty ;  and  the  university  of  Cambridge  acknowledged  its 
w^tise  of  (lis  merits  by  nominating  him  one.of  its  two  counsel* 
About  tbb  time^  be  had  attracted  the  notice  of  an  attentive 
observer  and  acute  judge  of  men  and  talents,  the  late  Mr. 
Pitt,  by  a  pamphlet  which  he  had  <  written,  to  prove  ^'  that 
au  impeachment  of  the  House  of  Commons  did  not  abate 
by  a  dissolution  of  parliament'*  This  work  became  the 
fqundation  of  his  intimacy  with  the  .premier,  and  his.subse- 
qvient  connexion  with  the  government,  and  caused  a  sudden 
alteration  in  bis  prospects.:  His  object  now  was  to  obtain  a 
•eat  in  parliament,  where  he  might  support  those  measures 
for  which  the  situation  of  the  country  seemed  to  call,  and 
ajnost  favourable  opportunity. presented  itaelf.>  His  first 
cousin,  lord  Compton,  succeeded  to  the  earldom  of  North- 
ampton in  April  1796,  on  the  demise  of  bis  maternal  uncle, 
and  consequently  vacated  his  seat  for  the  borough  of  that 
name.  Mr.  Perceval  immediately  oflFered  hiniiielf  to  repre- 
HQftt  the  vacant  borough,  and  was  too  well  known^  and  too 
universally  esteemed,  to  meet  with  any  opposition.  He 
bad  been  preyiou^y  appointed,  deputy  recorder }  and  so 


S2<y  PERCEVAL, 

highly  did  hit  constituents  approve  of  his  political  conduct 
diict  private  worth,  that  they  returned  him  to  serve  in  three 
parliaments. 

«  Mr.  Perceval  now  endeavoured  to  become  thoroughly 
master  of  every  branch  of  policy ;  and  particularly  dedw 
eated  much  of  his  attention  to  the  subject  of  finance  ;  and 
some  of  his  plans,  in  that  important  department,  are  de- 
serving of  high  commendation.  In  Hilary  vacation,  in 
1801,  at  the  formation  of  the  Addington  administratioi), 
Mr.  Perceval,  then  in  his  39th  year,  was  appointed  solici- 
tor-general, on  the  resignation  of  sir  William  Grant,,  who 
succeeded  sir  Pepper  Arden,  afterwards  lord  Alvanley,  as 
master  of  the  rolls.  In  Hilary  vacation,  1B02,  he  was 
promoted  to  the  situation  of  attorney-general,  beconae 
Vacant  by  the  elevation  of  sir  Edward  Law  (now  lord  Ellens- 
borough)  to  the  seat  of  chief  justice  of  the  Court 'of  King's 
Bench. 

•  Mr«  Perceval^  on  receiving  the  appointment  of  solicitor- 
general,  relinquished  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  and  prac« 
tised  only  in  that  of  Chancery.  In  taking  this  step,  he 
was  influenced  chiefly  by  the  wish  of  having  more  time  tp 
^dicate  to  bis  political  duties.  But  it  is  doubtful  whether 
he  succeeded  in,  this  view.  In  the  King^s  Bench,  though 
he  was  occasionally  engaged  in  conducting  causes  of  great 
importance,  his  business  had  never  been  so  great  as  wholly 
to  occupy  his  time.  Nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at,  when 
it  is  considered,  that  at  that  time  he  had  to  contend  with, 
as  competitors  in  that  coturt,  Mr.  Erskine,  Mr.  Mingay,  Mir. 
Law,  Mr.  Garrow,  and  Mr.  Cribbs,  all  of  them  king*$ 
edun^d,  much  older  than  himself,  and  established  in  great 
practice  before  even  Mr.  Perceval  was  called  to  the  bar. 
It  is  no  disgrace  to  him,  that  he  did  not,  before  the  age  of 
forty,  dispossess  these  gentlemen  of  their  clients.  But 
when  he  came  ipto  Chancery,  he  found  competitors  less 
powerful;  and  though  his  disadvantages,  in  entering  a 
eotirt  in  the  practice  of  which  he  bad  never  been  regularly  * 
Initiated,  were  great,  he  advanced  rapidly  in  practice) 
and  long  before  his  abandonment  of  the  bar,  he  had  begun 
tp  be  considered  as  the  most  powerful  antagonist  of  sir  Sa* 
tnuel  Romilly,  the  Coryphaeus  of  Equity  Draftsomen. 
^  Mr.  Perceval  retained  his  situation  as  attorney^general, 
when  Mr.  Pitt  resumed  the  reins  of  government,'  and  con*^ 
tiniied  to  distinguish  him^self  as  a  ready  and  staunch  sup«» 
porter  of  th^  measures  of  that  great  rnitn.    Be  had  :tbe 


PERCEVAL;  921 

honour  sometioles  to  call  down.  uponihiAis^lfaH  tbo  elq^ 
quexice  of  the  opposition,  and  proved  a  most  useful  partisai^ 
of  the  administration.  On  Mr.  Pittas  deatbi  a  coalitioa 
took  place  between  the  Fox  and  Grenville  parties,  in  which 
Mr.  Perceval  declined  to  share ;  and  having  resigned  bia 
office,  appeared  for  the  first  time  on  the  benches  of  the 
opposition^  on  which  he  continued  until .  Lord  jCiawick^ 
in  1807,  brought  forward  the  Catholic, petition,  and.abHl 
was  proposed  to  remove  the  political  disabilitiiesiof  which 
the  members  of  that  sect  complain*  Mr.  P^rqeval,  then^ 
alarmed  for  the  safety  of  the  Protestant  Church,  rose  io 
its  defence ;  and  Catholic  emancipation  being  a  measure 
generally  obnoxious,  the  dissolution  of  the  admioistratioa 
followed.  As  Mr.  Perceval,  at  this  time^ .  was  coo«idered 
the  ablest  man  of  his  party,  it  might  have  been  expected 
that  he  would  have  claimed. one  of  the  first  places  in  tbt 
new  ministry  as  his  right.  On  the  contrary,  the  chancel«' 
lorship  of  the  exchequer  was  several  times  rejected  by  .him^ 
whose  pnly  wish. was  to  resume  the  situation  of  attorney- 
general.  This,  however,  not  being  satisfactory  to  his 
majesty,  Mr.  Perceval  was  offered  the  chanoellorsbip  of 
the  duchy  of  Lancaster  for  life,  as  a  compensation  fqr  his 
professional  loss,  and  a  provision  for  his  fsimily,  provided 
lie  should  agree  to  fill  the  o(Bce  to  which  the  e&teem  and 
confidence  of  thci  nionarch  called  him.  Notwithstanding 
that  the  value  of  the  chanceHorship  proposed  did  not  much 
.exceed  2000/.  a  year,  nearly  one  thousand  less  than  Mf« 
P.^cevara  profession  produced  per  annum,  his  sense  of  * 
public  duty  induced  him  to , comply;  and  .when,  after  bi^ 
Domination,  parliament  expressed  their  dissatisfactioo  at  the 
Mature  of  the  grant,  he  aljowed  it  to  be  canceUed,  and  ise^ 
peated  in  the  house  the  assurance  of  his  readiness  to  serve 
•his  majesty  even  without  the  chancellorship  of  the  duchy  c^ 
Lancaster,  for  life. 

The  new  admini